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in  2007  with  funding  from 

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THIS  BOOK  IS  FOE.  EEFEEEHCB 
USE    ONLY   AiiB    IjIAY   HOT  Bfi 


CYCLOPEDIA    OF 

Music  and  Musicians 


Volume  II 
EASTER  -MYSTERES 


CYCLOPEDIA    OF 


MUSIC    AND    MUSICIANS 


y 


EDITED   BY 


JOHN     DENISON     CHAMPLIN,    JR. 


CRITICAL    EDITOR 

WILLIAM     FOSTER     APTHORP 


IV/TH  MORE   THAN  ONE   THOUSAND   ILLUSTRATIONS 


VOLUME     II 


5      ',',»'■>' 


NEW    YORK 
CHARLES    SCRIBNER'S    SONS 

M  DCCC  LXXX  IX 


TOE  NEW  YORK 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 

*»TOR,  LENOX  ANO 
TILDEN  FOUNDATIONS 
"  19)6 


Copyright,   i88q,  by 
Charles  Scribner's  Sons. 


LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS 


FULL-PAGE    PORTRAITS 


To  Face 
Page 

1.  CHARLES    GOUNOD 

From  a  photograph  by  Nadar,  Paris, .        .      48 

2.  GEORGE    FRIDERIC    HANDEL 

From  the  engraving  by  VV .  Bromley,  after  the  painting  br  Hudson,  .        ,       q6 

3.  JOSEF    HAYDN 

From  the  engraving  by  Sichli)ig,  after  the  painting  by  Riisler,  .         ,  144 

4.  ORLANDO    LASSO  v,\\V  \M    '- '"'.! 

From  the  engraving  by  lohann  Sadeler  (i6'^2),  .         .         .         .         ,      ",'.''•  ',5^4' '•>»'''' ', 

S-  FRANZ    LISZT 

From  a  contemporary  stretch  by  Kenonard, 240 


6-  JEAN    BAPTISTE    LULLY  to Fac. 

Page 

From  the  engraving  by  Jean  Louis  Roullet ,  after  the  painting  by  Paul  Mignard,         288 


7-  FELIX   .MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY 

From  the  engraving  by  G.  Seidel,   18^2, ,,^ 

8.  GIACOMO    MEYERBEEK 

From  the  lithograph  by  Ch.  Fogt ,  184^, ^g, 

9-  WOLFGANG    AMADEUS    MOZART 

From  the  engraving  by  Sichling,  after  the  painting  by  Tiscl}bein,       .        .  4^2 

10.  JOHN    KNOWLES    PAINE 

From  a  photograph  by  Balt{ty,  Cambridge.  Mass.. 480 

11.  GIOVANNI    PIERLUIGI    DA    PALESTRINA 

From  the  engraving  by  Boettcher,  after  the  portrait  in  tl}e  Vatican,  .  ^28 

fi;  ,■.••;■"  '  HENRY    PURCELL 

[f^r^oiti:  ihn  engraving  by  Zobel,  after  the  painting  by  Closterman,        .        .  ^j6 


PORTRAITS   OF  MUSICIANS. 


DRAWN  BY  VAL^RIEN  GRIBAY^DOFF. 


PAGE 

1.  Eberlin,  Daniel 2 

2.  Eckert,  Karl 4 

3.  Eddy,  Clarence 5 

4.  Eicliberg,  -Julius 8 

5.  Elvey,  Sir  George  Jol) 15 

6.  Ernst,  Heinricb  Wilhelui 25 

7.  Fascli,  Karl  Friedricli  C'liristiaii. . .  43 

8.  Faure,  Jean  Baptiste 45 

9.  Fesca,  Friedricli  Ernst 57 

10.  Fetis,  Frauyois  Joseph 59 

11.  Field,  John 03 

12.  Fiorillo,  Federigo 70 

13.  Floersheini,  Otto 70 

14.  Flotow,  Friedrich  von 78 

1 5.  Foggia,  Francesco 80 

l(i.  Poster,  Stephen  Collins 85 

17.  Frederick  the  Great 90 

18.  Frost,  Charles  Joseph 103 

19.  Gade,  Niels 109 

20.  Gadsby,  Henry  Robert Ill 

21.  Garrett,  George  Mursell 121 

22.  Gaul,  Alfred 125 

23.  Gemiuiani,  Francesco 132 

24    Gerber,  Ernst  Ludwig 134 

25.  Gericke,  Wilhelm 135 

26.  Gernsheim,  Friedricli 137 

27.  Gibbons,  Christojpher 143 

28.  Gibbons,  Orlando 144 

29.  Gilbert,  Thomas  Bennett 14G 

30.  Gilbert,  Walter  Bond 146 

31.  Gilchrist,  William  Wallace 146 

32.  Giovauelli,  Ruggiero 150 

33.  Gladstone,  Francis  Edward 154 


PAGB 

34.  Gleason,  Frederic  Grant 155 

35.  Glinka,  Michail  Ivauovitch ,  .  156 

36.  Glover,  John  William 157 

37.  Gluck,  Christoph  Willibald  von. . .  158 

38.  Goes,  Damiao  de 1G4 

39.  Goetz,  Hermann 164 

40.  Goldbeck,  Robert 105 

41.  Goldmark,  Karl 167 

42.  Goldschmidt,  Otto 167 

43.  Gomez,  Antonio  Carlos. ..  ...^^^^  169 

44.  Gossec,  Franyois  Joseph 172 

45.  Gottschalk,  Louis  Moreau 176 

46.  Gounod,  Charles,  in  1840 178 

47.  Gounod,  Charles,  in  188(5 178 

48.  Graben-Hofl'mann,  Gustav 180 

49.  Griidener,  Karl 181 

50.  Grammann,  Carl 183 

51.  Grami,  Karl  Heiurioh 180 

52.  Gretry,  Andre 192 

53.  Grieg,  Eilvard 194 

54.  Grisar,  Albert 196 

55.  Griinfeld,  Alfred 201 

50.  Grutzmacher,  Friedricli 201 

57.  Guignon,  Jean  Pierre 205 

58.  Gumbert,  Ferdinand 208 

59.  Gumpeltzhaimer,  Adam 208 

GO.  Gung'l,  Joseph 209 

01.  Habeneck,  Pranjois  Autoino 211 

62.  Halevy,  Promental 215 

03.  Halle,  Charles 217 

64.  Hamerik,  Asger 218 

05.  Hammerschmidt,  Andreas 220 

66.  Handel,  George  Frideric 221 

07.  Hartmaun,  Emil 232 


vil 


PORTRAITS   OF  MUSICIANS 


68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74 

75. 

7G. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

9G. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
101 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 

109. 
110. 

111. 
112. 


Hartmann,  Emil,  elder 232 

Hartmaun,  Ludwig 233 

Hasse,  Jobaim  Adolpb 234: 

Hassler,  Hans  Leo 236 

Hassler,  Joliann  'Wilhelm 237 

Hatton,  John  Lipliot 237 

Hauptmann,  Moiitz 238 

Hauser,  Miska. 240 

Hawes,  William 241 

Haydn,  Josef 241 

Haydn,  j\Iicbael 247 

Heap,  Charles  Swinuerton 248 

Heller,  Stephen 252 

Hellniesberger,  Josei)h 253 

Henschel,  Georg 256 

Heuselt,  Adolf  von 257 

Herbeck,  Johann  Franz  von 259 

Herman,  Eeinhold  Ludwig 200 

Herold,  Louis 262 

Herve 265 

Herz,  Henri 266 

Heymann,  Karl 269 

Hiles,  Henry 270 

Hiller,  Ferdinand 270 

Hiller,  Johann  Adam 273 

Hilton,  John 274 

Himmel,  Friedricb  Heinrich 274 

Hoffmann,  Ernst 277 

Hoffman,  Richard 279 

Hofmann,  Heinrich 280 

Holder,  Joseph  ^Yilliam 282 

Holmes,  Henry 283 

Holstein,  Franz  von 284 

Homilius,  Gottfried  August 286 

Hook,  James 287 

Hojikins,  Jerome 288 

Hopkins,  Edward  John 288 

Horneman,  Emil  Christian 290 

Horsley,  William 291 

Hummel,  Johann  Nepomuk 298 

Hyllested,  August 303 


Iliflfe,  Frederick. . 
Isouard,  Nicolo .  . 


306 
316 


Jadassohn,  Salomon 321 

Jaell,  Alfred 322 


PAGE 

113.  Jakabowski,  Eduard 324 

114.  Jeep,  Johann 329 

115.  Jekj'U,  Charles  Sherwood 330 

116.  Jensen,  Adolf 330 

117.  Joachim,  Joseph 334 

118.  Jommelli,  Niccolo 336 

119.  Joncieres,  Victoriu  de 339 

120.  Joseify,  Rafael 339 

121.  Joze,  Thomas  Eicbard  Gonzalvez.  342 

122.  Julien,  Louis  Autoiue 345 

123.  Kalkbrenner,  Friedricb 349 

124.  Kalliwoda,  Johann  Wenzel 350 

125.  Kerl,  Johann  Kaspar  von 361 

12G.  Kes,  "Willem 362 

127.  Kiel,  Friedricb 364 

128.  King,  Oliver 367 

129.  Kirclmer,  Theodor 369 

130.  Ivirnberger,  Johann  Philipp 370 

131.  Kjerulf,  Halfdan 371 

132.  Klein,  Bruno  Oscar 374 

133.  Klugbardt,  August 378 

134.  Kr.bler,  Louis 381 

135.  Kontski,  Autoinc  de 385 

136.  Korbaj',  Francis  Alexander. 386 

137.  Krause,  Anton 391 

138.  lu'ebs,  Karl  August 392 

139.  Kretscbmer,  Edmund 393 

140.  Kreutzer,  Konradin 395 

141.  Kreutzer,  IJodolphe 396 

142.  Krieger,  Adam 397 

143.  Krommer,  Franz 399 

144.  Kiickeu,  Friedricb  Wilhelm 401 

145.  Kube,  Wilhelm 402 

14(5.  Kublau,  Friedricb 402 

147.  Kullak,  Theodor 405 

148.  Kummer,  Friedricb  August 405 

149.  Labitzky,  Joseph 411 

150.  Lachner,  Franz 411 

151.  Lahee,  Henry 416 

152.  Lalaude,  Michel  Richard  de 417 

153.  Lalo,  :6douard 417 

154.  Lalouette,  Jean  Francois 417 

155.  Lampe,  Johann  Friedricb 419 

156.  Lang,  Benjamin  Johnson 420 

157.  Laniere,  Nicholas 422 


POllTRAITS   OF  MUSICIANS 


158. 
150. 
IGO. 
161. 
1G2. 
1G3. 

16J:. 

165. 

1G6. 
1G7. 
168. 
160. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 
174. 
175. 
17G. 
177. 
178. 
170. 
ISO. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 


Lanrier,  Josejili 

Lassen,  Eduanl 

Lasso,  Oilaiulo 

Lavallee,  Calixa 

Lawes,  Henry 

Leclair,  Jean  Marie 

Lecocq,  Charles 

Lefebure-Wuly,  Louis  James  Al- 
fred   " 

Lejeuno,  Claude 

Leo,  Leonardo - . 

Leschetitzky,  Theodor 

Leslie,  Henry 

Lesueur,  Jean  Franyois 

Leveridge,  llicbard 

Liebling,  Eniil 

Liudpaintner,  Peter  von 

Lipinslii,  Karl  Joseph 

Liszt,  Franz,  in  1844 

Liszt,  Franz,  in  1886 

Litolff,  Henry 

Lobe,  Johann  Christian 

Look,  Matthew 

Loder,  Edward  James 

Loewe,  Karl 

Logier,  Johann  Bernhard 

Longhurst,  William  Henry 

Lortzing,  Albert 

Lully,  Jean  Baptiste 

Lumbyo,  Hans  Christian   

Luther,  Martin 

Lvoflf,  Alexis , 


PAGE 

423 
425 
426 
434 
434 
437 
438 

440 
444 


198. 

190. 

200. 

201. 

202. 

203. 

204. 

205. 

206. 

207. 
447  208. 
450  j  200. 
450  210. 
451 
454 
458 


21L 
212. 
463  213. 


466 
467 
468 


214. 
21.5. 
216. 


470  217. 
472  218. 
474  210. 

474  !  220. 


221. 

9 '70 


476 
477 
481 

484  223. 
402  •  224. 


Alexan- 


180.  Maas,  Louis 

190.  Maccunn,  Hamish 

191.  Macfarreu,    Sir   George 

der 

192.  Macirone,  Clara  Angela 

103.  Mackenzie,  Alexander  Campbell. 

194.  Maclean,  Charles  Donald 

195.  Marcello,  Benedetto 

196.  Marchand,  Louis 

197.  Marchetti,  Filippo 


405 
406 
408 

498 
500 


.501 
502 
502 
502 
514 
515 
517 


225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 
229. 
230. 
231. 
232. 
233. 

234. 

235. 


PAGE 

Maretzek,  Mas 518 

Marschner,  Heinrich 524 

Martini,  Giovanni  Battista 528 

Marx,  Adolpb  Bernhard 530 

Marzi.als,  Theophilus 531 

Mason,  Lowell 532 

Masse,  Tictor 534 

Massenet,  Jules 534 

Mattheson,  Johann 530 

IVIayer,  Charles 540 

Mchul,  Etienne  Nicolas 547 

]\Ieinardus,  Ludwig 540 

Meudelssohn-Bartholdv,  Felix,  in 

1821 ' 5.52 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy,  Felix  .  .  .   553 

Mercadaute,  Saverio 560 

Merkel,  Gustav 562 

Mermet,  Auguste 563 

Methfessel,  Albert  Gottlieb 568 

M6tra,  Olivier 568 

Meyerbeer,  Giacomo 560 

Mifler,  Edward 573 

aiillr.cker,  Karl 574 

Mills,  Sebastian  Bach 575 

MoUenhauer,  Edward 580 

Mondonville,    Jean   Joseijh    Cas- 

sanea  de 580 

Monk,  Edwin  George 581 

Mousigny,  Pierre  Alexandre 583 

Monte,  Philipi^e  de 584 

Morales,  Cristofano 586 

Morgan,  George  Washbourn  ....    587 

Moseheles,  Ignaz 500 

]\Iosel,  Ignaz  Franz  von 503 

Moszkowski,  Moritz 504 

Mottl,  Felix 504 

Mozart,  Leopold 596 

Mozart,    Wolfgang   Amadeus,    in 

boyhood 596 

Mozart,    Wolfgang   Amadeus,    in 

1780 508 

Mozart,    Wolfgang   Amadeus,    in 

1790 508 


PORTRAITS  OF  SINGERS,   AUTOGRAPHS,   FACSIMILES. 

ETC. 


PACK 

1.  Autograph  of  Ludwig  Ehlert,  1864  8  I  20. 

2.  Persiani,  as  Adina 13 

3.  Portrait    of   Minna  Pescbka-Leut-  I  27. 

ner 19 

4.  Autograph     of  Heinrich   Wilhelm  28. 

Ernst,  1843 25  | 

5.  Caroline  Duprez,  as  Catherine ....  29  j  29. 
G.  Battaille,  as  Pierre 30  j  30. 

7.  Portrait  of  Henrietta  Sontag 32   31. 

8.  Portrait  of  CaffarelU 41 

9.  Autograph    of    Johaun    Friedrich  32. 

Fasch,  1713 43 

10.  Autograph      of     Jean      Baptiste  33. 

Faure 45   34. 

11.  Miolan-Carvalho,  as  Marguerite .. .  40   35. 

12.  Eosiue  Stolz,  as  Loonore 48 

13.  Portrait  of  Jenny  Lind 51    30. 

14.  Portrait  of  Alexandrine  Branchu . .  53 

15.  Autograph  of  Francois  Joseph  Fc-  37. 

tis,  1853 00 

16.  Portrait  of  Schnkler-Devriont  ....  02   38. 

17.  Autograph  of  John  Field,  1815. .  .  04 

18.  Max  Sti'igemann,  as  Dcr  Fliegende  39. 

HolUinder 75 

19.  Autograph  of  Friedrich  von  Flotow  79   40. 

20.  Autogi-aph  of  Johann  Nicolaus  For-  41. 

kel,  1804 83 

21.  Charles  Santley,  as  Pra  Diavolo. . .  87   42. 

22.  Autogi-aph    of"   Melchior    Franck,  43. 

1638 89   44. 

23.  Facsimile    of   the   MS.  of   Eobert  45. 

Franz 93   40. 

24.  Autograph  of  Eobert  Franz 93   47. 

25.  Portrait  of  Therese  Malten 97   48. 


Autograph    of    Girolamo    Fresco- 

baldi,  1008 99 

Autograph  of  Johann  Jacob  Fro- 

berger,  1650 102 

Autograph  of  Johann  Joseph  Fux, 

1728 107 

Autograph  of  Niels  Gade 110 

Portrait  of  Violaute  Camporese .  .  .  128 
Autograjjli  of  Ernst  Ludwig  Ger- 

ber,  1808 135 

Autograjsh    of    Fran(;ois    Auguste 

Gevaert,  1877 139 

Portrait  of  Senesino 153 

Portrait  of  INIarietta  Branibilla ....  153 
Autograph    of  Michail   Ivauovitch 

Glinka,  1845 150 

Facsimile  of  Gluck's  MS.  :  begin- 
ning of  the  Overture  to  Aleeste  .  159 
Autograph  of  Christoph  Willibald 

von  Gluck,  1769 160 

Autograph     of     Hermann    Goetz, 

1868 165 

Autograph  of  Francois  Joseph  Gos- 

sec,  1793 173 

Materna,  as  Briinnhilde 174 

Autograph     of     Charles    Gounod, 

1860  179 

Autogi-aph  of  Eduard  Grell,  1884.   191 

Autogi-aph  of  Andre  Grotry 194 

Autograph  of  Edvard  Grieg,  1886 .   195 

Portrait  of  Anastasia  Robinson 197 

Duprez,  as  Arnold 206 

Autograph  of  Fromental  Halevy. .  210 
Faure,  as  Hamlet 219 


PORTRAITS   OF  SINGERS,  AUTOGRAPHS,  ETC. 


49.  Nilsson,  as  Opliulie 219 

50.  Autograph   of    Andreas   Hammer- 

schmidt,  1G75 221 

51.  Facsimile   of  Handel's  MS.  :  first 

page  of  The  Messiah 222 

52.  Birthplace  of  Handel 223 

53.  Handel's  Harpsichord,  South  Ken- 

sington ^Museum 22-1 

54.  Death-:\lask  of  Handel 221 

55.  Handel  Statue  at  Halle 225 

56, 


57. 

58. 

59. 
60. 

61. 

62. 
63. 

64 


65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 

76. 

77. 


Handbook-Plate,  Commemoration, 

1784 226 

Autograph  of  Handel,  1730 227 

Autograph  of   Handel,  1759,  after 

his  blindness 227 

Portrait  of  Eugeu  Gura 228 

Autograph     of    Johaim     Adolph 

Hasse,  1757 236 

Autograph   of  Hans  Leo  Hassler, 


79.  Autograph    of    Gottfried    August 

Homilius,  175.5 

SO.  Portrait  of  Giuseppe  Mario 

81.  Autograph   of  Johann  Nepomok 

Hummel,  1826 

82.  Portrait  of  Sophie  Arnould 

83.  Portrait  of  Rosalie  Levasseur .... 

84.  Autograph     of    Heinrich     Isaak, 

1497 

85.  Autograph     of     Nicolo     Isouard, 

1807 

86.  Elleviou,  as  Jean  de  Paris 

87.  Autograph  of  Adolf  Jensen 

88.  Portrait  of  Mathilde  Mallinger. . . 

89.  Autograph  of  Niccold   Jommelli, 

1752 

90.  Falcon,  as  Rachel 

91.  Autogi'ai^h  of  Friedi'ich  Kalkbren- 

ner,  1828 


1605. 


230      92.   Autograph     of     Friedrieh     Kiel, 


Autograph  of  J.acob  Hassler,  1609.   237 

Autograph  of  ISIoritz  Hauptmaun, 
1842 239 

Facsimile  of  Haydn's  JIS.  :  from 
Divertimeuti  for  String  Instru- 
ments     242 

Silhouette  of  Haydn 243 


1880. 


93.  Autograph  of  Theodor  Kirclnier, 

1878 

94.  Autograph     of     Johann    Pliilipp 

Kirnberger,  1780 

95.  Autograph  of  Kouradin  Kreutzer, 

1819 


Birthplace  of  Haydn 243      96.  Autograph     of     Johann    Phllipp 

Haydn's  Tomb 244  •  Krieger,  1677 

Autograph  of  Josef  Haydn 246     97.  Autograph     of    Franz     Lachner, 


Autograph  of  Da\id  Hoinichen, 
1710 250 

Autograph  of  Stephen  Heller, 
1880 253 

Autograph  of  Adolf  von  Heuselt, 


1804 

98.  L'Allemand,  as  Lakme 

99.  Autograph    of    Eduard     Lassen, 

1871 

100.  Autograph     of     Orlando     Lasso, 


1882 


258 


1573. 


Portrait  of  Adelaide  Borghi-Mamo .   259 
Autograph  of  Louis  Herold,  1814.   264 

Autograph  of  Hervr 266 

Autogi-aph    of    Ferdinand    Hiller, 


101.  Autograph  of  Giovanni  Legrenzi, 

1605 

102.  Autograph      of     Leonardo     Leo, 

1741 


1863 273   103.  Autogi-aph  of  Jean  Francois  Le- 

Autograph  of  Johann  Adam  Hiller,  I  sueur,  1828 

1775 274  '  104.  Portrait  of  Annie  Louise  Gary . . . 

Autograph     of     Ernst    Hoffmann,  105.  Autograph    of   Peter   von   Lind- 

1816 278  paintuer,  1836 


Autograph  of  Franz  vou  Holsteiu, 
1872 284 


106.  Facsimile    of   Liszt's   MS. :  from 
Christus 


286 
295 

299 
311 
312 

314 

317 
329 
331 
332 

338 
344 

349 

364 

3(;9 

370 

395 

398 

412 
416 

425 

430 

443 

448 

453 
461 

464 

469 


PORTUAITS   OF  SINGERS, 


107.  Autograph  of  Franz  Liszt,  1830. . 

108.  Portrait  of  Anna  iMaria  Crouch  . . 
101).  Autograpli  of  Karl  Loewe,  1820. . 

110.  Autograph   of   Johauu  Bernhard 

Logier,  182G 

111.  Emil  Goetz,  as  Lohengrin 

112.  Albaui,  as  Elsa 

11;?.  Autogra2)h    of   Albert    Lortziug, 

1850 

114.  Autograph      of     Aiitonio     Lotti, 

1739 

115.  Portrait  of  Dolores  Nau 

IIG.  Portrait  of  Theresa  Tietjens 

117.  Portrait  of  Anna  de  Lagrange.  .  . 
lis.  Autograph      of      Jeau     Baptiste 

LuHy,  1G72 

110.  Autograph  of  Alexis  Lvoff,  1857  . 

120.  Portrait  of  Marianne  Brandt 

121.  Autograjjh  of  Benedetto  Marcello, 

1711 

122.  Autograph  of  Friedrich  Wilhelm 

Mari)urg,  1757 

123.  Autograph    of  Heiurich  Jlarsch- 

uer 

121.  Portrait  of  Marzella  Sembrich. . . 
125.  Autograph   of   Giovanni  Battista 

Martini,  17G5 

12G.  Autograph  of  Jules  Massenet. .  . . 

127.  Portrait  of  Jean  Blaise  IMartin .  .  . 

128.  Portrait    of   Maria  Felicita  Mali- 

bran  

129.  Autograph    of    Stanislao    Mattei, 

1817 

130.  Pasta,  as  Medea 

131.  Portrait  of  Alwina  Valleria 

132.  Autograph    of    Etienne     Nicolas 

Mi:4iul,  1800 


PAGE  1 

170 
475 

477 

477 
478 
479 

484 

487 
490 
491 
492 

494 

498 
507 

515 

523 

525 
52G 

528 
535 
535 


133. 

134. 
135. 
13G. 


537 

538 
544 
5-4G 

548 


137. 
138. 

139. 
140. 
141. 

142. 
113. 

144. 

145. 

14G. 

147. 
148. 
149. 

150. 

151. 

152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
15G. 


AUTOGRAPIIS,  ETC. 

PAGR 

Autograph     of    Jakob     Meilaiid, 

1570 548 

Emil  Fischer,  as  Hans  Sachs  ....    550 

Mendelssohn's  Birthplace 553 

Facsimile  of  Mendelssohn's  MS.  : 
Wer    hat    dich,    du    schOuer 

■\Vald 55G 

Autograph  of  Mendelssohn 558 

Autograph     of     Saverio     Merca- 

dante,  1838 5G1 

Portrait  of  Clara  Novello 5GG 

Portrait  of  Sims  Reeves 5GG 

Autograph   of    Giacouio    Meyer- 
beer, 1820 571 

Sigrid  Arnoldson,  as  IMignon. .  .  .   572 
Autograjjli  of  Wilhelm  Bernhard 

Molique,  1831 579 

Autograph    of    Pierre   Alexandre 

Mousigny,  1795 583 

Autograph     of     Claudio    Moute- 

verde,  1G17 585 

Autograph  of  Francesco  Morlac- 

chi 588 

Tomb  of  Moscheles,  Leipsic 590 

Autograph  of  Moscheles,  184G. . .    591 
Autograph    of    Moritz   Moszkow- 

sld 594 

Autograph    of    Leopold    Mozart, 

1770 596 

Facsimile  of  Mozart's  ^MS. :  Goe- 
the's "  Das  Veileheu." 597 

:Mozarfs  Birthplace 599 

Mozart's  IMonumeut,  Vienna GOl 

Mozart's  Ear  and  Ordinary  Ear   .    GOl 

Autograph  of  Mozart,  1770 GOl 

Autograph     of    August    Gottlieb 
Muflat,  1717...^ GOG 


TABLE   OF   ABBREVIATIONS. 


A.,  A]in. 

M.,  INIonsiour. 

B.,  Bass,  Basso,  etc. 

MUo,  Mademoiselle. 

Bar.,  Baritone. 

Mine,  Madame. 

B.  M.  v.,  Beata  Maria 

Virgo. 

MS.,  MSS.,  Manuscript,  Manuscripts 

Biog.,  Biography,  Bio 
Cath.,  Catlieilral. 

gratia 

etc. 

M.  S.,  Mezzo-soprano. 

Mus.  Bac,  Bachelor  of  Music. 

Ch.,  Church. 

Mus.  Doc,  Doctor  of  Music. 

Col.,  Collection. 

n.  d.,  no  date. 

do.,  ditto. 

etc.,  et  cetera. 

et  seq.,  et  seqnentia. 

Fr.,  French. 

op.,  opus,  opera. 

Iv.  A.  M,  Royal  Academy  of  Music. 

S.,  Soprano. 

S.,  Sta.,  San,  Santa. 

Ger.,  German. 

S.  M.,  Santa  Maria. 

ib.,  ibidem, 
id.,  idem. 

Sp.,  Spanish. 
St.,  Saint. 

It.,  Italian. 

T.,  Tenor. 

L.  of  Honour,  Legion 
Lib.,  Liber. 

of  Honour. 

Voc,  Voces. 
Vol.,  Volume. 

*^*     Worth  in  italics  iiuHcate  the  alj 

habeti 

-al  place  of  articles  on  the  subjects  specifiei 

CYCLOPEDIA 


OF 


Music  AND  Musicians. 


EASTER  ORATORIO.  See  Oder-Ova- 
toriiim. 
EBDON,  THOMAS,  born  in  Dur- 
ham, Englaml,  in  1738,  died  there,  Sept.  23, 
ISll.  Organist  of  Durham  Cathedral  from 
1763  until  his  death.  Works  :  2  volumes  of 
eathedr.al  music  (1790-1810)  ;  Collection  of 
six  glees  (1780) ;  2  sonatas  for  the  harpsi- 
chord (about  1780)  ;  Anthems  and  other 
chui-ch  music  in  MS.- — Grove  ;  Mendel. 

EBELING,  JOHANN  GEORG,  born  in 
Liineburg  about  1020,  died  in  Stettin  in 
1676.  He  became  in  1662  musical  director 
of  the  Hauptkirche  in  Berlin  and  Schulcol- 
lege  of  the  St.  Nicolaikirche  there,  and  in 
1668  professor  of  music  at  the  Gymnasium 
Carolinum  of  Stettin.  Some  of  his  church 
melodies  are  still  sung. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
V.  52~)  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemaun  ;  Schilling  ;  Fc- 
tis. 

EBELL,  HEINRICH  KARL,  born  at 
Neu-Ruppin,  Mecklenburg,  Dec.  30,  1775, 
died  at  Oppeln,  Silesia,  March  12,  182-4. 
Amateur  dramatic  composer,  chiefly  self- 
taught  while  a  student  at  the  University  of 
Halle  ;  then  in  Berlin  jjupil  of  Reichardt, 
who  procured  for  him  in  1801  the  appoint- 
ment as  musical  director  of  the  theatre  at 
Breslau,  which  he  kept  until  1803.  He 
entered  the  government  service  in  1804,  at 
Breslau,  and  in  1816  as  councillor  at  Op- , 


l^eln.  Works — Operas  :  Der  Schutzgeist, 
given  in  Berlin,  1798 ;  Selico  und  Borissa, 
ib.,  1798  ;  Der  Deserteur,  Melida,  ib.,  1799  ; 
Der  Brautigamsspiegel,  Breslau,  1800  ;  Das 
Fest  der  Liebe,  ib.,  1801 ;  Die  Gaben  des 
Genius,  ib.,  1802  ;  Das  Fest  im  Eichthale, 
ib.,  1807  ;  Anacreon  in  Jonien,  ib.,  1810  ; 
Der  Naehtwilchter,  ib.,  1812  ;  Music  to  the 
tragedy  Larnassa  ;  Die  Unsterblichkeit,  or- 
atorio ;  Wiedersehen,  cantata  ;  Lob  der 
geselligen  Freude,  do.  ;  2  funeral  cantatas, 
and  a  birthday  cantata  (1801-3) ;  Preis  der 
Tonkunst,  cantata ;  5  symphonies  ;  2  con- 
certos for  horn  ;  2  polonaises  concertantes 
for  violin  and  orchestra ;  4  quartets  for 
violin,  viola,  and  violoncello  ;  Mass  for  two 
choruses  ;  Instrumental  music,  and  songs 
for  one  and  several  voices.  He  was  also  a 
distinguished  writer  on  music,  and  critic. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  52.5  ;  Allgem.  Mus.- 
Zeitg.  ;  Fetis  ;  Hoffmann,  Die  Tonkiinstler 
Schlesiens  (Breslau,  1830)  ;  Mendel ;  Schil- 
ling. 

EBERL,  ANTON,  born  in  Vienna,  June 
13,  1766,  died  there,  March  11,  1807.  His 
father  destined  him  for  the  law,  but  he 
chose  music  and  became  a  good  pianist  in 
his  boyhood.  When  sixteen  years  old  he 
brought  out  in  Vienna  two  operas,  which 
gained  him  the  friendship  of  Gluck  and 
Mozart.     With  the  latter's  widow  he  made 


EBERLIX 


n,  concert  tour  in  Germany,  and  in  1796- 
1800  be  was  Kajiellmeister  in  St.  Peters- 
burg. He  visited  Eussia  again  in  1803, 
and  played  in  the  chief  cities  of  Germany  in 
1806.  As  a  pianist  his  playing  was  marked 
by  fire  and  facility,  and  his  compositions 
displaj'ed  many  beauties,  with  some  con- 
fused modulation  and  striving  for  effect. 
Several  of  his  works  were  published  and 
became  popular  under  the  name  of  ]\lozart. 
Works  —  Operas  ;  Die  Zigeuner,  Vienna, 
1782  ;  La  marchande  de  modes,  ib.,  1783  ; 
Die  Hexe  Megara,  ib.,  about  1800  ;  Graf 
Balduiu  von  Flandern,  ib.,  about  1802  ;  Py- 
ramus  uud  Thisbe,  melodrama,  ib.,  about 
1796  ;  Die  KOnigin  der  schwarzen  Liselu, 
ib.,  1801  ;  La  gloria  d'  Imenco,  cantata  ; 
Symphonies  ;  Trios,  quartets,  a  quintet,  and 
a  sextet ;  Songs  ;  Concertos  ;  Variations  ; 
Sonatas,  and  other  pianoforte  music.  The 
operas  and  some  other  comjjositions  have 
never  been  published. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
V.  572  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Fetis. 

KBERLIN,  DANIEL,  born  in  Nurem- 
berg about  1630, 
died  in  Cassel  in 
IGOl.  Violinist 
and  composer.  He 
had  an  adventu- 
rous life  ;  wasamu- 
sicid  student  in 
liome,  cajitain  of 
Papal  troops,  later 
librarian  in  Nu- 
remberg, Kapellmeister  in  Cassel  and  Eise- 
nach, banker  in  Hamburg  and  Altona,  and 
finally  captain  of  militia  in  Cassel.  Tele- 
mann  was  his  son-in-law.  Though  noted 
in  his  time,  his  violin  trios,  published  in 
1675,  are  his  only  known  works. — Mendel  ; 
Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  574  ;  Gei'ber  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Riemauu  ;  Fetis. 

EBERLIN,  JOHANN  ERNST,  born  at 
Jetteubach,  Bavaria,  March  27,  1702,  died 
in  Salzburg,  June  21,  1762.  He  was  court 
organist  to  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg ! 
about  1727,  and  later  his  KajseUmeister  and 
Truchsess  or  carver.     Mozart   studied  his 


compositions  for  their  mastery  of  counter- 
point, and  copied  thirteen  of  them,  but  later 
wrote  :  "  They  really  do  not  deserve  a  place 
between  Handel  and  Bach.  All  honour  to  his 
four-jsart  pieces,  but  his  pianoforte  fugues 
are  nothing  but  long-drawn-out  versetti  " 
(Jahn's  Mozart,  i.  433. ;  iii.  373).  Works  : 
IX  Toccate  e  fughe  jier  1'  organo  (Augsburg, 
1747),  several  times  republished  ;  Latin 
dramas  composed  for  the  pujjils  of  the 
Benedictines  in  Salzburg,  the  words  only 
having  survived  ;  2  sonatas  published  by 
Haftuer  ;  2  motets  jsublished  by  Schott  ;  5 
jjieces  contributed  to  Leopold  Mozart's  Der 
Morgeu  uud  der  Abend  (Augsburg,  1759)  ; 
Masses,  offertories,  and  other  church  mu- 
sic in  MS.,  in  the  libraries  of  Vienna  and 
Berlin  ;  13  oratorios  in  the  Proske  library, 
the  best  known  being  the  Componimento 
sacro,  performed  in  Salzburg  in  1747. 
— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
V.  576 ;   Schilling. 

EBERS,  ILrVRL  FRIEDEICH,  born  in 
Cassel,  March  25,  1770,  died  in  Berlin, 
Sept.  9,  1836.  He  entered  the  artillery 
school  in  Berlin  while  young,  but  soon 
turned  his  attention  to  music,  which  he 
taught ;  was  vice-Kapellmeister  at  Schwerin 
in  1799  ;  and  later  nmsical  director  at  the 
theatre  in  Pesth.  Li  1814  he  became  di- 
i-ector  in  a  military  company,  and  in  1822 
conducted  a  musical  society  in  Magdeburg. 
Works — Operas  :  Bella  und  Fernando, 
Pesth,  1796  ;  Die  Blumeniusel,  Pesth,  1796  ; 
Der  Eremit  von  Formentera,  1796 ;  Der 
Liebes-Comj)ass,  Pesth,  1797.  Overtures  ; 
Sonatas  ;  Syn^phonies  ;  Wir  sind  die  KiJnige 
der  Welt,  and  other  songs.— Mendel  ;  All- 
gem. d.  Biogr.,  V.  578  ;  Grove  ;  Fetis. 

EBERWEIN,  KARL,  born  in  Weimar, 
Nov.  10,  1786,  died  there,  March  2,  1868. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  his  father  and  of  his 
brother,  Traugott  Maximilian  ;  became  court 
musician  in  1803,  and  later  director  of  the 
court  orchestra  ;  was  a  pupil  of  Zelter  in 
Berlin  in  1808-10  ;  and  spent  the  rest  of  his 
life  in  Weimar,  teaching,  singing,  and  du'ect- 
ing  the  church   music  and  the  opera.     In 


EBERWEIX 


18-49  he  was  pensioned.  He  was  a  contem- 
porary and  friend  of  Goethe,  for  whom  he 
comjjosed  some  songs.  Works — Operas  : 
Die  Heerschau,  Weimar,  about  1842  ;  Der 
Graf  zu  Gleicheu,  ib.,  about  1843  ;  Music 
for  Leonore,  and  for  Preciosa.  Overture  to 
Goethe's  Proserpina  ;  Entr'actes  ;  Cantatas  ; 
String  qviartet  ;  Songs  ;  Music  for  violin, 
and  for  the  flute. — Mendel  ;  Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  V.  588 ;  Schilling  ;  Fetis,  Supjjle- 
ment,  i.  300. 

EBERWEIN,  TRAUGOTT  MAXBH- 
LIAN,  boru  in  Weimar,  Oct.  27,  1775,  died 
in  Rudolstadt,  Dec.  2,  1831.  Violinist,  pu- 
pil of  his  father,  and  when  only  seven  years 
old  played  the  violin  in  his  father's  or- 
chestra. He  studied  under  Schick  in  Mainz, 
and  Ivunze  in  Frankfort-on-the-Main  ;  be- 
came court  musician  to  the  Prince  of  Rudol- 
stadt in  1797  ;  made  a  concert  tour  in  Ba- 
varia and  the  Tyrol  in  1803,  and  studied 
counterpoint  under  Fenaroli  in  Naples.     In 

1804  he  returned  to  Rudolstadt ;  in  1817 
became  court  Kaj)ellmeister,  made  several 
concert  tours  through  Germany,  and  in 
1818  travelled  to  Vienna  and  in  Hungary. 
Works — Operas  :  Claudiue  von  Villabella, 
Rudolstadt,   1815  ;   Pedro  und  Elvira,   ib., 

1805  ;  Der  Jahrmarkt  von  Plundersweiler, 
ib.,  1818  ;  Das  befreite  Jerusalem,  Rudol- 
stadt, 1819  ;  Firdusi,  ib.,  1821  ;  Das  gol- 
dene  Netz,  ib.,  1827.  The  Singsi^iele :  Das 
Schlachtturnier ;  Die  Fischerin  ;  Das  Storch- 
nest ;  Die  hohle  Eiche.  Music  for  Macbeth  ; 
Church  music,  cantatas,  hymns,  psalms,  a 
Te  Deum,  and  a  mass ;  Symphonies  ;  Con- 
cert overtures  ;  Songs.  He  left  an  uniin- 
ished  cantata,  Der  Tod  des  Alciden. — Men- 
del ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  589  ;  Schilling  ; 
Gerber  ;  Grove. 

EBHARDT,  GOTTHDLF  FRffiDRICH, 
born  at  Hohensteiu  in  1771,  died  (?).  Or- 
ganist, pupil  of  Tag  on  the  organ  and  piano- 
forte and  in  composition  ;  became  organist 
and  teacher  at  Greiz,  and  later  court  or- 
ganist and  director  of  a  singing  society  at 
Schleiz.  Works :  Preludes  for  organ  ;  Can- 
tatas ;  Chorals,  and  other  church  music.    He 


was  the  author  of  Schule  der  Tonsetzkunst 
(Leij)sic,  1824)  ;  Die  hoheren  Lehrzweige 
der  Tonkunst  (Leipsic,  1830).— Mendel  ; 
Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Fetis. 

ECCARD,  JOHANN,  born  at  Miihlhau- 
sen,  Thuringia,  1553,  died  in  Berlin,  1611. 
Organist,  pupil  of  Joachim  von  Burgk  ; 
studied  under  Orlando  Lasso  in  Paris  and 
Munich  in  1571-74 ;  returned  to  Midilhausen, 
where  he  lived  until  1578,  when  he  became 
director  of  tlie  jjrivate  orchestra  of  Jacob 
Fugger,  of  Augsburg.  Having  entered  the 
service  of  Georg  Friedrich,  Margrave  of 
Brandenburg-Anspach,  he  followed  him  to 
Konigsberg  in  1583  as  assistant  Kapellmei- 
ster, becoming  full  KapeUmeister  in  1599. 
In  1608  he  went  to  Berlin  as  Kapelhneister 
of  Joachim  Friedrich,  and  held  that  position 
until  his  death.  Works :  20  Cantiones 
sacrfe  Helmboldi  (JMiihlhausen,  1574)  ;  Cre- 
pundia  sacra  Helmboldi  (ib.,  1577,  1596  ; 
2d  ed.,  Erfurt,  1608)  ;  24  deutsche  Lieder 
(ib.,  1578) ;  Newe  deutsche  Lieder  (Konigs- 
berg, 1589)  ;  Der  erste  Theil  5-stimmiger 
geistlicher  Lieder  (ib.,  1597)  ;  Preussische 
Festlieder  (ib.,  1598)  ;  O  Lamm  Gottes,  mo- 
tet ;  O  Freude,  chorus  ;  Hymns  ;  Chorals. 
— Mendel ;  Grove  ;  Riemann  ;  Allgem.  d.  Bi- 
ogr., V.  595;  Fetis;  Naumann  (Oaselej'), 
i.  479. 

ECCLES,  JOHN,  born  in  London  about 
the  middle  of  the  17th  century,  died  at 
Kingston-on-Thames,  January,  1735.  Dra- 
matic composer,  son  and  pui^il  of  Solomon 
Eccles,  violin  teacher.  He  was  engaged  as 
a  composer  for  the  theatre  from  1685  for 
nearlj'  a  quarter  of  a  century  ;  was  appointed 
master  of  the  king's  band  in  1698,  and  in 
1700  gained  the  second  of  the  four  prizes 
given  for  the  best  settings  of  Congreve's 
masque,  The  Judgment  of  Paris.  In  1701 
he  set  the  ode  written  by  Congreve  for  the 
celebration  of  St.  Cecilia's  Day  ;  and  in  1710 
published  a  collection  of  nearly  one  hundred 
of  his  songs,  comprising  many  of  those 
which  he  had  written  for  forty-six  dramatic 
pieces.  In  the  latter  jDart  of  his  life  he 
gave  up  all  professional  pursuits  excej)t  the 


ECCLESTO]^ 


annual  production  of  the  royal  birthday  and 
New  Year's  odes.  Works — Operas  :  The 
Spanish  Friar,  1G81  ;  The  Lancashire 
Witches,  1682  ;  The  Chances,  1G82  ;  Justice 
Busy,  1690  ;  The  Kichmond  Heiress,  1693  ; 
Don  Quixotte  (with  Purcell),  1694  ;  Love 
for  Love,  1695  ;  Europe's  Revels  for  the 
Peace,  1697  ;  The  Sham  Doctor,  1697  ;  The 
Provoked  Wife,  1697  ;  Rinaldo  and  Armida, 
1699  ;  Acis  and  Galatea,  masque,  1701  ;  The 
Mad  Lover,  1701  ;  The  City  Lady  ;  The 
Fair  Penitent,  1703 ;  Semele,  1707.  He 
published  a  collection  of  songs  for  one,  two, 
and  three  voices  (London,  1701)  ;  Songs  in 
Pills  to  Purge  Melancholy,  etc.  Henrj'  Ec- 
cles,  his  brother,  a  violinist,  was  a  member 
of  the  king's  band  in  Paris.  He  published : 
Twelve  solos  for  the  violin  (Paris,  1720). 
— Grove;  Fetis;  ^lendel ;  Schilling. 

ECCLESTON,  EDWARD,  Enghsh  com- 
poser of  the  17th  century.  Nothing  is 
known  of  his  history.  In  1G79  he  pub- 
lished a  curious  opera  entitled,  Noah's 
Flood.— Mendel. 

ECCO  XL  :\IONDO.     See  Mefistofele. 

ECCO  LA  MARCIA.  See  Nozze  di  Fi- 
garo. 

ECCO  RIDENTE  IN  CIELO.  See  A ure- 
liano  in  Palmira  ;  Barbiere  di  Siviglia. 

fiCHO  ET  NARCISSE,  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Baron  Tschudi,  music  by 
Gluck,  represented  at  the  Academic  Royale 
de  Musique,  Paris,  Sept.  2-4,  1779.  This 
was  the  last  work  written  by  Gluck ;  he 
was  seized  with  apoplexy  when  about  to 
take  up  Les  Danaidcs,  with  which  he  in- 
tended to  close  his  career,  and  transferred 
the  libretto  to  his  pupil  Salieri.  l5cho  et 
Narcisse,  though  not  very  successful,  was 
reproduced  in  1780. 

ECK,  JOHANN  FRIEDRICH,  born  iu 
Mannheim  in  1766,  died  at  Nancy,  France, 
date  unknown.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Danner, 
and  studied  composition  under  Winter.  In 
1778  he  went  to  Munich,  where  he  became 
court  musician  in  1780,  Conzertmeister  in 
1788,  and  soon  after  dramatic  director  of 
the  Court  and  National  Theater.     He  mar- 


ried for  the  second  time  in  1801,  and  re- 
moved to  Nancy.  Works  :  6  violin  concer- 
tos (Offenbach  and  Paris)  ;  Coueerto-sj'm- 
phony  for  two  violins  (Leipsic). — Mendel  ; 
Riemann  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v  602  ;  Fetis  ; 
Grove  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violine,  191. 

ECKAHT,  JOHANN  GOTTFRIED,  born 
in  Augsburg  in  1731,  died  iu  Paris,  August, 
1809.  Pianist,  the  son  of  poor  parents,  and 
self-taught.  He  accompanied  the  organ- 
builder,  Georg  Andreas  Stein,  iu  1758,  to 
Paris,  where  he  painted  miniatures  days 
and  studied  music  nights,  until  he  became 
one  of  the  best  pianists  and  teachers  of  his 
time.  Works  :  6  pianoforte  sonatas  ;  2  clav- 
ecin sonatas  ;  INIinuet  with  variations. — Men- 
del ;  Fi'tis  ;  SchiUing. 

ECKER,  KARL,  born  at  Freiburg,  Breis- 
gau,  March  13,  1813,  died  there,  Aug.  31, 
1879.  Vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Sechter  in 
Vienna  (1811),  returned  to  Freiburg  in  1816, 
and  soon  became  popular  through  his  male 
choruses  and  sougs.  Several  orchestral 
works  of  some  merit  were  produced  in  his 
native  countrj-. — Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

ECKERSBERG,  JOHANN  WIL- 
HELM,  born  in  Dresden,  Aug.  20,  1762, 
died  there,  Aug.  20,  1821.  Organist,  pu- 
pil of  Homilius,  Weinlig,  and  of  his  father, 
and  became  organist  of  the  Neustadt  Church 
of  Dresden  iu  1789.  The  music  to  Schil- 
ler's Glocke  was  his  most  important  pro- 
duction.— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  614  ;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 
ECKERT,  KARL  (ANTON  FLORIAN), 
born  in  Potsdam, 
Dec.  7,  1820,  died  in 
Berlin,  Oct.  14,  1879. 
Pianist  and  violinist, 
pupil  on  the  piano- 
forte of  Rechenberg 
and  Greulich,  on  the 
violin  of  Biitticher 
and  Hubert  Ries, 
i  n  composition  of 
Rungenhagen.  He 
was  considered  a  prodigy  when  six  years 
old,  and   composed   an   opera   at   the   age 


Eclair 


of  ten.  In  1839  lie  became  in  Leipsic 
a  pupil  of  Meudelssolm  ;  tlien  travelled  in 
Italy,  Holland,  Belgium,  and  France,  and  in 
1851  accejited  the  place  of  accompanist  at 
the  Theatre  Italien  in  Paris.  He  accom- 
panied Sontag  on  her  tour  in  the  United 
States,  and  in  1852  became  conductor  at 
the  Paris  Opera.  In  1853  he  went  to  Vi- 
enna, where  he  became  conductor,  and  later 
technical  director,  of  the  Court  Opera.  He 
gave  np  these  places  in  1860  to  succeed 
Kiicken  as  Kapellmeister  in  Stuttgart  ;  re- 
tired to  private  life  in  Baden-Baden  in 
18G7,  but  in  18G9  was  called  to  Berlin  as 
first  court  Kapelhueister  in  place  of  Tau- 
bert  and  Dorn,  suddenly  pensioned  to  make 
way  for  him.  He  was  an  excellent  con- 
ductor, but  only  his  minor  compositions 
have  succeeded,  and  they  do  not  justify 
the  expectations  Mendelssohn  and  others 
had  of  him.  Works  :  Das  Fischermildchen, 
opera,  composed  in  1830 ;  Wilhelm  von 
Oranien,  given  in  Berlin,  1816  ;  Kathchen 
von  Niiruberg,  1837  ;  Der  Laborant ;  Euth, 
oratorio,  1833 ;  Judith,  oratorio,  Berlin, 
1811 ;  Domine  salvum  fac  regem,  and  other 
psalms ;  Concerto  for  violoncello  ;  Songs. 
— Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Riemaun. 

ECLAIR,  L',  lyi-ical  drama  in  three  acts, 
text  l)y  Saint-Georges  and  Planard,  music 
by  Hak'vy,  first  represented  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  Dec.  30,  1835.  A  young 
naval  officer,  struck  blind  by  lightning  in 
a  tempest,  is  taken  care  of  by  a  maiden 
who  lives,  with  her  sister,  in  a  chateau 
beside  the  sea.  On  recovering  his  sight 
he  confounds  the  object  of  his  love  with 
her  sister,  but  his  heart  soon  corrects  the 
■  error  of  his  eyes.  This  charming  work, 
written  for  two  tenors  and  two  sopranos, 
without  chorus,  appeared  in  the  same  year 
with  La  Juive,  and  established  Halevy's 
reputation.  It  was  given  with  great  suc- 
cess, in  1884,  at  the  Teatro  Manzoni,  Mi- 
lan. 

£COSSAISDECHATOU,  L'  (The  Scotch- 
man of  Chatou),  operette  in  one  act,  text 
by  Adrien  Jaime  and  Philippe  Gille,  music 


by  Delibes,  represented  at  the  Bouffes  Pa- 
risiens,  Paris,  Jan.  16,  1869.  The  Scotch- 
man is  a  silly  bourgeois  named  Ducornet, 
who,  having  heard  La  Dame  blanche,  tries 
to  imitate  farmer  Dickson,  and  builds  at 
Chatou  a  chalet  where  he  offers  open  hos- 
pitality to  all  comers. 

EDDA,  grand  opera,  text  by  Emil  Hopf- 
fer,  music  by  Karl  Reinthaler,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  theatre  of  Hamburg,  Feb. 
22,  1876.  The  libretto,  an  adaptation  of 
the  drama  of  the  same  name  by  Josef 
Weilen,  is  founded  on  an  episode  in  the 
Thirty  Years'  War. 

EDDY,  CLARENCE,  born,  of  American 
parentage,  in  Green- 
field, Massachusetts, 
June  23,  1851,  still 
living,  1888.  Or- 
ganist, pupil  of  J. 
G.  Wilson  in  Green- 
field, and  of  Dudley 
Buck  in  Hartford, 
Conn.  In  1871  he 
went  to  Europe  and 
studied  the  organ, 
harmony,  and  counterpoint  under  August 
Haupt,  and  the  pianoforte  under  A.  Loesch- 
horu.  Returning  in  1874,  he  settled  in 
Chicago  as  organist  of  the  First  Congrega- 
tional Church,  and  in  187G  became  director 
of  the  Hershey  School  of  Musical  Art  in 
Chicago,  founded  by  Mrs.  Sara  B.  Hershey, 
whom  he  afterwards  married.  Mr.  Eddy 
has  made  concert  tours  in  Germany,  Aus- 
tria, Switzerland,  and  America,  and  in  1879 
he  gave  in  Chicago  a  series  of  one  hundred 
organ  recitals,  in  which  no  programme 
number  was  repeated.  Works  :  Organ  mu- 
sic ;  Church  and  Concert  Organist  (2  vols., 
1882,  1885)  ;  The  Organ  in  Church  (1887). 
He  has  translated  August  Haupt's  Counter- 
point, Fugue  and  Double  Counterpoint 
(1876). 

EDELMANN,  JEAN  FREDERIC,  born 
in  Strasburg,  May  6,  1749,  died  there, 
July  17,  1794.  Pianist  and  dramatic  com- 
poser, gained  distinction  in  Paris  in  1782 ; 


EDEN 


became  a  violent  adherent  of  tbe  Eevolution, 
sent  bis  benefactor,  tbe  maire  Baron  Die- 
trieb,  and  otber  friends  to  tbe  scaffold  in 
Strasburg,  and  finally  was  guillotined  bim- 
self.  Works  :  Estber,  oratorio,  performed 
at  tbe  Concert  Spirituel,  1780  ;  La  bergere 
des  Alpes,  lyric  scene  for  soprano  and  bass, 
TnOeries,  1781 ;  Le  feu  (act  from  tbe  ballet 
Les  c'K-ments),  Aeadc-mie  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  1782  ;  Ariane  dans  I'lle  de  Nasos, 
opera,  ib.,  1782  ;  Diane  at  I'Amour,  opera- 
ballet,  Theatre  des  Jeunes  Eleves,  1802  ;  3 
concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  9  works  of  so- 
natas for  do.,  witb  violin  obligate  ;  Quartets 
for  pianoforte,  op.  15  (Amsterdam)  ;  Ca- 
prices for  do. — Gerber,  N.  Les.  ;  Hamburger 
Correspondent  (1794),  No.  121  ;  Nodier, 
Souvenirs  de  la  Revolution,  etc.  ;  Scbilling. 

EDEN,  a  mystei'y  in  two  parts,  poem  by 
Mery,  music  by  Felicien  David,  represented 
at  tbe  Op6ra,  Paris,  Aug.  25,  1848.  A  de- 
scriptive work,  in  tbe  overture  to  wbicb  tbe 
composer  has  attempted  to  depict  musically 
tbe  revolutions  on  tbe  globe  before  tbe 
advent  of  man  ;  then  succeeds  tbe  story  of 
tbe  Garden  of  Eden  and  tbe  fall  of  man. 
It  was  well  sungb^'  Poultier,  Alizard,  Porte- 
bault,  and  Mile  Grimm,  but  failed  to  at- 
tract attention  in  tbe  political  storm  of 
1818. 

EDER,  KARL  KA.SPAR,  born  in  Bavaria 
in  1751,  died  (?).  Virtuoso  on  tbe  violon- 
cello, pupil  of  Ki'ibler  and  Lang,  and  after- 
wards first  violoncellist  to  tbe  Elector  of 
Treves.  Upon  several  concert  tours  through 
Germany  be  won  much  applause.     Works  : 

2  sj'mpbonies  for  grand  orchestra  ;  2  quin- 
tets.   For  violoncello:  14  concertos,  20  solos, 

3  duos,  and  2  trios. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 
EDLING,  JOHANN,  born  at  Falken,  near 

Eisenach,  about  1754,  died  in  1786.  He 
was  chamber  musician  at  tbe  court  of  Wei- 
mar, and  composed  music  to  Bertucb's 
tragedy  of  Elfriede,  besides  symphonies, 
and  pieces  for  the  clarinet. — Gerber  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  !Mendel ;  Ft'tis. 

EDSON,  LEWIS,  born  in  Bridgewater, 
Mass.,  Jan.  22,  1748,  died  in   Woodstock, 


New  York,  in  tbe  spring  of  1820.  He  wrote 
the  poj)ular  hymn  tunes,  Lenox,  Bridge- 
water,  Greenfield,  and  others,  first  published 
by  Simeon  Jocelin  and  A.  Doolittle  in  "The 
Chorister's  Connwniou"  (New  Haven,  1782). 
In  1801-17  he  was  in  New  York  and  as- 
sisted in  tbe  compilation  of  "The  New  York 
Selection  of  Sacred  Music"  (1804-10),  by 
Lewis  and  Thaddeus  Seymoui*.  About  1817 
he  removed  to  Woodstock,  Conn. 

EDUARDO  E  CRISTINA,  Italian  opera, 
text  by  Schmidt,  music  bj-  Rossini,  rep- 
resented at  the  Teatro  San  Benedetto,  Ven- 
ice, 1819.  Princess  Christine  of  Sweden, 
betrothed  to  Prince  James  of  Scotland, 
secretly  marries  an  officer  named  Edward. 
Both  are  thrown  into  jjrison,  but  Edward, 
freed,  delivers  the  king  from  great  danger 
during  the  Russian  bombardment  of  Stock- 
holm, and  the  monarch  pardons  him  and 
recognizes  the  marriage.  This,  Rossini's 
twenty-sixth  work,  is  largely  a  reproduction 
of  two  earlier  ojjeras,  Ricciardo  e  Zoraide 
and  Ermione.  An  opera  of  tbe  same  title, 
music  by  Pavesi,  was  given  in  1811,  in  Na- 
ples.—Edwards,  Life  of  R.,  202. 

EDVARDO  STUART,  Italian  opera,  mu- 
sic by  Cipriano  Pantoglio,  represented  at 
the  Teatro  Manzoni,  Milan,  May,  1887. 

EDWARDS,  RICHARD,  born  in  Somer- 
setshire, England,  1523,  died  in  London,  Oct. 
31,  1566.  ComiDoser  and  poet,  scholar  of 
Coi'pus  Christi  College,  Oxford,  in  1540  ; 
M.A.,  Oxford,  1547.  He  studied  music  un- 
der George  Etberidge,  and  became,  in  15G3, 
Master  of  the  Children  of  the  Chapel  Royal. 
The  music  of  tbe  beautiful  madrigal,  "  In 
going  to  my  naked  bedde,"  is  conjecturally 
assigned  to  him,  as  it  is  certain  that  he  wrote 
the  verses.  The  poem,  "  The  Soul's  Knell," 
said  to  have  been  written  on  his  death-bed, 
is  well  known.  He  wrote  also  many  other 
poems  and  two  comedies. — Grove. 

EEDEN,  JOHAN  VAN  DER,  born  at 
Ghent,  Dec.  21,  1844,  still  living,  1888. 
PujDil  at  tbe  Conservatoire,  Ghent,  where 
be  won  several  first  prizes,  and  of  Fetis  in 
Brussels  (1863).     At  the  Concours  National, 


EGERIA 


in  1865,  he  won  the  first  prize  with  his 
cantata,  Le  vent,  and  in  1869  with  the  can- 
tata. La  derniere  niiit  de  Faust.  After  hav- 
ing travelled  in  France,  Italy,  and  Germany, 
he  settled  at  Assisi. — Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  di. 

EGEKIA,  Italian  operetta  in  one  act,  text 
by  Metastasio,  music  by  Hasse,  represented 
in  Vienna,  1761:,  in  honour  of  the  coronation 
of  Joseph  XL,  King  of  the  Romans.  Scene 
at  the  fountain  of  Egeria.  Characters  rej^ 
resented  :  Egeria,  Venere,  Mercuric,  Marte, 
Apollo. 

EGGHAED,  JULIUS  (Count  von  Harde- 
gen),  born  in  Vienna,  April  21,  1831,  died 
there,  March  23,  1867.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Karl  Czerny,  and  in  comjoositiou  of  Sechter ; 
from  his  fifteenth  year  he  appeared  often 
successfully  before  the  Viennese  public,  and 
was  much  esteemed  as  a  teacher.  In  1853- 
55  he  was  in  Paris,  and  gave  several  con- 
certs at  the  Salle  Erard.  His  tasteful 
compositions  for  the  pianoforte  in  charac- 
teristic style  were  widely  popular.  Works  : 
La  campanella,  impromptu,  op.  2  ;  Variations 
de  bravour,  op.  4  ;  Nocturne  en  trilles,  op. 
6  ;  Idylle,  op.  7  and  8  ;  Souvenir  de  Pesth, 
op.  9  ;  Rcve  d' amour,  op.  10  ;  Mazurka  de 
salon,  op.  11  ;  Polka  de  salon,  op.  12  ;  Ro- 
mance, op.  13  ;  Les  adieux  du  berger,  idylle, 
ojj.  11 ;  La  danse  des  syljjhes,  impromptu, 
op.  15  ;  Je  pense  a  toi,  chanson  sans  paroles, 
op.  17  ;  Chanson  erotique,  op.  19  ;  Serenade 
italiennc,  op.  22  ;  Nocturne  poetique,  op. 
23  ;  Fleurettes,  etude  de  salon,  op.  26  ;  Sa- 
rolta,  impromptu  de  salon,  op.  27 ;  etc. 
— Wurzbach ;  Le  Pays  (Paris,  1855,  No. 
32) ;  Wiener  Conversationsblatt  (1855),  212. 

EGLI,  JOHANN  HEINRICH,  Iwrn  at 
Seegrebeu,  Canton  of  Zurich,  March  4, 
1712,  died  at  Ziirich,  Dec.  19,  1810.  Vocal 
composer,  pupil  of  Pastor  Schmiedli  at  We- 
zikon  ;  settled  at  Ziirich,  where  he  became 
a  favourite  teacher,  and  greatly  influenced 
religious  music.  His  songs  are  still  popular 
in  Switzerland.  Works  :  6  Schweizer-Can- 
taten  von  Lavater,  with  orchestra  (1786)  ; 
Schweizerlieder  von  Lavater  (1787)  ;  Blu- 
menlese  geistlicher  Gedichte,  etc.   (1788)  ;| 


I  Oden  von  Cramer  (1786) ;  12  Neujahrs 
Cautaten  ;  60  geistliche  Lieder  (1791) ; 
Schweizer  Volkslieder  (1788) ;  Schweizer 
Preiheitsgesang  (1789)  ;  Kinderlieder,  for 
two  voices  ;  Gellert's  geistliche  Oden  und 
Lieder  (1789);  do.  zweiter  Theil  (1791); 
Lieder  der  Weisheit  und  Tugend  (1790)  ; 
Christliches  Gesangbuch  (Ziirich,  1798) ;  and 
many  others  for  one  and  more  voices. — All- 
gem,  d.  Biogr.,  V.  678;  Futis ;  Gerber ; 
Schilling. 

EGMONT,  overture  and  incidental  music 
to  Goethe's  tragedy  of  the  same  title,  by 
Beethoven,  op.  81,  composed  in  1809  ;  first 
performed,  May  21,  1810.  The  composer's 
third  work  for  the  stage,  written  between 
the  second  writing  of  Leonore,  and  Fidelio. 
The  overture  de^jicts  in  broad,  vigorous 
traits  what  may  serve  for  an  introduction 
to  the  drama,  to  wit,  the  immutability  of 
fate,  the  pathos  in  the  suppression  of  lib- 
erty, and  the  fall  of  its  hero,  the  pleasant 
existence  of  the  people  who  are  to  be  sup- 
pressed, and,  finally,  the  joy  of  triumph,  pro- 
claiming that  the  reaction  must,  at  last, 
succumb.  Besides  the  overture,  the  music 
consists  of  two  sojprano  songs,  four  entr'- 
actes, Clilrchen's  death,  a  melodrama,  and  a 
finale ;  in  all,  ten  numbers.  The  finale  is 
identical  with  the  conclusion  of  the  over- 
ture, which  was  apijarently  written  last. 
To  tit  the  music  for  performance  exclusive 
of  the  drama,  verses  connecting  the  move- 
ments were  written  in  Germany  by  Jlosen- 
geil  and  Bernays,  and  in  England  by  Will- 
iam Bartholomew.  Published  by  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1811-12).— Marx  (Berlin, 
1875),  ii.  162  ;  Thayer,  Verzeichuiss,  82  ; 
Von  Lenz,  ii.  207. 

EGMONT,  opera-comique,  text  by  Wolff 
and  Millaud,  music  by  Salvayre,  represented 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  Dec.  6,  1886. 
A  failure. 

EGRESSY,  BENJAMIN,  born  about 
1811,  still  Hviug  (?).  He  settled  in  Pesth 
as  an  actor,  and  later  comjiosed  many  Hun- 
garian melodies,  songs,  and  other  vocal 
and  instrumental  music.    He  also  translated 


EIIERXE 


plays  and  operas,  antl  wrote  the  librettos  of 
sevei-al  Hungarian  operas. — Wurzbacb,  iv. 
5  ;  Mendel ;  Fetis. 

EHERNE  SCHLANGE,  DIE  (The  Bra- 
zen Serpent),  oratorio  for  male  voices,  text 
by  Giesebrecht,  music  by  Karl  Loewe,  op. 
40,  written  in  1831 

EHLERT,  LUDWIG,  born  in  Konigs- 
berg,  Jan.  13,  1825,  died  in  Wiesbaden, 
Jan.  4,  1884.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the  Leipsic 
Conservatorium  under  Mendelssohn  and 
Sclmnianu  ;  settled  in  Berlin  as  a  teacher 
in  1850  ;  visited  Italy  several  times,  direct- 
ing the  Socicta  Cherubiui  in  Florence ; 
taught  in  Tausig's  Berlin  school  in  1869- 
71 ;  was  teacher  to  the  princes  in  Meining- 
en  ;  and  settled  in  Wiesbaden.  Professor 
in  1875.  Works  :  Overtures  to  Hafiz  and 
Winter's  Tale  ;  Spring  Symphony ;  Sonate 
romautique  ;  Kequiem  for  a  child  ;  Songs 
and  pianoforte  pieces.  He  was  the  author 
of  "  Briefe  iiber  Musik  an  eine  Freundin  " 
(Berlin,  1859,  18G7,  1879  ;  translated  as 
"Letters  on  Music  to  a  Lady,"  London  and 

Boston,  1877) ; 
derTon- 

.      (Berlin, 

/^  1877  ;  trans- 
lated as  "  From  the  Tone- World,"  New 
York,  1885). — Riemann  ;  Mendel ;  Grove  ; 
Fetis,  iii.  119  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  301. 

EHRENBERG,  died  young  at  Dessau, 
1790.  He  was  chamber  musician  in  Dessau, 
.and  wrote  an  oi)era,  Azakia,  text  by  Schwan, 
Dessau,  1790,  besides  considerable  vocal 
music. — Gerber  ;  Fctis  ;  Schilling  ;  Men- 
del. 

EHRHART,  LEON,  born  at  Miilhauseu, 
Alsace,  May  11,  1854,  died  near  Florence, 
Oct.  4,  1875.  Dramatic  composer,  puj^il  in 
his  native  place  of  Heyberger,  in  Paris  of 
Chauvet  and  at  the  Conservatoire  of  Benoist 
and  Eeber.  The  cantata  of  Acis  et  Gala- 
tee  secured  him  the  prix  de  Rome  in  1874, 
and  while  visiting  Rome  and  Venice  he 
worked  on  a  comic  ojjera  and  an  oratorio 
until  his  premature  death. — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  301. 


/)  ijoston, 


EHRLICH,  CHRISTIAN  FRIEDRICH, 
born  at  Magdeburg,  May  7,  1810,  still  liv- 
ing, 1888.  Pianist,  pujjil  of  Hummel  in 
Weimar,  returned  to  his  native  city  about 
1834,  where  he  is  conductor  of  the  Sing- 
akademie,  and  one  of  the  founders,  and  pres- 
ident of  the  Tonkiinstler-Verein.  He  has 
composed  several  operas,  of  which  Die  Ro- 
senmiidchen,  and  Kiinig  Georg  were  suc- 
cessfully given  at  various  provincial  the- 
atres ;  also  organ  and  pianoforte  music,  and 
sacred  and  secular  songs.- — ^lendel. 

EHRNSTEIN,  JOHANN  JACOB  STU- 
PAN  VON,  German  comjioser,  lived  in  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century.  He  pub- 
lished Rosetum  musicum  and  12  sympho- 
nies.— Gerber  ;  Mendel ;  Fotis. 

EH!  VIA,BITFONE.  See /)on Giovanni. 
EICHBERG,  JULIUS,  born,  of  German 
parentage,  in  Diissel- 
dorf,  Germauj-,  June 
13,  1824,  still  living, 
1888.  Violinist  and 
dramatic  composer ; 
p  u  p  i  1  on  the  violin 
and  in  composition, 
at  Wiirzburg,  Bavaria, 
of  Joseph  FrJilich,  and 
in  counterpoint  and 
orchestration  of  Julius 
Rietz.  He  went  to 
Brussels  in  1842,  studied  composition  un- 
der Ft'tis,  and  the  violin  under  Meerts  and 
De  Beriot,  and  obtained  the  1st  prizes  in 
violin  plaj'ing  and  composition  in  1843  at 
the  Conservatoire.  After  this  he  resided 
several  years  in  Frankfort-on-the-Main  and 
in  1846  went  to  Basel  and  Geneva,  Switzer- 
land, as  director  of  music,  and  received  the 
appointment  of  professor  of  the  violin  and 
of  composition  in  the  Geneva  Conservatoire. 
In  1856  he  removed  to  America  and  has 
spent  the  past  thirty  years  in  Boston,  where 
he  is  director  of  the  Boston  Conservatory  of 
Music,  general  supervisor  of  musical  instruc- 
tion in  the  Boston  public  schools,  and  head 
of  Eichberg's  School  for  Violin  Plaj-ing.  He 
has  a  national  reputation  as  a  teacher  of 


EICHBERG 


the  violin,  some  of  the  best  public  jjerform- 
ers  having  been  liis  pupils.  Works  :  The 
Doctor  of  Alcantara,  comic  o^Jeretta  in  two 
acts,  text  by  Woolf,  represented  in  Boston, 
April  7,  1862  ;  The  Rose  of  Tyrol,  ib.,  I860  ; 
The  Two  Cadis,  ib.,  1870  ;  A  Night  in 
Home,  ib.,  about  1870.  Studies  for  the  vio- 
lin ;  Trios  and  quartets  for  string  instru- 
ments ;  Songs  ;  Works  for  the  use  of  mu- 
sical instruction  in  schools.  The  Doctor  of 
Alcantara  has  been  performed  many  times 
in  America,  and  is  one  of  the  few  works  of 
the  kind,  Avritten  in  America,  which  has 
made  a  permanent  re2)utation. 

EICHBERG,  OSCAE,  born  in  Berlin, 
Jan.  21,  1845,  still  living,  1S88.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  his  father  ;  played  in  public  at  the 
age  of  ten  ;  then  studied  the  pianoforte  un- 
der Loschhorn  and  composition  under  Kiel. 
He  settled  in  Berlin  as  a  teacher,  founded 
a  singing  society  in  1871,  wrote  musical  ar- 
ticles, and  began  the  publication  of  a  mu- 
sical calendar  in  1879.  Has  published  pi- 
anoforte music,  songs,  etc. — Mendel ;  Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  302  ;  Eiemann. 

EICHHORN,  HERMANN,  born  iu  Bres- 
lau,  Oct.  30,  1847,  still  living,  1888.  Virtu- 
oso on  the  horn  and  dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  Emil  Bohn ;  at  first  studied  law 
and  acquired  the  degree  of  doctor,  but  soon 
devoted  himself  entirely  to  music.  He  has 
composed  the  comic  operas  and  operettas, 
Drei  auf  eineu  Schlag,  Zojjf  und  Krumm- 
stab,  Blaue  Kinder,  and  others,  besides  f)i- 
anoforte  pieces  and  songs,  and  has  also 
published  several  valuable  monographs  on 
the  history  of  instruments  and  of  instru- 
mental music. — Riemann. 

EICHHORN,  JO  H  ANN,  bom  about 
1766,  died  after  1815.  Violinist.  Lived  in 
Berlin  and  at  Bruchsal,  Baden,  and  joined 
the  court  orchesti-a  at  Mannheim  in  1807. 
Works:  Concerto  for  violin  (Berlin,  1791); 
Solos  for  do.  (ib.)  ;  3  quartets  for  two  vio- 
lins, viola,  and  bass  (Darmstadt,  1794)  ;  3 
duos  for  violins,  op.  9  (Leipsic,  Kiihnel)  ; 
Quintet  for  two  violins,  two  violas,  and 
bass,  op.  11  (ib.).' — Fetis  ;  Gerber. 


EICHLER,  FRIEDEICH  WILHELM, 
born  in  Leipsic  iu  1809.  Violinist,  pui^il 
of  Spohr  in  Cassel ;  became  Conzertmeister 
at  the  theatre  in  Kimigsberg  in  1832  ;  from 
1817  lived  several  years  iu  Loudon,  and 
then  settled  at  Baden-Baden.  Among  his 
compositions  for  violin  are  :  Variations  on 
a  Swiss  theme,  with  orchestra  or  pianoforte, 
op.  2  (Leipsic,  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel)  ;  Songs 
without  words,  op.  4  (ib.). — Schilling;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis. 

EICHNER,  ERNST,  born  in  Mannheim, 
Feb.  9,  1740,  died  iu  Potsdam  in  1777.  He 
entered  the  ducal  chapel  at  Zweibriicken 
about  1770,  and  left  it  elandestinelj',  be- 
cause his  resignation  was  not  accepted  ; 
then  lived  iu  London  until  1773,  when  he 
joined  the  band  of  the  Crown  Prince  of 
Prussia  in  Potsdam.  He  formed  some  ex- 
cellent pujjils,  and  composed  symphonies, 
concertos,  and  chamber  music. — Fetis  ; 
Schilling  ;  Mendel. 

EIGHTEEN  HUNDRED  AND 
TWELVE,  ouverture  solennelle  for  orches- 
tra, by  Tschaikowsky,  op.  49. 

E  IL  MAESTRO  10  FACCIO.  See 
Barbiere  di  Siviglia. 

EILT,  IHR  STUNDEN,  soprano  aria  in 
E  minor,  with  accompaniment  of  violin  and 
continuo,  in  Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  can- 
tata, "  Freue  dich,  erli'iste  Schaar.'' 

EINERT,  IvARL  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Lommatsch,  Saxony,  in  1798,  died  in  War- 
saw, Dec.  25,  1836.  Organist,  studied 
under  Schicht  in  the  Thomasschule  of  Leip- 
sic ;  was  a  pupil  of  Friedrich  Schneider  for 
organ  and  of  Wach  for  double-bass.  Became 
music  teacher  in  a  noble  Polish  family  and 
went  in  1821  to  Warsaw,  where  he  was  or- 
ganist of  the  Lutheran  Church  and  double- 
bass  player  of  the  Court  Theatre.  His  or- 
gan preludes  were  well  written. — Sowiuski, 
165  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

EIN'  FESTE  BURG  1ST  UNSER  GOTT 
(A  strong  fortress  is  our  God  ;  generally  ren- 
dered iu  English  :  God  is  our  refuge  in  dis- 
tress). ]\Iartiu  Luther's  version  of  Psalm 
xlvi.  (Deus  uoster  refugium).     It  was  pub- 


EIN 


lished  first  in  "  Geistliebe  Lierler  nuffs  newe 
gebessert  zu  Wittenberg.  Dr.  INIart.  Luther, 
1529."  Several  arrangements  of  it  appeared 
during  Lu tiler's  lifetime :  1.  For  three  voices, 
with  melody  in  the  tenor,  in  "  News  Gesang," 
etc.,  by  Johann  Kugelmann  (Augsburg, 
1540) ;  2.  For  four  voices,  with  melod}-  in 
the  bass,  in  "  Newe  deutsche  geistliche ' 
Gesenge  cxxiii,  by  Georg  Khau  (Witten- 
berg, 154;J:) ;  3.  For  five  voices,  with  mel- 
ody in  the  tenor,  by  Stephan  Mahn,  in  G. 
Rhau's  Hymn  Book  ;  4.  For  four  voices, 
with  melody  in  the  bass,  by  Martin  Agri- 
cola,  in  G.  Rhau's  Hymn  Book  ;  5.  For  four 
voices,  with  melody  in  the  bass,  by  L.  Hel- 
linck,  in  G.  Rhau's  Hymn  Book.  The  tune 
as  now  sung  is  derived  from  the  form  given 
it  by  Johann  Sebastian  ]5ach  in  several  of 
his  cantatas,  especially  in  Ein'  feste  Burg, 
which  differs  somewhat  from  Luther's  ver- 
sion. It  has  been  used  as  a  theme  by 
various  other  musicians  :  Mendelssohn,  in 
the  finale  of  his  Reformation  Symphony ; 
Otto  Nicolai,  in  his  i^e.^^Ouverture ;  Joachim 
Raff,  in  his  /f'A/-Oiiverture  ;  Wagner,  in  his 
Kaisermarsch  ;  Meyerbeer,  in  the  Hugue- 
nots;  Karl  Reinecke,  in  Variations  on  Ein' 
feste  Burg  (given  in  New  York,  Nov.  12, 
1887). — Rambach,  Ueber  Luther's  Ver- 
dienst  um  den  Kirchengesang  (Hamburg, 
1813);  Winterfeld,  Luther's  deutsche  geist- 
liche Lieder  (Leipsic,  1840)  ;  Wackernagel, 
do.  (Stuttgart,  1848)  ;  Koch,  Geschichte  des 
Kircheulieds  (Stuttgart,  186G-1877)  ;  Lu- 
ther musicien,  Revue  et  Gazette  musieale, 
July  13,  1879  ;  Naumann  (Ouseley),  i.  458 ; 
Grove,  ii.  179. 

EIN'  FESTE  BFRG,  cantata,  text  by 
Salomo  Franck,  music  by  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach,  written  probably  for  the  Reformation 
Festival  of  1730.  Bitter  thinks  it  was  com- 
posed for  the  bicentenary  Reformation  Fes- 
tival of  1717,  but  Spitta  argues  that  it  was 
for  either  the  festival  of  1730  or  for  the  two 
hundreth  anniversar}'  of  Protestantism  in 
Saxony,  May  17,  1739.  The  cantata  has 
eight  numbers,  five  solos  and  three  choruses. 
The  opening  is  a  fugue  based  upon  a  varia- 


tion on  Luthei-'s  melody  and  set  to  the  first 
verse  of  his  hymn.  The  solos  are  from  the 
cantata,  Alles  was  von  Gott  geboren,  writ- 
ten in  1716.— Spitta,  ii.  470  ;  iii.  283  ;  Up- 
ton, Standard  Cantatas,  38. 

EINICIvE,  GEORG  FRIEDRICH,  born 
at  Hohlstedt,  Thuringia,  Ajjril  10,  1710,  died 
in  Nordhausen,  Feb.  20,  1770.  Organist, 
pupil  of  his  father.  He  went  to  the  Uni- 
versitj'  of  Leipsic  in  1732,  and  finished 
his  musical  education  under  Sebastian  Bach 
and  Scheibe.  He  succeeded  his  father  as 
Cantor  and  music  director  ;  went  to  Frank- 
enhausen  in  a  like  capacity  in  1746  and 
to  Nordhausen  in  1757. — Works  :  Concer- 
tos ;  Symphonies ;  Church  music. — Allgem. 
d.  Biogr.,  v.  7G0  ;  Mendel;  SchilHng  ;  Fetis. 

EIN  MADCHEN  ODER  WEIBCHEN. 
See  Die  ZauberflOte. 

EINSAM  IN  TRUBEN  TAGEN.  See 
Lohengrin. 

EINST  TRAUMTE  MEINER  SELIGEN 
BASE.     See  Der  Frcischiilz. 

EIN  UNGEFARBT  GEMUTHE,  alto 
aria  in  F  major,  with  accompaniment  of 
violins  and  violas  in  unison,  and  continuo, 
in  Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  cantata  for 
Dom.  4  fest.  Trinil.,  of  the  same  title ; 
published  sej)arately,  with  additional  ac- 
companiments by  Robert  Franz,  by  F. 
Whistling,  Leipsic,  18G0. 

EISENHOFER,  FRANZ  XAYER,  born 
at  Ilmmiinster,  Upper  Bavaria,  Nov.  29, 
1783,  died  in  Wiirzburg,  Aug.  15,  1855. 
While  attending  the  University  of  Munich, 
he  finished  his  musical  education  under 
Griitz  ;  gave  up  the  study  of  theologj',  and 
was  school  teacher  and  professor  in  sev- 
eral places.  He  composed  cantatas  for 
male  voices,  and  many  solo  and  part  songs, 
of  which  he  wrote  also  the  text. — Mendel  ; 
Schilling,  Supplement,  110 ;  Fotis,  iii.  123  ; 
do.,  Supplement,  i.  302. 

EISENHUT  (Eisenuth,  Eisenhuet), 
THOMAS,  German  composer,  whose  works 
appeared  in  1675-1702.  He  was  Kapell- 
meister of  the  Prince  Abbot  of  Kempten 
and  a  regular  canon  of  the  Monasterv  of 


10 


EISERT 


St.  Georg  in  Augsburg.  Among  Lis  publi- 
cations were  Harmonia  sacra,  church  music, 
and  a  theoretical  book,  "Musikahsches  Fun- 
dament."— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  7G7  ;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

EISERT,  JOHANNES,  born  at  Dresden 
in  1810,  died  there  in  18G4  Organist, 
studied  music  in  Vienna,  where  he  ajs- 
peared  successfully  in  public,  until  recalled 
to  Dresden  as  court  organist.  Among  his 
compositions  for  the  organ,  his  fugues  de- 
serve especial  mention  for  purity  of  style 
and  melodic  beauty. — Mendel ;  Schilling. 

EISFELD,  THEODOR,  born,  of  German 
parentage,  in  Wolfenbiittel,  Brunswick,  in 
1816,  died  in  Wiesbaden,  Sept.  IG,  1882. 
Conductor,  pupil  in  composition  of  C.  G. 
Reissiger,  Dresden  ;  also  studied  the  violin 
in  Bremen  under  Karl  Miiller.  In  1848 
he  went  to  New  York,  and  the  following 
year  was  made  conductor  of  the  New 
York  Philharmonic  Society,  which  he  con- 
ducted alternately  with  Carl  Bei-gmann, 
from  1855  to  18GG,  when  he  returned  to 
Europe.  He  was  leader  also  of  the  Eisfeld 
Quartet,  which  gave  its  first  concert,  Feb. 
18,  1851.  Eisfeld  held  a  high  position  in 
New  York  musical  circles. 

EITNER,  ROBERT,  born  at  Breslau, 
Oct.  22,  1832,  still  living,  1888.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  Moritz  Brosig,  went  in  1853  to 
Berlin,  where  he  won  success  as  a  virtuoso 
and  composer  in  concerts,  given  in  1857- 
5d.  A  school  for  the  pianoforte  which  he 
founded  in  Berlin,  18G3,  is  still  flourishing. 
Since  18G0  he  has  devoted  himself  more 
especially  to  musical  literature,  and  chiefly 
to  his  agency  was  due  the  organization  of 
the  Gesellschaf t  fur  Musikforschung  in  18G8, 
of  whose  organ,  the  "  Monatshefte  fiir  Mu- 
sikgeschichte,"  he  is  the  editor.  Works  : 
Judith,  biblical  opera  ;  Pfingstcantate  ;  Sta- 
bat  Mater  for  4  voices  a  cappella  ;  Over- 
ture to  the  Cid  ;  Pianoforte  music,  and 
songs. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  302  ;  Men- 
del. 

EKHART,  FRANZ  JOSEF,  born  at  Tep- 
litz,  Bohemia,  about  1735,  died  (?).     Pianist, 


organist,  and  hai-pist,  pupil  of  his  father, 
and  afterwards  completed  his  studies  in 
Italy.  For  several  years  he  was  organist 
of  the  Basilica  of  St.  Peter,  and  in  great 
favour  with  Pope  Clement  XIV.,  especially 
as  a  harp-i^layer  ;  in  1780  he  enjoj-ed  con- 
siderable reputation  in  Italy  as  an  organist 
and  composer,  but  his  works  remain  in 
manuscript. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

ELBEL,  VICTOR,  born  in  Alsace  early 
in  the  19th  centuiy.  He  lived  in  Paris  as 
a  teacher  ;  brought  out  in  Strasburg  an 
oratorio,  Der  Miinsterbau  ;  and  composed 
also  two  descriptive  symphonies. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  302. 

ELEGUC  ODE,  text  from  President 
Lincoln's  Burial  Hymn  by  Walt  Whitman, 
for  solos,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  bj'  Charles 
Villiers  Stanford,  composed  for  and  first 
given  at  the  Norwich  (England)  Festival, 
Oct.  15,  1884.— Athenseum  (1884),  ii.  505. 

ELEGIAC  SYMPHONY,  in  D  minor,  by 
Charles  Villiers  Stanford,  first  produced  at 
Cambridge,  England,  March  7,  1882,  and 
at  the  Gloucester  Festival,  1883. 

ELlilGIE,  salon-jiiece  for  violin  solo,  with 
pianoforte  accomjjaniment,  by  Heinrich  Wil- 
helm  Ernst,  op.  10.  It  is  extremely  effec- 
tive and  well  written,  and  was  long  popular. 
Played  at  Chickering  Hall,  New  York,  Nov. 
22,'l88G,  by  Michael  Banner. 

ELEGIE  HARMONIQUE  (Harmonic 
Elegy),  for  pianoforte  solo,  in  F-sharp 
minor,  by  Johann  Ludwig  Dussek,  op.  Gl. 
Written  in  memory  of  Prince  Louis  Ferdi- 
nand of  Prussia,  whose  premature  death  on 
the  battle-field  of  Saalfeld,  Oct.  13,  1806,  de- 
prived Dussek  of  a  friend  and  patron.  One 
of  the  composer's  best  works. 

ELEGISCHER  GESANG  (Elegiac  Song), 
for  four  voices,  pianoforte,  and  string  quar- 
tet, music  by  Beethoven,  op.  118,  comjwsed 
1814  ;  dedicated  to  Johann,  Freiherr  von 
Pasqualati.  Text,  "  Sanft  wie  du  lebtest, 
hast  du  Tollendet,"  etc.,  by  an  unknown 
author.  Published  by  Haslinger  after  the 
composer's  death. — Thayer,  Verzeichniss, 
120  ;  Lenz,  ii.  131. 


11 


ELER 


ELEE,  .\NDRfi,  bom  in  Alsace  about 
1764,  died  Ajjiil  21,  1821.  He  went,  when 
young,  to  Paris,  where  he  became  professor 
of  counterpoint  at  the  Conservatoire  on 
its  reorganization  in  1816.  His  collection, 
copied  in  scoi'e,  of  the  compositions  of  16th 
century  masters,  is  now  in  the  librai-y  of 
the  Paris  Conservatoire.  Works — Operas  : 
Apelle  et  Campaspe,  1798  ;  L'habit  du 
chevalier  de  Grammont,  1800  ;  La  forut 
de  Brama  ;  Interlude,  Le  chant  des  ven- 
geances, words  by  Rouget  de  Li.sle,  jyer- 
formed  in  1798  ;  Overture  ;  Symphony  ; 
Sonatas  ;  Trios,  and  quartets  for  wind  and 
string  instruments. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supple- 
ment, i.  303  ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

ELI,  oratorio,  text  by  William  Bartholo- 
mew, on  the  story  of  Eli  and  Samuel  (Sam., 
i.-iv.),  music  by  Michael  Costa,  first  given 
at  the  Birmingham  (England)  Festival,  Aug. 
29, 1855  ;  first  time  in  America,  Handel  and 
Haydn  Society,  Boston,  Feb.  15,  1857.  At 
Birmingham  the  part  of  Eli  was  sung  by 
Sims  Beeves,  and  that  of  Sanuiel  by  Mme 
Viardot.  The  other  parts  were  by  Mme 
Castellan,  Carl  Formes,  and  W.  H.  Weiss. 
— Athenieum  (1855),  1008  ;  Upton,  Standard 
Oratorios,  84. 

ELI.VS  (Elijah),  oratorio,  in  two  parts, 
text  from  the  Old  Testament,  music  by  Men- 
delssolui,  op.  70,  first  given  in  an  Englisli 
translation  at  the  Birmingham  (England) 
Festival,  Aug.  26,  1846.  The  idea  was  sug- 
gested, says  Hillcr,  by  reading  in  1  Kings, 
xix.  11,  "Behold,  the  Lord  passed  by,"  and 
the  text  was  compiled  mostly  from  the  same 
book.  The  libretto  was  sent  to  London  as 
soon  as  the  work  was  completed,  and  trans- 
lated into  English  bv'  William  Bartholomew. 
The  scenes  treated  are  Elijah's  prophecj'  of 
the  drought,  the  raising  of  the  widow's  son 
at  Zarephath,  the  rival  sacrifices  on  Mt. 
Carmel,  the  fall  of  rain,  the  persecution  of 
Elijah  by  Jezebel,  his  sojourn  in  the  desert, 
his  return,  and  his  translation  in  the  fiery 
chariot.  The  score  is  without  date,  but 
Mendelssohn  probably  began  the  work  in 


the  summer  of  1837,  though  most  of  it  was 
written  in  1846.  The  orchestral  parts  were 
rehearsed  bj'  Mendelssohn  at  Leipsic,  Aug. 
5,  184(i,  and  the  vocal  parts  at  Moscheles's 
house,  London,  Aug.  18th,  the  evening  of  the 
day  of  his  arrival  there  ;  then  followed  two 
full  rehearsals  in  Hanover  Square,  and  on 
Aug.  24th  a  full  rehearsal  at  Birmingham  ; 
and  on  Wednesday,  Aug.  26th,  the  first  pub- 
lic performance  was  given  in  the  Town  Hall, 
Birmingham.  After  many  alterations  and 
additions,  it  was  given  in  London,  April  10, 
1847,  by  the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society.  Its 
first  performance  in  Germany  was  at  Ham- 
burg, October,  1847.  Pubfished  first  by 
Simroek  (Berlin,  1847). — Grove,  ii.  275, 
288  ;  J.  Bennet,  in  Concordia,  497,  523 ; 
Upton,  Standard  Oratorios,  218. 

ELIJAH.     See  Elias. 

ELIS.\,  ou  le  voyage  au  ]\Iont  Bernard, 
comedy  in  two  acts,  text  by  Saint-Cyr,  mu- 
sic by  Cherubini,  represented  at  the  Thea- 
tre Feydeau,  Paris,  December,  1794.  The 
scene  is  laid  among  mountains  and  glaciers, 
and  the  douofuuent  is  hastened  by  an  ava- 
lanche. 

ELISA  E  CLAUDIO,  opera  buffii,  text 
b_v  Romanelli,  music  by  Mercadante,  repre- 
sented in  Milan  in  1822.  This  opei'a,  one 
of  Mercadante's  best  works,  was  given  in 
Paris,  Nov.  22,  1823.  The  beautiful  duet, 
"Se  un"  istante,  all'  offerta  d'  un  soglio,"  is 
still  a  favourite  with  singers. 

ELISABETH,  opera  in  three  acts,  text 
by  Brunswick  and  De  Leuven,  music  by 
Donizetti,  represented  at  the  Theatre  Ly- 
rique,  Paris,  Dec.  31,  1853.  This  is  the 
French  version  of  Donizetti's  Gli  esiliati  di 
Siberia,  text  by  Gilardoni,  first  given  in 
Naples,  1827.  The  Italian  libretto  is  from 
the  jilay  by  Guilbert  de  Pixen'court,  enti- 
tled :  "  La  fille  de  I'exile,  ou  huit  mois  en 
deux  heures,"  which  is  an  adaptation  of 
Madame  Cottin's  romance,  "  Elisabeth,  ou 
les  exiles  de  Sibt'rie  "  (180G).  It  is  the 
story  of  a  young  girl  who  comes  from  the 
depths  of  Siberia  to  ask  from  the  Czar  her 
father's    pardon.      Donizetti's    music    was 


K 


ELISABETTA 


adapted  to  the  French  version  by  Foutana, 
his  pupil. 

ELIS.iBETTA  A  KENILWOETH.  See 
CasleUo  di  Kenilworth. 

ELISABETTA,  EEGINA  D'  INGHIL- 
TERRA,  ojjera,  text  by  Sohuiidt,  music  by 
Rossini,  first  rejDresented  at  the  Teatro  San 
Carlo,  Najjles,  in  1815.  The  libretto  is  not 
from  Scott's  "Kenilworth,"  which  was  not 
published  until  1821,  but  is  an  adaptation 
from  a  French  melodrama.  The  opera  was 
Rossini's  fifteenth  work,  and  was  written 
when  he  was  twenty-four  years  old.  Mile 
Colbran,  whom  he  afterwards  married,  was 
the  original  Qaeen  Elizabeth.  The  opera 
was  given  at  the  Italiens,  Paris,  March 
10,  1822.  It  was  not  successful,  excepting 
at  Naples.  The  overture,  which  had  pre- 
viously belonged  to  Aureliano  in  Palmyra, 
is  now  the  introduction  to  II  Barbiere  di 
Sivigha.— Stendhal,  Vie  de  E.  ;  Edwards, 
Life  of  R.,  109. 

ELISIRE  D'  AMORE,  L'  (The  Elixir  of 
Love),  Italian  opera  buft'a  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Romani,  music  by  Donizetti,  repiresented 
in  Milan,  May  12,  1832,  in  Loudon,  at  the 
Lyceum,  Dec.  10,  183(),  in  Now  York,  1838, 
and  in  Paris,  at  the  Theatre  Italien,  Jan. 
17,  1839.  The  subject  of  this  graceful  and 
melodious  opera,  in  some  resjiects  one  of 
Donizetti's  best,  is  identical  with  that  of 
Auber's  Le  philtre,  text  by  Scribe.  Adina, 
a  country  girl,  is  loved  by  Neniorino,  a 
young  farmer,  and  by  Belcore,  a  sergeant. 
Nemorino  applies  to  Dr.  Dulcamara,  a 
mountebank,  for  a  bottle  of  the  elixir  of 
love.  Dulcamara  gives  him  a  bottle  of 
wine,  and  tells  him  that  if  he  drinks  of 
it  he  can  win  the  love  of  anyone.  The 
farmer  drinks  the  whole  of  it,  and,  becoming 
intoxicated,  behaves  in  such  a  manner  that 
Adina  promises  to  marry  the  sergeant. 
The  second  act  opens  with  the  assemblage 
of  the  villagers  to  witness  the  marriage 
contract.  Nemorino,  in  despair,  begs  Dul- 
camara to  give  him  some  charm  which  will 
make  Adina  love  him.  Dulcamara  refuses, 
as  the  farmer  has  no  money,  and  the  ser- 


geant urges  the  latter  to  enlist.  To  obtain 
the  bonus,  Nemorino  enlists  and  thus  gets 
another  bottle  from  the  quack.  Meanwhile 
Nemorino's  uncle  has  died  and  left  him  all 
his  property,  though  he  does  not  know  it. 
The  girls  crowd  around  and  try  to  attract 
his  attention,  which  he  attributes  to  the 
elixir.  Adina's  jealousy  is  aroused,  and 
hearing,  through  Dulcamara,  of  Nemorino's 
devotion,  she  repays  the  sergeant  the  enlist- 
ment fee,  changes  her  mind,  and  gives  her 
hand  to  the   former.     The  principal  num- 


Persiani,    as   Adina. 

bers  in  the  first  act  are  the  buffo  song  by 
Dulcamara,  beginning  with  the  recitative, 
■'Udite,  udite,  o  rustici,"  and  the  duet  be- 
tween Dulcamara  and  Nemorino,  "Obbli- 
gato,  ah  !  si  obbligato."  In  the  second  act 
are  the  chorus  :  "  Cantiamo,  facciam  brin- 
disi ;  "  the  quartet,  "  Dell'  elisir  mirabile  ;  " 
the  duet  between  Adina  and  Dulcamara, 
"  Quanto  amore  !  ed  io  spietata  ;  "  and  the 
romanza  of  Nemorino,  "  Una  furtiva  lagri- 
ma."  Among  the  best  impersonators  of 
Adina  were  Fanny  Persiaui  (1812-1867)  and 


13 


ELKAMP 


Piccolomiui.  Lablaclie  was  a  noted  Dr. 
Dulcamara,  and  Nemorino  was  a  favourite 
cbai'acter  with  Mario. 

ELKAMP,  HEIXRICH,  born  at  Itzehoe, 
Holstein,  in  1812,  died  in  Hamburg  in 
1868.  Pupil  in  Hamburg  of  Clasiug  and  in 
Berlin  of  Zelter ;  then  settled  in  Hamburg 
as  a  teacher  ;  in  1842-51  he  lived  in  St. 
Petersburg,  then  returned  to  Hamburg. 
Works  :  2  oratorios.  Die  heilige  Zeit,  and 
Paulus  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ;  Songs. — ]Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Schumann,  Gesammelte  Schrif- 
ten,  i.  223. 

ELLE  NE  CROYAIT  PAS.    See  Miguon. 

ELLER,  LOUIS,  bom  at  Gratz  in  1819, 
died  at  Pau  in  August,  1862.  Violinist,  pupil 
of  Hysel ;  apj^eared  in  Vienna  in  1836.  After 
concert  tours  in  Hungary,  Croatia,  Switzer- 
land, and  France,  playing  in  Paris  in  1814, 
he  returned  home,  then  visited  Italy  and 
Southern  France,  and  settled  in  Pau  after 
travelling  over  Spain  and  Portugal  with 
Gottschalk.  Works :  Valse  diabolique  ; 
Menuet  sentimental ;  Rhapsodic  hongroise  ; 
Fantasias,  and  other  violin  music. — Fctis  ; 
Wurzbach,  iv.  23  ;  Mendel. 

ELLERTOX,  JOHN  LODGE,  born  in 
Cheshire,  England,  Jan.  11,  1807,  died  in 
London,  Jan.  3,  1873.  Amateur  composer, 
graduate  of  Oxford  (1828)  where  he  stud- 
ied music,  chiefly  composition,  and  wrote 
an  English  operetta  and  an  Italian  opera. 
He  studied  counterpoint  for  two  j-ears  in 
Rome  under  Terriani.  In  1835  and  1838 
he  took  prizes  at  the  Catch  Club  for  his 
glees  :  Fayre  is  my  love,  and.  How  beau- 
tiful is  night.  Works— Operas :  Issipile, 
given  in  Prussia,  about  1825  ;  Annibale  in 
Capua,  Andromacca,  H  Marito  a  vista  ;  Carlo 
Rosa,  German  opera ;  Dominica,  The  Bridal 
of  Triermain,  English  operas,  ib.,  about 
1830  ;  II  Carnovale  di  Venezia,  ib.,  about 
1832 ;  Berenice  in  Armenia,  II  Sacrifizio 
d'Epito,  ib.,  about  1835  ;  Lucinda,  English 
opera,  Baden-Baden,  about  1838.  Pai'a- 
dise  Lost,  oratorio  ;  G  masses  ;  6  anthems  ; 
17  motets  ;  61  glees ;  83  duets  for  different 
voices  ;  5  symphonies  for  gi-and  orchestra  ; 


4  concert-overtures  ;  3  quintets  for  two 
violins,  viola,  and  two  violoncellos  ;  44  quar- 
tets for  two  violins,  viola,  and  violoncello  ; 
3  trios  for  violin,  viola,  and  violoncello  ;  8 
do.  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  violoncello ; 
2  sonatas  for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Sonata 
for  pianoforte  and  viola  ;  do.  for  pianoforte 
and  violoncello  ;  9  do.  for  pianoforte  and 
flute.  He  was  author  also  of  a  poetical 
romance,  the  Bridal  of  Salemo  (London, 
1845),  and  of  a  poetical  legend.  The  Elixir 
of  Youth  (ib.,  1864).— FcHis  ;  Grove. 

ELOY,    ,   born    about    1400,    died 

about  middle  of  15th  century  (?).  Nothing 
of  his  history  is  known,  but  he  must  have 
preceded  Dufay,  Dunstable,  and  Binchois. 
Tinctoris  and  Gaforius  both  quote  his  mass 
Dixerunt  discipuli,  which  is  preserved 
among  the  MSS.  of  the  Vatican.  Kiese- 
wetter  published  the  Kyrie  and  the  Agnus 
in  Geschichte  der  Europ.  abendliind.  IMu- 
sik. — Futis  ;  Mendel ;  Ambros,  Geschichte 
der  Musik,  ii.  462. 

ELSBERGER  (Elsperger),  JOHANN 
CHRISTOPH  ZACHARIAS,  born  in  Ratis- 
bon  in  1736,  died  in  Sulzbach,  Feb.  1, 1790. 
He  was  at  first  cantor  of  the  Latin  school  in 
Sulzbach,  and  later  j^rivate  secretary  there. 
Works :  Der  Barbier  von  Sevilla,  opera, 
Sulzbach,  1783  ;  Church  and  instrumental 
music. — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

ELSBETH,  THOilAS,  born  at  Neustadt, 
Franconia,  and  lived  in  Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder  about  1600.  He  was  probably  also  a 
chorister  in  Liegnitz.  Works :  3  collec- 
tions of  Cantiones  sacrre  (Frankfort,  1600, 
Liegnitz,  1590,  1606)  ;  Weltliche  und  geist- 
liche  Lieder  (Frankfort,  1599,  Liegnitz, 
1607)  ;  Zwei  Theile  Sonntiiglicher  Evange- 
licn  (Liegnitz,  1616,  1621);  Geistliche  Fest- 
gesiiuge  auf  das  ganze  Jahr  (Breslau,  1624). 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  62  ;  Fetis ;  Men- 
del. 

ELSNER,  JOSEPH  XAVER,  born  at 
Grottkau,  Silesia,  June  1,  1769,  died  in 
Warsaw,  April  18,  1854.  The  son  of  a 
maker  of  musical  instruments,  he  was  des- 
tined for  medicine,  but  became  choir-boy 


u 


ELSTEIi 


and  later  violinist  and  singer  at  the  Breslau 
theatre.  He  received  Larmouy  lessons 
from  Forster  in  Breslau  ;  then  read  scores 
and  was  intimate  with  musicians  in  Vienna  ; 
and  became  first  violin  of  the  Briinu  theatre 
in  1791,  and  musical  director  of  the  theatre 
in  Lemberg  in  1792.  In  1799  he  settled  in 
Warsaw,  where  he  was  director  of  German 
and  Polish  theatres ;  and  in  1815,  with 
Princess  Zamoiska,  founded  a  music  so- 
ciety, which  was  transformed  into  the  War- 
saw Conservatory  in  1821,  when  he  left  the 
theatre  and  became  first  director  and  pro- 
fessor of  comijosition  in  the  new  institution. 
He  retired  in  1830,  when  jjolitical  troubles 
closed  the  Conservatory,  but  continued  com- 
position. During  a  visit  to  Paris  some  of 
his  works  were  performed  at  the  Tuileries 
and  Saint-Cloud.  He  may  be  regarded 
as  the  creator  of  Polish  opera.  His  oj^eras 
are  light  and  in  the  old  style  of  Paer  and 
Slayr ;  his  church  music  is  rather  dra- 
matic ;  and  his  compositions  generally 
show  ease  and  purity,  though  lack  of 
originality  and  thorough  study.  Works : 
Osoblievi  Bracia,  ojiera,  and  about  30  other 
small  dramatic  works  in  Polish  ;  Masses, 
motets,  requiems,  offertories,  and  other 
church  music  ;  Cantatas  and  many  songs  ; 
Symphonies,  quartets,  concertos,  and  much 
other  j)iauoforte  and  instrumental  music. 
The  Polish  titles  of  his  ofieras  are  given  in 
Fetis  and  Sowinski. — Sowinski,  Musiciens 
polonais,  IGG  ;  Fetis  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vi. 
70  ;  Mendel ;  Grove. 

ELSTER,  JOHANN  DANIEL,  born  at 
Benshausen,  Henneberg,  Sept.  16,  1796, 
.died  at  Wettiugen,  Canton  of  Aargau,  Dec. 
19,  18.57.  He  entered  Leijisic  University 
in  1816  ;  gave  uji  theology  for  medicine  ; 
and  after  several  years  of  adventurous  wan- 
dering, and  military  service  in  the  French 
army  and  in  Greece,  he  made  his  way  to 
Switzerland,  taught  music  in  Lenzburg  and 
Baden,  was  music  director  of  a  travelling 
theatrical  company,  and  became  music 
teacher  in  Bremgarten  and  from  1846  in  i 
Wettingen.    Works  :  Richard  uud  Blondel, 


opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Adami,  given 
in  Meiningen,  1835  ;  Songs  and  other  vocal 
music. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  v.  72  ;  Mendel ; 
Fetis  ;  Bechstein,  Fahrten  eines  Musikan- 
ten  (1837  ;  2d  ed.,  1854;  3d  ed.,  1858). 

ELVEY,    Sir    GEORGE  JOB,    born   at 
Canterbury,  England, 


March  27,  1816,  still 
Hving,  1888.  Church 
comjjoser  and  organ- 
ist, brother  and  pupil 
of  Stephen  Elvey,  hav- 
ing first  been  instruct- 
ed by  High  more 
Skeats,  organist  of 
Canterbury  C  a  t  li  e  - 
dral,  whose  son.  High- 
more  the  younger,  he  succeeded  as  organ- 
ist of  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor,  in  1835. 
Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1838  ;  Mus.  Doc,  ik, 
1840  ;  knighted,  1871.  Works  :  The  Resur- 
rection and  Ascension,  oratorio,  1838  ;  Ser- 
vices in  F  and  B-flat  ;  Anthems,  chorals, 
chants,  hymns,  psalms,  etc.  ;  Songs  ;  Or- 
gan music. — Grove. 

ELVEY,  STEPHEN,  born  in  Canterbury, 
June  27,  1805,  died  in  Oxford,  Oct.  6,  1860. 
Organist,  brother  of  Sir  George  Job  Elvey  ; 
pujiil  at  Canterbury  of  Skeats.  He  became 
organist  of  New  College,  Oxford,  in  1830  ; 
was  made  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  in  1831,  Mus. 
Doc.  in  1838  ;  and  was  choragus  of  the  uni- 
versity from  1840  until  his  death.  Works  : 
Services  ;  Anthems  ;  Psalter  and  Canticles, 
pointed  for  chanting  (London,  8vo,  6 
editions  to  1866)  ;  Hymns,  etc. — Grove  ; 
Brown. 

ELWART,  ANTOINE  ^LIE,  born  in 
Paris,  Nov.  18,  1808,  died  there,  Oct.  14, 
1877.  Dramatic  composer,  pujjil  on  the 
violin  of  Ponchard  the  elder,  and  at  the 
Conservatoire  of  Madame  de  Sainte-Ursule 
in  harmonj',  of  Fetis  in  composition,  and  of 
Lesueur.  In  1828  he  started,  with  several 
fellow  pupils,  the  Concerts  d'emulation, 
given  at  the  Conservatoire  for  six  years, 
to  give  young  composers  a  school  of  prac- 
tice.    In  1831  he  won  the  second  jirize  for 


ELZE 


composition  of  the  Institut  and  in  183i 
the  grand  piix  de  Kome.  Having  tilled 
the  jjosition  of  adjunct  professor  of  com- 
position for  two  j'ears,  he  resumed  it  on 
his  return  from  Italy  in  183G,  became  pro- 
fessor of  harmony  in  1840,  retiring  in  1871. 
Officer  of  the  Academy,  1871  ;  L.  of  Honour, 
1872  ;  Order  of  Charles  HI.  of  Spain  ; 
Prussian  Order  of  the  Red  Eagle.  "Works  : 
Les  Catalans,  opera,  given  at  Kouen,  The- 
ati-e  des  Arts,  1840  ;  La  reine  de  Saba,  Les 
chercheurs  d'or,  operas,  not  performed  ; 
Choruses  and  instrumental  music  to  Alces- 
tis  ;  Noe,  ou  Le  deluge  imiversel,  oratorio- 
symphony  in  four  parts,  Paris,  1845  ;  La 
naissance  d'five,  oratorio,  ib.,  1846  ;  Les 
noces  de  Cana,  mystery  for  soli,  chorus, 
and  orchestra  ;  Ruth  et  Booz,  vocal  sym- 
phony ;  Le  salut  imperial,  cantata  ;  Le  pou- 
voir  de  I'harmonie,  do.  ;  Hymne  a  la  beaute, 
do.  ;  Pas  d'orchestre,  choral  oj)eretta  ;  Pe- 
nelope, lyrical  scene  ;  Bichat,  choral  scene  ; 
Masses  for  two,  three,  four,  and  five  voices, 
with  and  without  organ  or  orchestra  ;  Mo- 
tets ;  Symphonies  ;  Overtures  ;  Quintets, 
quartets,  and  trios  for  string  instruments  ; 
Cboruses  for  male  voices,  etc.  He  was  the 
author  of  many  theoretical  and  didactic 
works,  including  :  "  Petit  mauuel  d'harmo- 
nie,  etc."  (1839) ;  "  Traite  du  contrepoint  et 
de  la  fugue  "  (1840)  ;  "  Essai  de  transposi- 
tion musicals  "  (1840)  ;  "  Le  Chanteur  ac- 
compagnateur"(1844) ;  "L'Harmonie  musi- 
cale  "  (1853),  etc.  He  wrote  also  "  Histoire 
des  Concerts  populaires,"  and  "  Histoire  de 
la  Societe  des  Concerts  du  Conservatoire  " 
(18()0). — Fetis,  iii.  135  ;  Supplement,  i. 
304  ;  Mendel,  iii.  355  ;  Ergimz.,  07  ;  Rie- 
mann  ;  Grove. 

ELZE,  CLEilENS  THEODOR,  born  at 
Oranienbaum,  Anhalt-Dessau,  in  1830,  still 
living,  1888.  Organist,  pupil  of  his  father, 
of  F.  Schneider,  and  at  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatorium  of  Moscheles,  Dreyschock,  and 
Plaidy  for  pianoforte  ;  of  David  for  violin, 
and  of  Hanptmann  for  composition.  He 
became  an  organist  and  a  teacher  in  Lay- 
bach  in  1852.    Works :  Symphonies  ;  Cham- 


ber music  ;  Songs. — Mendel  ;  Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  304  ;  Schuberth,  125. 

EMERSON,  LUTHER  ORL.\NDO,  born, 
of  American  parentage,  in  Parsonsfield, 
Mass.,  Aug.  3,  1820,  still  livhig,  1888. 
Conductor  of  many  musical  conventions 
held  throughout  the  United  States,  and 
church  composer.  His  first  work.  The 
Romberg  Collection  (1853),  was  followed 
by  a  book  of  Sundaj'-school  music,  The 
Golden  Wreath  (1857),  of  which  more  than 
300,000  were  sold.  Among  his  other  col- 
lections are  :  The  Golden  Harp  (1860) ;  The 
Sabbath  Harmony  (18G0)  ;  The  Harp  of 
Judah  (1863)  ;  Merry  Chimes  (1865)  ;  Ju- 
bilate (1866)  ;  Chorus  Wreath. 

E:\IERY,  STEPHEN  ALBERT,  born,  of 
American  parentage,  in  Paris,  Oxford  Co., 
Maine,  Oct.  4,  1841,  still  living,  1888.  Pi- 
anist, pupil  on  the  pianoforte  and  in  har- 
mony of  Henry  S.  Edwards,  Portland, 
Maine  ;  went  to  Europe  in  1862  and  stud- 
ied the  pianoforte  rmder  Louis  Plaidy  and 
Robert  Papperitz  ;  harmony  and  counter- 
point luider  Papperitz,  E.  F.  Richter,  and 
Moritz  Hanptmann  in  Leipsic,  and  the 
IDianoforte  under  Fritz  Spindler  in  Dres- 
den. He  returned  to  Portland,  Maine,  in 
1864,  removed  to  Boston  in  1866,  and  was 
engaged  in  1867  by  the  New  England  Con- 
servatory of  Music  when  that  institution 
was  opened  ;  and  on  the  founding  of  the 
College  of  Music  of  Boston  University,  he 
was  appointed  professor  of  harmony  and 
counterpoint,  which  j)ositions  he  still  holds. 
He  is  assistant  editor  of  the  Musical  Her- 
ald. Works  :  Songs  ;  Part-songs  ;  String 
quartets  ;  Sonatinas,  and  other  music  for 
the  jnanoforte.  He  is  the  author  also  of 
Foundation  Studies  in  Pianoforte  Playing, 
and.  Elements  of  Harmony. 

EMMA  DI  RESBURGO,  Italian  opera 
seria,  music  by  Meyerbeer,  represented  in 
Venice,  1819.  Produced  at  a  time  when 
Rossini  was  becoming  famous,  this  work 
met  with  good  success  in  Italy,  but  it  was 
coolly  received  in  Berlin  and  led  to  Meyer- 
beer's going  to  Paris.     It  was,  however,  after- 


16 


EMMERICH 


wards  translated  into  German  and  success- 
fully jjlayed  under  the  title  of  Emma  von 
Leicester. 

EMMEEICH,  EGBERT,  born  at  Hanau, 
Hesse-Nassau,  July  23,  183G,  still  living, 
1888.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Tlic- 
odor  Stauffer  and  of  Albert  Dietrich.  He 
is  most  favourably  known  by  his  songs. 
Works  :  Der  Schwedonsee,  oi)era,  given  at 
Weimar,  1874;  Van  Dyck,  do.,  Stettin, 
1875  ;  Symphonies  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ; 
Songs  and  part-songs. — Kiemann. 

EMMERT,  ADAM  JGSEPH,  born  at 
Wiirzburg,  Dec.  24,  17G.5,  died  in  Vienna, 
Ajjril  11,  1812.  Dramatic  composer,  sou 
of  Joseph  Emmert.  He  held  an  oiBcial  posi- 
tion in  the  archives  of  Salzburg  and  Vienna, 
and,  though  not  a  professional  musician, 
wrote  operas  and  other  music.  Works  : 
Don  Silvio  de  Rosalba,  opera,  given  at  Ans- 
pach,  1801  ;  Der  Sturm,  do.,  Salzburg, 
180G  ;  Cantata  for  four  voices  and  orchestra, 
ib.,  1799  ;  Te  Deum  (ib.,  1797)  ;  IG  Ger- 
man dances  for  pianoforte  (ib.,  1798)  ; 
Pieces  for  two  horns  and  bassoon  ;  do.  for 
two  clarinets,  two  horns,  and  two  bassoons 
(il).,  1799).— Fctis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling  ; 
Wurzbach. 

EMaiERT,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Kitzingen, 
Franconia,  Nov.  27,  1732,  died  at  Wiirz- 
burg, Feb.  20,  1809.  Dramatic  composer, 
appointed  school  rector  at  Schilliugsfiirst 
in  17G0,  and  rector  of  the  Latin  school  of 
St.  Burkhardt  and  choral  director  of  the 
uuiversitj'  in  Wiirzburg  in  1773.  Retired, 
with  the  title  of  Kapellmeister,  in  1790. 
Works  :  Semiramis,  Tomyris,  Eberhardt, 
operas  (in  manuscript)  ;  Esther,  Judith, 
oratorios  (do.)  ;  Several  cantatas  (do.)  ; 
Latin  and  German  masses ;  Vespers  ;  Mis- 
erere ;  Te  Deum  ;  do.  (Salzburg,  1797) ; 
Psalmodia  vespertina,  etc.  (Augsburg,  17G6); 
Choralbuch  (Wiirzburg). — Fetis  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

EMPEROR  CONCERTO,  THE,  a  title 
commonly  but  improj^erly  given  to  Beet- 
hoven's fifth  pianoforte  concerto  in  E-flat, 
op.  75. 


EMPEROR'S  HYMN,  THE.  See  Gotl 
erhalte  Franz  den  Kaiser. 

ENCHANTRESS,  THE,  English  comic 
oi^era  in  four  acts,  text  by  Alfred  Bunn, 
music  by  Balfe,  represented  at  Drury  Lane 
Theatre,  London,  Sept.  27,  1845.  The 
character  of  the  pirate  queen  was  sustained 
by  Madam  Anna  Thillon,  who  sang  it  also 
in  New  York,  at  the  Astor  Place  Opera 
House,  Aug.  30,  1852. 

EN  CHASSE  !  LE  JOUR  EST  LEVE. 
See  Le  Pardon  de  Ploermel. 

ENCKE,  HEINRICH,  born  at  Neustadt, 
Bavaria,  in  1811,  died  at  Leipsic,  Dec.  31, 
1859.  Pianist,  pupil  of  Hummel  at  Wei- 
mar, then  lived  at  Jena  and  Leipsic,  much 
esteemed  as  a  teacher.  Among  his  com- 
positions the  instructive  works  for  the  pi- 
anoforte may  claim  the  greatest  merit,  and 
his  arrangements  for  pianoforte  (4  hands) 
of  classical  orchestral  and  chamber  music 
are  of  acknowledged  excellence. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

ENCKHAUSEN,  HEINRICH  FRIED- 
EICH,  born  in  Celle,  Aug.  28,  1799,  died 
in  Hanover,  Jan.  15,  1885.  Organist, 
learned  several  instruments  from  his  father  ; 
entered  a  military  band  in  181G,  and  in 
1826  studied  under  Aloys  Schmitt  in  Ber- 
lin and  Hanover,  succeeding  his  teacher  in 
1829  as  court  organist  and  director  of  the 
Singakademie  of  Hanover  ;  also  court  pi- 
anist. Works  :  Der  Savoyard,  opera,  Han- 
over, 1832  ;  Church  music  ;  Pianoforte  mu- 
sic.— Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling  ;  Schumann, 
Gesammelte  Sehriften,  i.  29G. 

ENDTER,  CHRISTIAN  FRIEDEICH, 
born  in  Hamburg  in  1728,  died  in  Buxte- 
Imde,  May  26,  1793.  Organist,  pupil  of 
Pfeiffer  in  Hamburg ;  became  organist  in 
Buxtehude  in  1746  and  of  the  Lutheran 
Church  of  Altona  in  175G.  Works:  Canta- 
tas ;  Songs. — Schilling  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

ENFANCE  DU  CHRIST,  L'  (The  In- 
fancy of  Christ),  a  sacred  trilogy,  for  solo 
voices,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Berlioz, 
op.  25,  first  i^erformed  in  Paris,  at  the  Salle 
Herz,  Dec.  10,  1854,  under  the  composer's 


17 


ENFANT 


direction.  It  consists  of  tbree  parts  :  I.  Le 
songe  d'Herode  (Herod's  Dream)  ;  11.  La 
fuite  eu  £gvpte  (The  Flight  into  Egypt)  ; 
III.  L'arrivue  a  Sais  (Tlie  Arrival  at  Sais). 
— Jiillien,  Hector  Berlioz  (1881),  113  ;  do. 
(1888),  221,  378  ;  M.  J.  d'Ortigue,  La  mu- 
sique  a  I't-glise,  196. 

ENFANT  PRODIGUE,  L'  (The  Prodigal 
Son),  opera  in  five  acts,  text  by  Scribe, 
music  by  Auber,  represented  at  the  Aca- 
demic Nationale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Dec. 
6,  1850  ;  in  Italian,  as  II  Prodigo,  at  Her 
Majesty's  Theatre,  London,  June  12,  1851. 
The  author  of  the  libretto  has  taken  so 
many  liberties  with  the  Bible  story  that 
it  is  scai'ceh'  recognizable.  Azarl,  the  only 
son  of  a  poor  old  man,  leaves  the  paternal 
roof  and  his  betrothed  Jephtele  for  a  life  of 
pleasure  in  the  city  of  Memjihis.  He  is 
ruined  by  gaming,  by  the  courtesan  Nephte, 
and  by  the  dancer  Lia.  He  penetrates  into 
the  temjile  of  Isis  where  the  mysteries  are 
celebrating,  and  the  Egyptians  make  him 
expiate  the  sacrilege  by  throwing  him  into 
the  Nile.  Saved  by  the  leader  of  a  caravan, 
he  is  reduced  to  watching  the  flocks,  but 
eventually  finds  his  way  home  and  is  for- 
given. There  are  some  picturesque  scenes 
in  the  opera,  such  as  the  passage  of  the  car- 
avan and  the  procession  of  the  bull  Apis. 

ENFANT  TROITV^fi,  L'.     See  Fmx. 

ENGEDI.     See  Chrislus  am  Oelberg. 

ENGEL,  DAVID  HERMANN,  born  at 
Neu-Ruppiu,  Brandenburg,  Jan.  22,  1816, 
died  at  Merseburg,  May  3,  1877.  Dramatic 
composer  and  organist,  pupil  of  Wilke  on 
the  organ,  then  at  Des.sau  (1835-37)  of 
Friedrich  Schneider,  and  at  Breslau  of 
Adolf  Hesse.  After  his  return  to  Neu-Rup- 
pin  in  1839  he  devoted  himself  to  compo- 
sition, but  went  in  1811  to  Berlin,  where 
he  taught  music,  and  studied  singing  under 
Teschner.  In  1848  he  was  appointed  or- 
ganist of  the  cathedral  at  ^Merseburg,  and 
instructor  of  singing  at  the  Domgymna- 
sium.  For  his  Choralbuch  he  received  the 
great  gold  medal  for  art  and  science,  and 
for  his  meiits  in  general  the  title  of  royal 


director  of  music.  He  was  also  an  able 
writer  on  his  art.  Works  :  Prinz  Carneval, 
comic  opera,  given  in  Berlin,  1862  ;  Boui- 
facius,  oratorio  ;  many  compositions  for 
oi-gan  and  pianoforte,  psalms,  songs,  etc. 
—Mendel. 

ENGELSBERG,  E.  S.,  born  at  Engels- 
berg,  Austrian  Silesia,  in  1825,  died  at 
Deutsch-JasnLk,  ib.,  Aj)ril  28,  1879.  Real 
name  Eduard  Schon.  He  was  chief  of  a 
department  in  the  ministry  of  finances  in 
Vienna,  and  under  the  above  pseudonym 
wrote  many  popular  choruses  for  male 
voices,  which  made  his  name  a  household 
word  with  German  singing  societies  all 
over  the  world. 

ENGLERT,  ANTON,  born  at  Schwein- 
furt,  Bavaria,  Nov.  4,  1674,  died  there  after 
1729.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Kiihnau, 
Schade,  and  Strunck  at  Leipsic,  where  he 
studied  theology.  In  1697  he  became  can- 
tor in  his  native  city,  about  1717  co-rector 
of  the  Gymnasium,  in  1729  rector,  and  at 
the  same  time  organist  of  the  cathedral. 
About  1697  he  published  several  volumes 
of  his  compositions,  mostly  religious,  which 
bear  witness  to  his  thorough  musical  knowl- 
edge.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

ENGLISH  SUITES  (Ger.,  Englische  Sui- 
ten),  6  large  suites  for  clavier,  by  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach.  Suite  I.  A  major  ;  H.  A 
minor ;  HI.  G  minor  ;  TV.  F  major  ;  V.  E 
minor  ;  VI.  D  minor.  Published  by  the 
Bach-Gesellschaft,  Clavier werke,  vol.  ii.  1. 

ENICELIUS,  TOBIAS,  born  at  Leskow, 
Bohemia,  about  1655,  died  ('?).  He  was  can- 
tor in  Flensburg  about  1655,  then  went  to 
Timningen  in  the  same  capacity,  and  in 
1660  to  Hamburg.  He  composed  a  can- 
tata and  music  to  Opitz's  Epistles. — Men- 
del ;  Fi'tis  ;  Mattheson,  Ehren-Pforte,  59. 

ENNELIN,  SfiBASTIEN,  born  at  or 
near  Saint-Queutin  about  1650  or  1655, 
died  after  1719.  Church  composer,  at  first 
chorister  in  the  maitrise  of  Saint-Quentin, 
and  in  1680  succeeded  Antoiue  Gras  as 
choir  director  of  Saint-Louis'  chapel.  Works 
— in  manuscript  in  the  library  of  the  coi- 


ls 


ENNO 


legiale  of  Saiiit-Quentin,  vol.  i.  (1709)  :  8 
Siilve  Eegiua  for  four  and  six  voices ;  i 
Alma  Redemptoris  ;  4  Ave  Regina  ;  2  In- 
violata ;  3  Regiua  cceli ;  Pie  Jesu  ;  Maria 
mater  gratije,  mass  for  four  voices  ;  Do- 
mine,  quinque  talenta,  motet  for  do.  Vol. 
ii.  (1714)  :  Requiem  mass  for  five  voices  ; 
Audi,  benigue  Christe,  qui  lux  es  et  dies, 
Vexilla  regis,  Da  pacem,  Lenten  hymns. 
Vol.  iii.  (1718) :  15  O  salutaris,  for  five 
voices  ;  Four  masses  for  four,  and  one  mass 
for  three  voices. — Fetis. 

ENNO,  SEBASTL4.no,  Italian  composer, 
living  in  the  middle  of  the  17th  century. 
He  published  Ariose  cautate,  libro  primo 
e  secondo  (Venice,  1G55). — Fe-tis  ;  Mendel  ; 
Schilling. 

ENRICO,  CONTE  DI  BORGOGNA,  Ital- 
ian opera,  music  by  Donizetti,  represented 
at  the  Teatro  San  Luca,  Venice,  1818. 
This,  Donizetti's  first  opera,  met  with  such 
success  that  he  was  commissioned  to  write 
another  one  for  the  same  city. 

ENRICO,  DETTO  IL  LEONE  (Henry 
the  Lion),  Italian  opera,  text  by  Hortensio 
Mauro,  music  by  Agostino  Stett'ani,  repre- 
sented in  Brunswick,  1689.  A  German  ver- 
sion, Heiurich  der  Lijwe,  by  Fiedler,  was 
given  in  Hamburg,  1696.  The  subject  of 
the  libretto  is  Henry  the  Lion,  Duke  of 
Saxony  and  Bavaria  and  head  of  the  House 
of  Guelph,  Frederick  Barbarossa's  warlike 
antagonist  in  the  twelfth  century 

ENTFESSELTE  PROJIETHEUS,  DER 
(Prometheus  Unbound),  Choruses  to  Her- 
der's poem,  by  Franz  Liszt.  Instrumental 
introduction  :  The  symphonic  poem  Prome- 
theus. No.  1.  Chor  der  Oceaniden,  for  fe- 
male voices  ;  No.  2.  Chor  der  Tritonen,  for 
mixed  voices  ;  No.  3.  Chor  der  Dryaden,  for 
female  voices  ;  No.  4.  Chor  der  Schnitter, 
for  mixed  voices  ;  No.  5.  Chor  der  Winzer, 
for  male  voices  and  solo  ;  No.  6.  Chor  der 
Unterirdischen,  for  male  voices  ;  No.  7. 
Chor  der  Unsichtharen,  do. ;  No.  8.  Schluss- 
Chor  (Chor  der  ISIusen),  for  mixed  voices. 

ENTFUHRUNG  AUS  DEJkl  SERAIL, 
DIE   (The   Elopement   from    the   Harem), 


comic  Singspiel  in  three  acts,  test  by  Gottlob 
Stephanie,  adapted  from  Bretzner's  Bel- 
monte  und  Constanze,  music  by  Mozart,  first 
represented  at  the  Nationaltheater,  Vienna, 
July  12,  1782.  This  work,  written  when 
Mozart  was  twenty-six  years  old,  was  the 
beginning  of  a  form  of  romantic  opera  in 
which  the  style  and  aria  of  the  Italian  opera 
buft'a  was  united  with  the  style,  Lied,  and 
dialogue  of  the  German  Singspiel,  a  form 
afterwards  repeated  on  a  grander  scale  in 
Die  ZauberflOte.  Its  production  led  to  a 
paper  war  between  the  librettists  Stephanie 
and  Bretzner,  during  which  Andre,  the 
composer    of    Belmonte    und    Constanze, 


Minna  Peschka-Leutner. 

took  the  side  of  Stephanie,  notwith- 
standing that  he  had  aided  Mozart  in  pro- 
ducing an  opera  which  virtually  supplanted 
his  own.  Mozart's  work  was  produced  in 
Paris  first,  at  the  Lycee  des  Arts,  Sept.  26, 
1798  ;  again  in  1801  and  1830  ;  and  in 
French,  as  L'enltvement  au  serail,  text  by 
Prosper  Pascal,  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique, 
May  11,  1859.  It  was  given  in  English  as 
The  Seraglio,  "  with  additional  airs  by  Mr. 
Kramer,"  at  Covent  Garden,  London,  Nov. 
24,  1827.  The  action  passes  in  the  harem 
of  Selim  Pacha,  where  are  a  Spanish  girl 
Constanze,  her  maid  Blondchen,  and  a  valet 
Pedrillo,  all  under  the  charge  of  Osmin, 
guardian  of  the  harem.  Belmonte,  the  lover 
of  Constanze,  penetrates  into  the  harem  in 


19 


EN 


liope  of  effecting  bis  mistress's  release.  Pe- 
drillo  tries  to  aid  bim  by  drugging  Osmiii's 
wine,  but  tbe  wily  guardian  sees  tbrougb 
bis  design  and  exposes  tbe  plot.  Tbe  con- 
spirators are  about  to  suffer  tbe  penalty  of 
tbeir  acts  wben  tbe  Pacba  discovers  in  Bel- 
monte  a  citizen  of  Burgos  wbo  once  saved 
bis  life,  and  gives  tbem  all  tbeir  freedom. 
Tbe  original  cast  in  Vienna  was  as  follows : 

Constanze  (S.) Mle  Cavalieri. 

Blondcben  (S.) Mile  Tayber. 

Osmin  (B  ) M.  Fiscber. 

Belmonte  (T.) M.  Adamberger. 

Pedrillo  (T.) M.  Dauer. 

A  favourite  Constanze  of  later  times  is  Mme 
Pescbka-Lcutner  (born  in  Vienna,  18.39), 
wbose  portrait  is  given. — Hauslick,  Moilerne 
Oper,  51  ;  Jabn  ;  Naumann  (Ousoley),  ii. 
894. 

EN  VAIN  J'ESPJ^EE.  See  lloberl  le 
Diable. 

ENVY,  ELDEST  BORN  OF  HELL, 
cborus  in  E-flat  in  Handel's  Saul,  Part  H.  ; 
one  of  tbe  composer's  most  famous  cbor- 
uses. 

i^:pisode  de  la  \t:e  d'un  artiste 

(Episode  in  tbe  Life  of  an  Artist),  tbe  title 
of  Hector  Berlioz's  opus  14,  tbe  first  part  of 
wbicb  is  tbe  sympbonie  fantastique,  and 
tbe  second,  tbe  lyric  monodrama,  Lelio,  ou 
le  Retour  a  la  Vie  (tbe  Return  to  Life). 
Tbe  sympbonie  fantastique,  in  C  major,  tbe 
composer's  first  great  sympbony,  is  a  piece 
of  so-called  programme-music  descriptive  of 
tbe  dream  of  a  young  composer  wbo  bas 
tried  to  poison  bimself  witb  opium  in  a  tit 
of  disappointed  love.  Tbe  beloved  object 
ajjpears  to  bim  in  tbe  guise  of  a  melody, 
wbicb  Berlioz  calls  I'ldee  fixe  (tbe  fixed 
idea),  and  wbicb  is  treated  tbematically  or 
episodicall}-,  in  eacb  one  of  tbe  five  move- 
ments of  tbe  sympbony.  Tbis  idee  fixe  is 
interesting  bistoricallj-,  as  tbe  first  instance 
in  music  of  wbat  Wagner  afterwards  termed 
tbe  Leitmotiv.  Tbe  beadings  of  tbe  five 
movements  are  :  1.  Reveries,  Passions  ;  2. 
Uu  Bal ;  3.  Scene  aux  Cbamps  ;  4.  Marcbe 


au  Supplice ;  5.  Songe  d'une  Nuit  de  Sab- 
bat. Tbe  monodrama  of  Lelio,  a  spoken 
monologue  witb  incidental  music  for  solo 
voices,  cborus,  and  orcbestra,  sbows  us  tbe 
young  composer  after  awaking  from  bis 
dream  ;  be  meditates  upon  love  and  art,  at 
lengtb  arousing  bimself  to  seek  consola- 
tion in  tbe  exercise  of  bis  art.  Tbe  scene 
cbanges,  and  be  ajjpears  at  tbe  bead  of  a 
cborus  and  orcbestra,  conducting  tbe  last 
rebearsal  of  bis  own  Fautaisie  dramatique 
sur  la  Tempete  de  Sbakspeare,  a  cantata 
for  cborus  and  orcbestra  witb  wbicb,  and  a 
last  return  of  tbe  Idee  fixe,  tbe  work  closes. 
Tbe  entii'e  Episode  is  but  the  exjjression  of 
Berlioz's  love  for  Henrietta  Sniitbson,  wbom 
be  afterwards  married,  and  Camilla  Moke, 
afterwards  Slme  Pleyel.  Tlie  Fantasie  sur 
la  Tempete  was  first  given  separately  at  tbe 
Paris  Opera  in  1829  ;  tbe  Sympbonie  Fau- 
fastique  at  tbe  Conseiwatoire  in  1830  ;  and 
tbe  entire  work,  witb  Bocage  in  tbe  part  of 
Lelio,  at  tbe  Conservatoire  on  Dec.  11, 1832. 
Tbe  score  of  tbe  Sympbonie  Fantastique, 
and  a  masterly  ti-auscrijition  by  Liszt  for 
pianoforte  solo  arc  pviblisbed  by  Brandus 
(Paris)  ;  tbe  full  and  pianoforte  scores  of 
liClio,  by  Ricbault  (Paris). — Scbumann  (Rit- 
ter),  Music  and  Musicians,  1st  series,  228  ; 
E.  Hippeau,  Berlioz  Intime,  244  ;  Georges 
Noufflard,  Hector  Berlioz,  44  ;  Jullieu,  Ber- 
Uoz  (1888),  50  ;  Atlantic  Montbly,  xli.  32. 

fiPREUVE  VILLAGEOISE,  L'  (Tbe  Vil- 
lage Test),  vaudeville  in  two  acts,  text  by 
Desforges,  music  by  Gretry,  represented  at 
tbe  Tbeatre  Italien,  Paris,  June  24,  1784. 
Tbe  subject  is  an  episode  of  Theodore  et 
Paulin,  an  unsuccessful  lyric  comedy  in 
three  acts,  by  tbe  same  authors,  given  at 
tbe  ItaHens,  Marcb  18,  1784.  In  its  new 
form  tbe  work  proved  a  dramatic  success. 
It  was  revived  at  tbe  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
in  1888. 

ERBA,  Don  DIONIGI,  Italian  composer, 
end  of  tbe  17tb  century.  Lived  in  Milan  ; 
was  of  noble  family  and  took  boly  orders. 
Works :  Arion,  opera  (witb  Valtelliua),  1G94  ; 
Ai-temio,  oj)era   (witb  Besozzi  and  Battes- 


so 


EKBA 


tiiii),  1695  ;  and  probably  a  Magnificat  for 
two  choirs,  from  which  Handel  is  tliought 
to  have  borrowed  several  pieces  in  the 
second  part  of  Israel  in  Egypt. — Grove  ; 
Gerber  ;  Chrysander,  G.  F.  Handel,  i.  168. 

ERBA,  GIORGIO,  violinist  and  com- 
poser. Originally  from  Milan,  he  was  li^•iug■ 
in  Rome  about  1730.  Some  of  his  violin 
sonatas  have  survived. — Mendel  ;  Futis  ; 
Gerber. 

ERBACH  (Erbacher),  CHRISTIAN,  born 
at  Algesheim  in  the  Palatinate  about  1560, 
died  (?).  He  was  organist,  about  1600,  to 
Marcus  Fugger  in  Augsburg,  later  to  the 
cathedral  there,  and  in  1628  a  member  of  the 
cily  counciL  His  manuscrijjt  compositions 
are  in  the  Augsburg  Cathedral  Library  and 
Berlin  Royal  Library.  Works  :  Cantiones 
sacrffi  (Augsburg,  1600,  1603,  1604,  1611) ; 
Acht  geistliche  deutsche  Lieder  (ib.)  ;  Songs 
in  contemporary  collections. — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  vi.  181  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Fetis. 

ERBARME  DICH,  MEIN  GOTT,  aria  in 
B  minor  for  the  alto  of  Core  I.,  with  ac- 
companiment of  violin  solo,  strings  com- 
plete, and  contiuuo,  in  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach's  Passion  nach  IMatthiius,  Part  H. 

ERDMANNSDORFER,  MAX,  born  at 
Nuremberg,  June  14,  181-8,  still  living,  1888. 
Pianist  and  violinist,  first  instructed  by  his 
father  and  by  August  Raab,  then  at  the 
Conservatorium,  Leipsic  (1863-67),  pupil  of 
Moscheles  and  Reinecke  on  the  pianoforte, 
of  David  and  Dreyschock  on  the  violin,  and 
of  Hauptmann,  Ricbter,  and  Reinecke  in 
theory  ;  finally  in  Dresden  (1868-69)  pupil 
of  Rietz.  In  1871  he  became  Hof-Kapell- 
lueister  to  the  Prince  of  Schwarzburg,  at 
Sondershausen,  where  he  actively  promoted 
the  production  of  the  best  modern  compo- 
sitions, and  raised  the  already  high  stand- 
ard of  this  renowned  orchestra.  He  re- 
signed his  i^osition  in  1880,  then  lived  in 
Vienna,  Leipsic,  and  Nuremberg,  and  in 
1882  was  appointed  artistic  director  of  the 
Imperial  Music  Society,  and  professor  at 
the  Conservatorium  in  Moscow.  Works : 
Prinzessin  Use,  Waldsage  (forest  legend)  for 


soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  1870  ;  Schnee- 
wittcheu,  for  do.,  1873  ;  TraumkOnig  und 
sein  Lieb,  for  soprano,  female  chorus,  and 
small  orchestra ;  Des  Kaiserheeres  Rom- 
fahrt,  for  male  chorus  and  orchestra  ;  Over- 
ture to  Prinzessin  Use,  for  orchestra  ;  do.  to 
Brachvogel's  drama  Narciss ;  Trio  fur  piano- 
forte and  strings  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte  and 
violin  ;  Albumbliitter,  for  do. ;  5  choruses 
for  male  voices,  a  cappella,  op.  26  ;  Reise- 
bilder,  for  pianoforte  ;  Nordseebilder,  for 
do.  (four hands);  Songs. — Mus.  Wochenblatt 
(1879),  453,  407,  478. 

ERE  LONG  DEATH.  See  Puritans 
Daughter. 

EREjVHTA,  GIULIO,  born  in  Ferrara 
about  1550,  died  about  1600.  Organist  ; 
real  name  Giulio  Giusberti,  but  called  Ere- 
mita,  because  he  belonged  to  the  order  of 
Camaldolite  Eremites.  Works :  Primo  libro 
de'madrigali  a  6  voci  (Ferrara,  1584;  Antwerp 
1600)  ;  Madrigali  a  cinque,  lib.  i.  (Venice, 
1597)  ;  11  secondo  libro  de'  madrigali  a  cin- 
que (ib.,  1599).  His  madrigals  are  also  in 
Italian  and  Flemish  collections,  such  as  : 
Melodia  olympica  (Pierre  Philipps,  Ant- 
werp, 1594)  ;  Trionfo  di  Dori  (Venice,  1596  ; 
Antwerp,  1596,  1601,  1014)  ;  II  Paradiso 
musicale  (Venice,  1595  ;  Antwerp,  1596)  ; 
Madrigali  di  diversi  eccellenti  e  famosi 
autori  (Antwerp,  1595)  ;  and  in  the  collec- 
tions of  Schad,  Bodenschatz,  and  Domfri- 
dus. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

ERFURT,  KARL,  born  at  Magdeburg  in 
1807,  still  living,  1888.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Miihling  at  Magdeburg,  where  for  many 
years  he  taught  music,  until  called  to  Hil- 
desheim  as  musical  director.  He  has  com- 
posed more  than  fifty  works  for  pianoforte, 
and  songs. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

ER  GEHT  UND  LASST  DICH  MEINEM 
SCHUTZ.     See  Hicvzi. 

ERHEBE  DICH,  GENOSSIN  MEINER 
SCHMACH.     See  Lohengrin. 

ERINNYES,  LES  (The  Furies),  antique 
drama  in  two  parts,  text  by  Leconte  de 
Lisle,  after  the  "Orestes"  of  iEschylus, 
music  by  Jules  Massenet,  represented  at  the 


Si. 


ERK 


Odc'on,  Paris,  Jan.  6,  1873.  The  incidental 
music  of  this  tragedy,  as  first  performed, 
was  composed  of  au  introduction,  two  inter- 
ludes, and  a  melodrama.  On  its  reproduc- 
tion at  the  Oj^era  National,  May  15,  1876, 
the  music  was  more  developed,  with  some 
additions  and  new  instrumentation,  but 
the  effect  was  not  increased. — Clement  et 
Larousse,  845. 

EllK,  LUDA\1G  CHRISTIAN,  born  in 
"Wetzlar,  Jan.  G,  1807,  died  in  Berlin,  Nov. 
25,  1883.  Sou  and  pupil  of  Adam  Wil- 
helm  Erk  (1779-1820),  and  pupil  of  J.  B. 
Spiess,  L.  Eeinwald,  and  A.  Andre.  He 
became  a  teacher  in  the  seminary  of  Meurs 
in  1829  ;  started  musical  festivals  at  Eem- 
scheid  and  other  towns  ;  was  called  in  1835 
to  the  Royal  Seminai'y  for  City  Schools  in 
Berlin,  where  he  led  the  liturgic  choir  of 
the  cathedral  in  183G,  but  gave  it  up  in 
1838  for  want  of  support.  In  1836-38  he 
was  a  teacher  in  the  family  of  Prince  Karl 
of  Prussia  ;  in  1843  he  founded  a  Miiuuer- 
gesangverein ;  in  1852  a  Gesangverein  for 
mixed  chorus ;  in  1857  became  musical  di- 
rector ;  and  in  1877  retired  from  the  Ber- 
lin Seminary.  Besides  his  own  compo- 
sitions, he  published  many  collections. 
Works  :  Liederkranz,  Singvogelein,  Deut- 
scher  Liedergarten,  Musikalischer  Jugend- 
freund,  Siingerhain,  Siona,  Sangesbliithen, 
Volksklunge,  Deutscher  Liederhort,  Deut- 
scher  Liederschatz,  Turuliederbuch,  and 
many  other  collections  of  jjopular  songs, 
amounting  to  about  forty,  and  mentioned 
more  fully  hj  Mendel,  some  of  them  in 
conjunction  with  his  brothel',  Friedrich 
Albrecht  Erk,  and  his  brother-in-law,  W. 
Greet. — Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Riemauu  ;  Schil- 
ling, Supplement,  118. 

ERKEL,  FERENCZ,  born  at  Gyula, 
Hungary,  Nov.  7,  1810,  still  living,  1888. 
Pianist  and  dramatic  composer,  first  in- 
structed by  his  father,  who  was  an  able 
amateur  musician.  ^Yhen  twenty-four  he  be- 
came musical  director  of  the  opera  company 
at  Kaschau,  and  with  it  went  to  Buda  ;  at 
the   opening   of   the   National   Theatre   at 


Pesth,  in  1837,  he  was  appointed  its  Kapell- 
meister, and  afterwards  received  the  title 
of  director  general  of  music,  having  won 
great  distinction  as  the  creator  of  an  ex- 
cellent orchestra,  and  as  conductor  and  com- 
poser. His  numerous  songs,  in  which  the 
character  of  national  melodies  is  hapjiily 
blended  with  the  requirements  of  the  more 
elevated  modem  style,  but  especially  his 
operas,  have  made  him  extremely  popular 
in  Huugarj-.  Among  the  latter,  Hunyady 
Laszlo  obtained  the  greatest  success,  and 
may  preeminently  be  considered  the  na- 
tional opera  of  Hungary,  although  Bank 
Ban  is  probably  his  master  work.  In  18GS, 
when  he  conducted  the  great  Hungarian 
music  festival  at  Debreczin,  he  was  made 
honorary  director  for  lifetime  of  all  the 
singing  societies  of  Hungary.  Works — 
Operas :  Bathory  M;uia,  given  at  Pesth, 
1840  ;  Hunyady  Laszlo,  National  Theatre, 
1844  ;  Erzst'bet,  ib.,  1857 ;  Kunok,  ib.,  1858  ; 
Bank  Bi'in,  ib.,  1861  ;  Sarolta,  ib.,  18G2 ; 
Dozsa  GyOrgy,  ib.,  1867  ;  Brankovics  Gy- 
Orgy,  ib.,  1874  ;  King  Stephen,  ib.,  1874. 
— Wurzbach. 

ERiaiNNE  MICH,  IMEIN  HUTER, 
choral  to  the  melody  "  0  Haupt  voll  Blut 
und  Wunden,"  in  E  major,  in  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  Passion  nach  Matthiius, 
Part  I. 

EEL.ANGER,  JULES,  born  at  Weissen- 
burg,  Alsace,  June  25, 1830,  still  living,  1887. 
Pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  of  Hale- 
vy.  After  publishing  pianoforte  music  and 
bringing  out  several  operettas  in  Paris,  he 
devoted  himself  to  business.  Works : 
L'Ai'bre  de  Robinson,  operette  in  one  act, 
Boufies  Parisiens,  Oct.  19,  1857 ;  Mes- 
dames  de  cceur  volant,  ib.,  April  16,  1859  ; 
Les  musiciens  de  I'orchestre,  opera-bouSe 
in  two  acts  (with  Delibes),  ib.,  Jan.  25, 
1861 ;  La  servante  a  Nicolas,  operette  in 
one  act,  ib.,  March  11,  1861  ;  Pianoforte 
music  ;  Songs. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  305. 

ERLEBACH,    PHILIPP   HEINRICH, 

born  in  Essen,  July,  25,  1657,  died  in  Ru- 

I  dolstadt,  AiJril  17,  1714.     He  received  his 


EKLKUJS'IG 


nmsical  education  in  Paris,  and  was  Kapell- 
meister in  Kudolstadt  from  1G83  until  his 
death.  Works  ;  Chamber,  organ,  and  vocal 
music. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  223  ;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

ERLKONIG,  DER  (The  Erl  King),  bal- 
lad by  Goethe,  music  by  Schubert,  written 
in  1815  or  181G,  published  as  op.  1  by 
Cappi  and  Diabelli,  Vienna,  1821,  with  a 
dedication  to  Count  Moriz  von  Dietrich- 
stein.  The  original  sketch,  now  in  the 
Royal  Library,  Berlin,  differs  from  the 
published  copy  in  having  the  accompani- 
ment in  groups  of  four  instead  of  in 
triplets  for  the  right  hand.  The  song  was 
sung  only  at  private  gatherings  for  several 
years,  Schubert  being  unable  to  find  a  pub- 
lisher, and  it  was  not  given  in  pxiblic  until 
Jan.  2.5,  1821,  when  it  was  sung  at  the  Mu- 
sikverein  by  August  von  Gymnich,  with  a 
success  which  added  materially  to  the  com- 
poser's fame.  It  was  published  the  follow- 
ing month  bj'  private  subscription,  and  after 
its  performance  by  Vogl  at  the  Kilrnthner- 
thor  Theater,  March  7,  1821,  it  had  a  rapid 
sale.  Arranged  by  Liszt  for  voice  and 
small  orchestra  ;  published,  score  and  parts, 
by  Forberg  (Leipsie).  Arranged  also  by 
Berlioz  for  voice  and  orchestra. —  Hellborn 
(Coleridge),  i.  59,  307. 

ERLKONIGS  TOCHTER  (The  Erl- 
king's  Daughter),  cantata  for  solo  voices, 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Neils  W.  Gade, 
op.  30,  written  in  1852.  Tiie  story  varies 
somewhat  from  Goethe's  poem.  Sir  Oluf, 
on  the  eve  of  his  wedding-day,  is  enticed 
away  by  the  Erl  King's  daughter,  and  rides 
home  iu  the  morning  to  die  at  the  castle 
gate. 

ERMEL,  LOUIS  CONSTANT,  born  in 
Ghent,  Dec.  27,  1798,  died  in  Paris  during 
the  siege  of  1870.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  under  Zimmerman, 
Eler,  and  Lesueur.  He  won  the  grand  23rix 
de  Rome,  1823,  for  his  cantata  Thisbe  ;  the 
gold  medal  of  the  Sociote  des  Beaux-Arts, 
Ghent  ;  and  the  bronze  medal  in  1818  for 
a  national  chorus  for  which  eight  hundred 


musicians  competed.  His  opera-comique, 
Le  testament,  was  given  iu  Liege  in  1836, 
and  in  Brussels  in  1838.  Author  of  "  Sol- 
fyge  chorale  transpositeur." — Fetis,  ii.  152  ; 
do..  Supplement,  i.  306 ;  Mendel. 

ERMIONE,  Italian  opera,  music  by  Ros- 
sini, represented  at  the  Teatro  San  Carlo, 
Naples,  in  Lent,  1819.  Though  well  sung, 
it  was  not  a  success. — Edwards,  Life  of  R., 
201. 

ERNANI,  tragic  opera  in  four  acts,  text 
by  F.  M.  Piave,  music  by  Verdi,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Teatro  Fenice,  Venice,  March 
9,  1814:.  The  libretto  is  an  adaptation  of 
Victor  Hugo's  drama,  "  Hernani."  Before 
its  production  in  Venice  the  i^olice,  refus- 
ing to  permit  the  representation  on  the 
stage  of  a  conspiracy,  caused  the  libretto 
and  parts  of  the  music  to  be  changed.  It 
was  played  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  Lon- 
don, March  8,  1815.  When  about  to  be 
given  in  Paris,  Victor  Hugo  objected  to  the 
use  of  his  drama,  and  to  please  him  the 
libretto  was  rewritten.  The  title  was 
changed  to  II  proscritto,  the  scene  removed 
to  Venice,  and  the  bandit  Ernani  made  into 
Oldrado,  an  Italian  corsair.  In  this  guise 
the  opera  was  produced  at  the  Theatre 
Italien,  Jan.  6,  181G ;  but  the  poet  was 
finally  appeased,  and  it  was  given  later  in 
its  proper  form.  The  scene  is  laid  in  Ai'a- 
gon,  time  1519.  Characters  represented  : 
Ernani  (T.)  ;  Don  Carlos,  King  of  Spain 
(Bar.)  ;  Don  Ruy  Gomez  de  Silva  (B.)  ;  El- 
vira (S.)  ;  Johanna  (M.S.)  ;  Don  Riccardo 
(T.) ;  lago  (B.).  Ernani,  son  of  the  Duke 
of  Segovia,  but  under  a  ban  and  chief 
of  a  band  of  brigands,  is  in  love  with 
Elvira,  a  noble  lady  betrothed  to  the 
Duke  de  Silva,  and  plans  to  carry  her 
off.  Don  Carlos,  the  King,  also  loves  her 
and  tries  to  abduct  her.  Her  cries  bring 
to  her  rescue  Ernani,  who  defies  the  King, 
and  Silva,  who  challenges  him,  but  begs 
for  pardon  when  he  discovers  his  iden- 
titj'.  The  King  finally  carries  off  Elvira 
and  Silva  challenges  Ernani.  The  latter 
refuses  to  fight,  and  induces  Silva  to  aid 


EENANI 


him  in  taking  vengeance  on  the  King,  at 
the  same  time  giving  him  a  horn  and  prom- 
ising to  take  his  own  life  whenever  Silva 
shall  wind  it.  In  the  third  act  the  conspii-- 
ators  are  plotting  in  the  catacombs  when 
the  King  appears  suddenly  among  them 
and  orders  the  nobles  to  execution.  Er- 
nani,  as  a  noble,  demands  the  right  to  share 
their  fate,  when  the  King  pardons  all  and 
bestows  Elvira  upon  Ernani.  In  the  fourth 
act,  in  the  midst  of  the  festivities  attending 
their  wedding,  the  fatal  horn  is  heard  and 
Ernani  parts  from  Elvira,  and  keepis  his 
word  by  killing  himself.  Among  the  prin- 
cijial  numbers  are,  in  the  first  act,  Elvira's 
aria,  "  Ernani,  iuvolami ;  "  Don  Carlos's 
aria,  "  Bella  come  un  primo  amore  ; "  the 
duet  between  them,  ''  Fiero  saugue  d'  Ara- 
gona  ; "  and  Silva's  bass  solo,  "  Infelice  !  e 
tu  credevi."  In  the  second  act,  the  duets 
between  Ernani  and  Elvira,  "  Ah !  morir 
potessi  adesso,"  and  "  La  vendetta  piu  tre- 
menda."  In  the  third  act  the  grand  septet 
and  chorus  "  O  sommo  Carlo,"  well  known 
in  its  English  form  as  "  Crowned  with  the 
Tempest,"  is  one  of  the  composer's  best  ef- 
forts. In  the  last  act  the  duet  between  Er- 
nani and  Elvira,  '•  Cessaro  i  suoni,"  is  full  of 
dramatic  feeling. — Hanslick,  Moderne  oper, 
220. 

EKNANI,  INVOL.A.M.     See  Ernani. 

ERNELINDE,  PRINCESSE  DE  XOR- 
VEGE,  tragic  opera  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Poinsinet,  music  by  Philidor,  represented 
at  the  Academic  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Nov.  24,  17G7.  The  text  is  an  adajstation 
of  an  Italian  libretto  entitled  Ricimero, 
which  was  set  to  music  by  Pergolesi  (Na- 
ples, 1731)  and  by  Jommelli  (Rome,  1740). 
Eruelinde,  which  is  Philidor 's  best  work, 
was  reproduced  in  Paris,  Jan.  21,  1769, 
under  the  title  of  Sandoniir,  prince  de  Dane- 
mark  ;  and  again,  Dec.  11,  1773,  with  the 
text  remodeled  bv  Sedaine. 

ERNEMANfN, 'mORITZ,  born  in  Eisle- 
ben  in  1800,  died  in  Breslau,  Aug.  8,  18GG. 
Pianist,  pupil  in  Berlin  of  Ludwig  Berger. 
He  went,  in  1820,  with  Prince  Radziwill  to 


Poland,  and  lived  several  years  in  the  house 
of  Prince  Zamoiski,  in  Warsaw.  Then  he 
became  a  teacher  in  the  Warsaw  Conserva- 
tory ;  resided  in  Breslau  in  1833-36  ;  and 
later  returned  to  Warsaw.  Works :  Piano- 
forte music;  Songs. — -Mendel;  Fetis,  iii. 
152  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  306  ;  Sowiuski, 
Musiciens  polonais,  183. 

ERNST  II.,  Duke  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 
born  at  Coburg,  June  21,  1818,  still  living, 
1888.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Breid- 
enstein  at  Bonn,  and  of  Reissiger  at  Dres- 
den, where  his  musical  education  was  much 
furthered  by  intercourse  with  ^lendelssohn, 
Moscheles,  Wagner,  Liszt,  and  others.  The 
fact  that  his  operas  continue  in  the  reper- 
tories not  only  of  Germany,  but  of  other 
countries,  seems  to  prove  that  their  success 
is  due  to  something  more  than  the  com- 
poser's exalted  station.  Works— Operas  : 
Zaire,  given  at  Gotha,  1846  ;  Toni,  about 
18.50  ;  Santa  Chiara,  Coburg,  1854,  Paris, 
1855  ;  Casilda,  Brussels,  1855 ;  Diana  von 
Solanges,  Coburg,  1858,  Dresden  and  Go- 
tha, 1859  ;  Imraer  Liebe,  cantata,  with  or- 
chestra ;  AUer  Seelen,  do. ;  Fackeltauz,  for 
full  orchestra  and  brass  instruments ;  Die 
deutsche  Tricolore,  hymn  for  male  chorus 
and  brass  instruments  (prize  at  Music  Fes- 
tival, Dreux)  ;  Fantasia  for  pianoforte,  vio- 
loncello, and  iioolodion  ;  many  other  instru- 
mental works,  and  several  books  of  songs. 
— Mendek 

ERNST,  CHRISTIAN  GOTTLOB,  born 
at  Silberberg,  Silesia,  Feb.  2,  1778,  died  (?). 
Organist,  pupil  in  Breslau  of  Neugebauer 
and  Berner,  became  organist  in  1798  at 
Ohlau,  where  he  did  much  towards  the  de- 
velopment of  musical  life.  He  set  to  music 
several  psalms,  and  published  sonatas  for 
the  pianoforte  and  violin,  organ  music,  etc. 
— Fotis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

ERNST,  FRANZ  ANTON,  born  at  Geor- 
geuthal,  Bohemia,  Dec.  3,  1745,  died  in  Go- 
tha, Jan.  13,  1805.  Violinist,  was  choir-boy 
in  Neuzell  and  later  violinist  to  the  Jesuits 
in  Sagan  ;  after  studying  law  at  Prague 
Uniyersity,  he  held  an  office  in  his  native 


24 


ERNST 


place,  but  soon  became  secretary  to  Count 
von  Salm,  and  finally,  on  tlie  advice  of  Lolli, 
made  concert  tours.  He  was  influenced  by 
Stad  in  Strasburg  ;  returned  to  Prague  in 
1773 ;  and  in  1778  was  appointed  ducal 
Conzertmeister  in  Gotba.  He  devoted  some 
attention  to  improving  the  construction  of 
violins,  and  was  an  industrious  composer  of 
violin  music. — Wurzbacli,  iv.  72  ;  ]\Iendel ; 
Fetis  ;  Schilling  ;  Biemanu  ;  Wasielewski, 
Die  Violine,  214. 

ERXST,  HEINRICH  WU^HELM,  born 
at  BriUni,  Moravia, 
in  181-1,  died  in 
Nice,  Oct.  11:,  1865. 
Violinist,  pupil  at 
the  Vienna  Conser- 
vatorium  u  n  d  e  r 
Biibm  for  violin, 
and  Sej'fried  for 
composition  ;  i  n  - 
structed  later  by 
M  a  y  s  e  d  e  r.  His 
playing  was  greatly 
influenced  by  Paganini, 
teen  he  made  his  tirst  concert  tour  ;  studied 
several  years  in  Paris  under  Charles  de  Be- 
riot ;  and  in  1834-50  travelled  over  almost 
all  Europe  with  wonderful  success.  In  Hol- 
land alone  he  gave  two  hundred  concerts.  In 
1850  he  settled  in  London,  but  latterly  had 
to  give  up  playing  in  public,  and  his  last 
years  were  embittered  by  an  incurable  spinal 
disease.  As  a  violin  virtuoso  his  playing  was 
marked  by  brilliancy,  passion,  mastery  over 
all  technical  difficulties,  and  great  beauty 
of    tone.     His   compositions   are    effective 


At  the  a"e  of  six- 


and   extremely    difficult.     Works :    2  noc- 
turnes ;  El'egie   for  violin   and  jjianoforte ; 


Fantasia  on  Rossini's  Otello  ;  Concertino  in 
D ;  Polonaise  de  Concert  ;  Variations  on 
Dutch  national  air  ;  Pirata,  Caijpriccio ; 
Rondo  Papageno  ;  Concerto  (Allegro  pathe- 
tique)  in  F-sharp  minor ;  Carnaval  de  Ve- 
nise,  in  imitation  of  Paganini ;  Erl  King  ; 
Bolero  ;  Variations  on  Hungarian  airs  ;  2 
quartets  ;  Etudes. —  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.  vi. 
325  ;  Wurzbacli,  iv.  73  ;  Grove ;  Mendel ; 
Wasielewski,  Die  Violine,  315  ;  Futis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  306  ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  435. 

ERO  E  LEANDRO  (Hero  and  Leander), 
opera  seria,  text  by  Arrigo  Boito,  music  by 
Giovanni  Bottesiui,  represented  at  the  Royal 
Theatre  of  Turin,  Jan.  11,  1879.  This  work, 
sung  by  Barbacini,  Roveri,  and  Mine  Brus- 
chi-Chiatti,  had  a  considerable  success. 

EROE  CINESE,  L'  (The  Chinese  Hero), 
Italian  o^jera,  text  by  Metastasio,  first  set 
to  music  by  Bonno  and  represented  at 
the  Imperial  Theatre  at  SchOnbrunn,  1752. 
Scene  near  the  city  of  Singana  (See-Ngan), 
capital  of  the  jjrovince  of  Chen  si  (Shen-See), 
China.  Characters  represented  :  Leango, 
ruler  of  China ;  Prince  Siveuo,  bis  supi)osed 
son,  in  love  with  Lisinga  ;  Miuteo,  a  man- 
darin in  command  of  the  army  ;  and  Lisinga 
and  Ulauia,  Tartar  princesses,  the  one  in 
love  with  Minteo,  the  other  with  Siveno. 
The  libretto  has  been  set  to  music  also  by 
Perez,  Lisbon,  1753  ;  Hasse,  Dresden,  1753  ; 
Gluck,  Schunbrunn,  1754 ;  Rauzzini,  Mu- 
nich, 1770  ;  Sacchini,  Munich,  1771  ;  Majo, 
Naples,  1771 ;  Cimarosa,  Naples,  1783  ;  Por- 
togallo,  Turin,  1788;  Checchi,  Leghorn, 
1810. 

EROICA.     See  Sinfonia  Eroica. 

EROSTRATE  (Erostratus),  opera  in  two 
acts,  text  by  Mery  and  Pacini,  music  by 
Ernest  Reyer,  first  represented  at  the 
theatre  of  Baden,  Aug.  21,  1862.  In  the 
libretto,  the  story  of  Erostratus,  who  is 
known  to  history  only  as  the  incendiary  of 
the  temple  of  Diana,  at  Epbesus,  is  mingled 
with  much  fable,  in  which  Athenais  the 
courtesan,  Scopas  the  sculptor,  and  the 
Venus  of  Milo  are  made  to  j)lay  parts. 
The  opera  was  given  in  Paris,  at  the  Opera, 


EROTIKON 


Oct.  16,  1871,  but  was  withdrawn  after  two 
representations. 

EROTIKON,  Lieclercyelus  by  Adolf  Jen- 
sen, op.  44. 

EESCHALLET,  FEIERKLANGE.  See 
Jiienzi. 

ERSTEHE,  HOHE  ROMA,  NEU.  See 
Rienzi. 

ERTEL  (Ertelius),  SEBASTIAN,  German 
composer  of  the  early  part  of  the  ITtli  cen- 
tury. He  was  a  Benedictine  monk  at  "\Vei- 
henstephan,  near  Freisiug,  and  later  in  the 
Convent  of  Gersten,  Upper  Austi'ia.  He 
published  church  music. — Mendel ;  Futis  ; 
Gerber. 

ERSTE  WALPURGISNACHT,  DIE  (The 
Fii'st  Walpurgis  Night),  ballad  for  solo 
voices,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  poem  by 
Goethe,  music  by  Mendelssohn,  op.  GO. 
The  composition  was  begun  in  April,  1831, 
and  was  nearly  finished  before  May.  The 
first  version  was  completed  in  Milan,  July 
15th,  except  the  overture,  called  by  the 
composer  Saxon  Overture,  which  bears  the 
date,  Feb.  13,  1832.  This  fii'st  version  was 
brought  out  in  Berlin  in  January,  1833. 
Ten  years  later,  Mendelssohn  returned  to 
the  work,  making  several  changes,  and  re- 
scoring  the  whole.  This  second  and  final 
version  was  given  with  an  English  transla- 
tion by  Bartholomew,  by  the  Philharmonic, 
in  London,  July  8,  1844,  and  at  the  Ge- 
wandhaus  in  Leipsic,  March  1,  1845.  Ber- 
lioz's account  of  being  at  the  last  rehear- 
sal for  this  performance  (Mi'moires,  2G3)  is 
in'obably  wrong,  as  Berlioz  was  in  Leipsic 
in  Februarj',  1843,  and  in  Paris  and  Vienna 
in  the  early  part  of  1845  ;  but  his  account 
of  the  work  is  worth  reading.  The  full  and 
pianoforte  scores  are  published  by  Kistner 
(Leii^sic). — Lampadius,  2d  ed.,  134  ;  Allgem. 
mus.  Zeitung,  xlviii.  1G5. 

ERYTHRAUS,  GOTTHARD,  born  in 
Strasburg  about  15G0,  died  about  1G17.  In 
1587  he  became  Magister  in  Altdorf,  in  1595 
Cantor  and  music  teacher  of  the  Gymnasium 
there,  and  in  1G09  rector  of  the  Stadtschule. 
His  principal  compositions  are  sacred  songs. 


— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Gerber  ;  Schilling  ;  Win- 
terfeld,  Der  evaug.  Kirchengesang,  i.  376. 

ESCHBORN,  KARL,  born  early  in  the 
19th  century.  Dramatic  composer,  Con- 
zertmeister  in  the  court  theatre  orchestra 
of  Mannheim  in  1830,  music  director  in 
Cologne  in  1842,  and  dramatic  director  in 
Aix-la-Chapelle  in  1845.  Works  :  Bastaids 
oder  das  Stiergefecht,  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Wiedeufeld,  given  at  Amsterdam, 
February,  1847  ;  Songs. — Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

ESCHJIANN,  JULIUS  K.VRL,  born  at 
Winterthur,  Switzerland,  April,  1826,  died 
in  Ziirich,  Oct.  27,  1882.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Mendelssohn ;  lived  in  Cassel  until  1852, 
when  he  settled  in  Zurich  as  a  teacher. 
He  composed  chiefly  didactic  music  for 
pianoforte  and  violin. — Mendel ;  Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  306  ;  Eiemanu. 

ESCI  OM.AI.     See  Nozze  di  Figaro. 

ESCOBEDO  (Escovedo),  B.^ETOLO- 
Mfi,  born  in  Spain  about  1510,  date  of 
death  unknown.  Church  composer  and 
learned  contrapuntist ;  first  studied  in  Sala- 
manca, then  went  to  Rome,  where  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Pontifical  Choir  in  1536. 
He  was  afterwards  (1554)  a  priest  in  Segovia, 
and  was  one  of  the  judges  in  the  musical 
dispute  between  Vicentini  and  Vincenzo  Lu- 
sitano.  His  motets  are  found  in  Eslava's 
Lira  sacro-hispana,  and  some  of  his  church 
music  was  preserved  in  the  royal  chapel  at 
Madrid,  notably  2  Miserere  and  a  IMagui- 
ficat,  which  were  considered  very  fine. — Fe- 
tis, iii.  156  ;  Hawkins,  Hist.,  iii.  91  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Ambros,  iii.  569. 

ESCOVAR,  JOAO  DE,  Portuguese  com- 
poser of  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century. 
His  motets  were  published  in  Lisbon  in 
1620.  He  was  the  author  of  "Arte  de  mu- 
sica  theorica  y  practica." — Fetis ;  Mendel ; 
Gerber. 

ESCRIBANO,  JUAN,  Spanish  musician 
of  the  IGth  century.  His  compositions  are 
found  in  the  Papal  Chapel,  Rome,  where  he 
officiated  as  singer  after  having  received  a 
musical  education  at  Salamanca. — Futis, 
Supplement,  i.  307. 


36 


ESILIATI 


ESILIATI  DI  SIBERIA,  GLI.  See  Elisa- 
beth. 

ES  1ST  DIR  GESAGT,  Ccantata  for  Dom. 
viii.  ijost  Trinit.,  by  Joliann  Sebastian 
Bach.  PublisbeJ  by  the  Bach-Gesellschaft, 
Church  Cantatas  (1860),  vol.  v.,  No.  45  ;  and 
with  additional  accompaniments  by  Robert 
Franz,  full  and  pianoforte  scores  (F.  E.  C. 
Leuckbart,  Breslau). 

ES  1ST  GENUG  !  bass  air  of  Elias  in 
jMeiulelssohu's  Elicit,  Part  11. 

ESLAVA,  Don  iHGUEL  HELARIO,  bom 
at  Banlada,  near  Pampeluua,  Spain,  Oct.  21, 
1807,  died  in  Madrid,  July  23,  1878.  Dra- 
matic composer,  first  instructed  in  solfeggio 
and  singing  when  a  choir-boy  in  the  Ca- 
thedral of  Pampeluna,  then  pupil  of  Julian 
Prieto  on  the  pianoforte  and  the  organ,  and 
of  Francisco  Seccanilla  in  composition.  In 
1828  he  became  maestro  de  capilla  of  the 
cathedral  at  Ossuna,  where  he  took  orders  ; 


by  Louise  Angelique  Bertin,  Paris,  1836 ; 
Mazzucato,  Mantua,  1838  ;  Dargomysky, 
Moscow,  1847  ;  Prince  Poniatowski,  Leg- 
horn, 1847  ;  William  Henry  Fry,  Philadel- 
phia, 1864  ;  Wilhelm  Wetterhahn,  Chem- 
nitz, 1866  ;  Friedrich  Miiller,  Laibach, 
1867  ;  Campana,  St.  Petersburg,  1869. 
— Athenffium  (1883),  i.  417. 

ES  MUSS  DOCK  FRUHLING  WER- 
DEN,  symphony  in  E  minor,  op.  67,  com- 
monly called  the  Spring  symphony,  by  Fer- 
dinand Hiller,  1840. 

ESPADERO,  N.  RUIZ,  born  in  Ha- 
vana, Cuba,  in  1835.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Aiizti  ;  published  brilliant  pianoforte  mu- 
sic in  the  style  of  Gottschalk.  He  was 
Gottschalk's  musical  executor,  and  edited 
the  jjosthumous  works  of  that  composer, 
published  by  Ohver  Ditson  &  Co.  (Boston 
and  New  York).  Works  :  Souvenir  d'autre- 
fois,  op.  11 ;  Chant  de  I'ame,  op.  13  ;  Plainte 


in  1832  of  the  Cathedral  of  Seville,  where  J  du  ijoiite,  op.  14  ;  Partez,  ingrate,  melodie, 
he  was  consecrated  a  priest,  and  in  1844 ;  op.  15  ;  Barcarolle,  op.  18  ;  Cantilene,  op. 
of  the  royal  chapel  at  Madrid.     Order  of  19  ;  Ballade,    op.   20  ;  Innocence,    caprice, 


Charles  HI,  1848.  Works— Operas  :  II  so- 
litario,  given  at  Cadiz,  1841  ;  La  tregua 
di  Ptolemaide,  ib.,  1842  ;  Pietro  il  crudele, 
ib.,  1843  ;  Spanish  operas.  More  than  150 
church    compositions,    comprising    masses. 


o]}.  23 ;  Tristesse,  nocturne,  op.  53  ;  Ossian, 
polka  de  salon  ;  Deusieme  ballade,  o\).  57  ; 
Scherzo,  op.  58  ;  Valse  ideale,  op.  60  ;  Chant 
du  Gnargiro,  sc5ne  caracteristique  cubaine, 
op.  61. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  307  ;  Mendel, 


psalms,  hymns,  motets,  etc.     He  published   Ergilnz.,  98, 


also  Lira  sacro-hispana,  and  Museo  organico 
espanol,  collections  of  church  music  by  old 
and  new  Spanish  masters,  and  in  1862 
wrote,  for  the  Revue  de  musique  sacree 
(Paris),  an  interesting  survey  of  the  history 
of  church  music  in  Spain. — Fetis  ;  Grove  ; 
Mendel. 

ESMERALDA,  opera  in  four  acts,  text 
by  Marzials  and  Randegger,  after  Victor 
Hugo's  romance  "  Notre-Dame  de  Paris," 
music  by  Arthur  Goring  Thomas,  first  rep- 
resented at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  London, 
March  26,  1883.  The  work  was  well  re- 
ceived and  has  since  been  given  in  Ger- 
many. In  1887  Mr.  Thomas  rewrote  the 
fourth  act,  and  restored  the  tragic  close  in 
accordance  with  the  original  idea  of  Victor 
Hugo.     The  same  subject  has  been  treated 


ESPENT,  PIERRE,  born  in  Marseilles, 
Aug.  28,  1832,  still  living,  1888.  Blind  or- 
ganist and  composer,  pupil  at  the  institu- 
tion for  the  blind  in  Paris,  and  received  a 
composition  prize  from  Adolph  Adam.  Be- 
came a  teacher  of  solfege  and  of  the  pi- 
anoforte, director  of  a  music  class  in  a 
school  for  the  blind,  in  1858,  at  Nancy,  and 
in  1865  at  Marseilles,  and  organist  at  No- 
tre Dame  de  la  Garde.  He  has  composed 
overtures,  masses,  cantatas,  orchestral  mu- 
sic, etc.— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  307;  Men- 
del, Ergilnz.,  98. 

ESPIN  Y  GUILLEN,  JOAQUIN,  pianist 
and  organist,  born  at  Velilla,  Spain,  May 
4,  1812,  died  in  Madrid,  June  24,  1882. 
He  wrote  popular  zarzuelas,  and  in  1842 
published   "  La  Iberia   musical,"  the  first 


27 


ESSER 


musical  paper  published  in  Sjiaiu.  He  be- 
came second  organist  in  the  royal  cliapel 
in  1855  ;  professor  of  solfeggio  at  the  Con- 
servatorio  ;  director  of  the  chorus  at  the 
Koyal  Theatre,  1872.— Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
308  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  98. 

ESSER,  HEINRICH,  born  in  Mannheim, 
July  16,  1818,  died  in  Salzburg,  June  3, 
1872.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Franz  Lachner 
and  of  Sechter  in  Vienna  ;  became  Conzert- 
meister  and  theatre  conductor  in  Mannheim, 
director  of  the  Liedertafel  in  Mainz  in  1812, 
and  Kapellmeister  of  the  theatre  there  in 
184G  In  1817  he  was  called  to  Vienna  as 
Ka2)ellmeister  of  the  Imperial  Opera,  was 
director  of  the  Philharmonic  concerts  for 
some  time,  and  in  18G7  was  appointed  art- 
member  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the 
Opera,  but  retired  in  18G9  on  a  pension. 
He  was  loved  as  a  man,  respected  as  an 
artist,  and  some  of  his  songs  became  very 
popular.  His  widow  and  children  were 
pensioned  by  the  Emperor.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Silas,  given  at  Mannheim,  1839  ; 
Riquiqui,  Aix-la-Chapelle,  1843  ;  Die  beiden 
Priuzen,  Munich,  ISll.  String  quartet ;  2 
suites  ;  3  symphonies  ;  about  40  books  of 
songs  ;  2  sonatas  ;  Trio  with  pianoforte, 
and  other  music,  in  all  81  opus  numbers. 
His  orchestral  transcrijitions  of  Bach's  C 
minor  Passaeaglia,  and  Toccata  in  F,  have 
been  much  played  in  German}'  and  America. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  382  ;  Mendel ;  Grove; 
Fotis.  iii.  159 ;  Supplement,  i.  308 ;  Rie- 
niaim. 

ESSER,  KARL  MICHAEL,  Bitter  VON, 
born  in  Aix-la-Chapelle  about  1736,  died 
after  1791.  He  became  first  violin  of  the 
court  orchestra  of  Cassel  about  1756,  and  in 
1759  began  a  concert  tour  which  lasted 
many  years  and  covered  nearly  all  Eu- 
rope. The  Pope  made  him  a  knight  of  the 
Order  of  the  Golden  Spur  in  1772.  He 
travelled  in  Spain  in  1786.  Works :  Die 
drei  Piichter,  opera,  given  in  Gotha,  1791 ; 
Violin  unisic,  much  unpublished. — Mendel ; 
Fotis  ;  Schilling  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violine, 
218.  .  . 


ESSEX,  TI]\IOTHY,  born  at  Coventry, 
Warwickshire,  1780,  died  ('?).  Organist  ; 
Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1806  ;  Mus.  Doc,  1812. 
Works  :  Rondos  ;  6  duets  for  two  flutes  ; 
Pianoforte  and  organ  music. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del. 

ESTE  (Est,  East,  Easte),  HHCHAEL,  born 
in  England,  latter  part  of  16th  century,  died 
after  1638.  Organist,  conjectured  to  have 
been  the  son  of  Thomas  Este  (died  after 
1624),  the  most  important  of  the  enrlj  Lon- 
don music  publishers.  He  first  appears  in 
print  as  the  author  of  the  five-part  madrigal. 
Hence,  stars,  too  dim  of  light,  published  in 
'"The  Triuniphes  of  Oriana  "  in  1601.  Be- 
tween 1610  and  1618  he  obtained  his  degree 
of  Mus.  Bac,  Cambridge  ;  and  he  became 
master  of  clioristers  of  Lichfield  Cathedral. 
Works  :  First  set  of  Madrigals  (London, 
1604)  ;  Second  set  (ib.,  1606)  ;  Third  set  of 
Bookes,  wherein  are  Pastorals,  Anthems, 
Neapolitaues,  Fancies,  and  Madrigals,  to 
5  and  6  parts  (ib.,  1610)  ;  Madrigals,  An- 
thems, etc  (ib.,  1618)  ;  Anthems  (ib.,  1624) ; 
Duos  and  Fancies  for  Viols  (ib.,  1638). 
— Gi-ove  ;  Hawkins,  History,  iv.  25  ;  Bur- 
uey.  History,  iii.  133  ;  Mendel. 

ESTELLA.     See  Les  Bhicts. 

ESTHER,  oratorio  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Alexander  Pope  (?),  music  by  Handel,  first 
performed  at  Cannons,  the  residence  of 
the  Duke  of  Chandos,  Aug.  20,  1720.  The 
original  work,  Handel's  first  English  ora- 
torio, for  which  he  received  .£1,000,  is  in 
one  part  of  six  scenes,  and  was  probably 
first  called  Haman  and  Mordecai.  It  was 
sung  first  in  London,  Feb.  23,  1732,  by  the 
Children  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  on  Handel's 
forty-seventh  birthday.  The  success  of  tliis 
private  performance  led  to  the  announce- 
ment of  a  rival  representation  by  a  specu- 
lator, April  20,  1732,  and  this  induced  Han- 
del to  give  a  public  performance  at  the 
King's  Theatre,  May  2,  1732,  when  the 
work  was  given  enlarged  to  three  acts.  For 
this  new  version  the  text  was  rearranged 
by  Samuel  Humphreys,  and  Handel  rewrote 
much  of  the  original  music,  composed  much 


ESTOCART 


new  music,  and  borrowed  freely  from  tbe 
Coronation  Anthems.  Tbe  MS.,  iu  Buck- 
iugbam  Palace,  wants  tbe  overture  and  tbe 
last  page  ;  but  two  complete  conducting 
scores  are  in  tbe  same  collection,  and  au- 
otber  one  is  at  Hamburg.  Characters  rep- 
resented ;  Abasuerus,  Haman,  Habdonab, 
Esther,  Mordecai,  Chorus  of  Persian  Sol- 
diers, Ciiorus  of  Israelites.  The  overture, 
one  of  the  best  Handel  ever  wrote,  is  also 
one  of  tbe  most  popular,  and  tbe  cho- 
ruses are  superb.  Tbe  airs  were  published 
by  Walsh  (1733),  and  by  Arnold  (1794)  ; 
text  with  pianoforte  score,  edited  by  J.  J. 
Maier  (Leipsic,  ■  1858)  ;  full  score,  Handel 
Society  (London,  1844-45)  ;  original  score 
(Haman  and  Mordecai),  and  revised  score 
(Esther),  Hilndelgesellschaft  (1  vol.,  Leipsic, 
1882).— Eockstro,  Handel,  106,  169  ;  Eeiss- 
mauu,  69  ;  Scboelcber,  59,  104  ;  Chrysan- 
der,  ii.  209. 

ESTOCART.  See  L'Estocarl. 
ESTR1':E,  jean  T>\  French  composer  of 
the  16tb  century.  Duverdier  styles  him 
joueur  de  bautbois  du  Ptoi.  His  composi- 
tions are  published  in  four  books  entitled  : 
Livres  de  danseries,  contenant  le  chant  des 
bransles  communs,  etc.,  de  Champagne,  de 
Bourgogne,  de  Poictou,"  etc.  (Nicholas  du 
Chemin,  Paris,  1564).— Fetis  ;  Mendel 

ES  WIRD  EIN  stern  AUS  JACOB 
AUFGEHN,  chorus  in  Mendelssohn's  Chris- 
tus. 

£TIENNE  MARCEL,  gi-and-opera  iu  four 
acts  and  six  tableaux,  text  by  Louis  Gallet, 
music  by  Camille  Saint-Saons,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Lyons  Theatre  Feb.  8, 
1879.  The  characters  represented  are : 
Etienne  Marcel,  provost  of  the  merchants  ; 
his  daughter  Buatrix,  and  bis  wife  Mar- 
guerite ;  Robert  de  Loris,  equerry  to  the 
Dauphin,  iu  love  with  Bc-atrix  ;  Eustaobe,  an 
adventurer  ;  Jean  Maillard,  district  police 
officer  ;  The  Dauphin  ;  Robert  de  Clermont, 
marshal  of  Normandy  ;  Robert  Lecocq,  Bish- 
op of  Laou  ;  Pierre,  friend  of  Robert  de 
Loris.  The  action  turns  on  tbe  events  of 
an  insurrection   of    tbe  populace    led  by 


Marcel,  in  which  be  eventually  loses  his 
life. 

ETHEEIDGE,  GEORGE,  English  com- 
poser of  the  16th  century,  born  at  Thame, 
Oxfordshire.  He  wrote  anthems,  madri- 
gals, and  songs. 

ETOILE  DU  NORD,  L'  (Tbe  Star  of  the 
North),  opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Scribe, 
music  by  Meyerbeer,  first  represented  at 
the  Opera  Comiciue,  Paris,  Feb.  16,  1854 ; 
Kiven  iu  Italian  as  La  Stella  del  Nord  at 


Caroline   Duprez,  as  Catherine. 

Covent  Garden  Theatre,  London,  July  19, 
1855.  It  includes  several  numbers  from  an 
earlier  work  by  Meyerbeer,  Das  Fddlager 
in  Schlesien  (Tbe  Camp  of  Silesia),  given 
iu  Berlin,  1843.  The  libretto  is  weak,  but 
the  music  is  brilliant  and  stirring,  and  full 
of  singular  orchestral  effects.  It  opens  at 
Viborg,  Finland,  where  Pierre  (Peter  the 
Great),  working  iu  the  disguise  of  a  ship- 
carpenter,  makes  tbe  acquaintance  of  Da- 
nilowitz,  a  pastry-cook,  and  of  Catherine,  a 
cantiniere,  to  whom  be  becomes  betrothed, 
though  she  does  not  know  bis  rank.      A 


S9 


£toile 


conscription  takes  place  and  Catherine,  to 
save  her  brother  George,  who  has  just  mar- 
ried Prascovia,  disguises  herself  as  a  soldier 
and  volunteers  in  his  j)lace.  In  the  second 
act,  which  opens  iu  a  Russian  camp,  Cath- 
erine, while  doing  duty  as  a  sentinel,  peeps 
into  a  tent  where  she  sees  Pierre  and  Da- 
nilowitz  drinking  and  making  love  to  two 
girls.  Shocked  at  this,  she  neglects  her 
duty,  insults  au  officer,  and  is  condemned 
to  punishment.      A    mutiny    among    the 


Battaille,  as  Pierre. 

soldiers  and  news  of  the  coming  of  the 
enemy  ai'ouses  Pierre,  who  makes  himself 
known  to  his  men  and  quells  the  revolt. 
In  the  third  act,  Pierre  and  Danilowitz  ap- 
pear in  the  Czar's  palace,  but  Catherine 
has  disappeared  and  cannot  be  found.  She 
is  at  last  discovered  by  Danilowitz,  wander- 
ing around  bereft  of  her  reason.  After 
many  etforts,  Pierre  succeeds  in  arousing 
her  by  playing  on  his  flute  familiar  airs, 
her  senses  are  restored,  and  the  two  are 
united.  The  original  cast  at  the  Opera 
Comique  in  1854  was  as  follows  : 


Pierre Battaille. 

Catherine Caroline  Duprez. 

Danilowitz Henuaim-Leon. 

Gritzenko Lemercier. 

Nathalie Mile  Loocadie. 

— Edwards,  Lyrical  Drama,  i.  274  ;  Hans- 
lick,  Moderne  Oper,  151. 

ETOILE  DE  SEVILLE,  L'  (The  Star  of 
Seville),  opera  in  four  acts,  text  by  llippo- 
lyte  Lucas,  music  bj-  Balfe,  represented  at 
the  Academie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Dec.  17,  1845.  The  subject  is  from  "La 
Estella  de  Sevilla"  of  Lope  de  Vega,  which 
had  previously  been  adapted  for  the  French 
stage  by  Lebrun,  under  the  title  of  "  Le  Cid 
d'Audalousie."  Balfe  was  commissioned  to 
write  this  work,  which  ran  twenty  succes- 
sive nights,  by  the  director  of  the  Opera, 
he  being  the  first  English  composer  who 
had  been  thus  honoured.  He  received  for 
it  15,000  francs  and  250  francs  for  each 
performance.  It  was  sung  by  j\luie  Stoltz, 
Mile  Nau,  Baroilhet,  Gardoni,  Paullin, 
Menghis,  and  Bn'moud. — Barrett,  Balfe, 
172. 

ETT,  KASPAPi,  born  at  Erling,  Bavaria, 
Jan.  5,  1788,  died  iu  Munich,  Nov.  17,  1847. 
At  the  age  of  nine  he  sang  iu  the  choir  of  a 
Benedictine  monastery,  and  in  Munich  was 
the  pu2)il  of  Joseph  Schlett  and  Joseph  Griitz. 
He  was  the  organist  of  St.  Michael's  in  Mu- 
nich from  1816  until  his  death,  and  did  ex- 
cellent service  by  reviving  the  sacred  music 
of  the  IGth,  17th,  and  18th  centuries,  which 
he  took  as  models  for  his  deeply  religious 
masses,  requiems,  and  other  church  music. 
His  woi'ks  number  about  200,  only  a  small 
portion  of  wliicli  have  been  published. — All- 
gem,  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  392  ;  Mendel ;  Fc'tis ;  Rie- 
mann. 

ETTLING,  l5:\nLE,  born  in  Germany 
about  1820,  resident  of  France,  1888.  His 
operettas,  Un  jour  de  uoce,  1864  ;  Le  nain, 
1873  ;  Le  tigre,  1873 ;  L'oeil  de  monsieur 
I'expert,  1874  :  En  maraude,  1877,  have 
been  given  at  the  minor  theatres  of  Paris. 
— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  301). 


30 


Etudes 


£TUDES  SYJIPHONIQUES  en  forme 
(le  Variations  for  j^i^^uoforte,  by  Robert 
Hchumaim,  op.  13,  dedicated  to  William 
Sterndale  Bennett,  composed  in  1834,  pub- 
lished in  August,  1837.  Twelve  variations 
on  a  theme  the  melody  of  which  was  de- 
rived from  the  father  of  Ernestine  von 
Fricken,  the  friend  of  his  youth.  All  the 
etudes  are  instinct  with  originality  and 
strength,  and  are  full  of  fancy.  The  whole 
concludes  with  a  brilhant  movement,  in 
which  the  theme  of  the  variations  appears 
only  in  a  subordinate  position,  the  opening 
motive  being  taken  from  a  song  in  Marsch- 
ner's  opera  Temjjler  imd  -Jiidin,  which  con- 
tains the  words,  Du  stolzes  England,  freue 
dich.  The  adoption  of  this  theme  for  the 
finale  was  intended  by  Schumann  as  a  com- 
jsliment  to  Sterndale  Bennett,  who  had  just 
come  to  Leipsic,  when  the  variations  were 
composed.  In  the  second  edition,  pub- 
lished 1852,  he  changed  the  title  to  the 
far  more  appropriate  one  of  Etudes  en 
forme  de  Variations. — Maitland,  53 ;  Kie- 
mann,  61. 

EUCH  LtJETEN,  DIE  MEIN  KLA- 
GEN.     See  Lohengrin. 

EUGEN  (FRIEDRICH  KARL  PAUL 
LUDWIG),  Duke  of  Wiirtemberg,  born  at 
Oels,  Silesia,  Jan.  8, 1788,  died  at  Karlsruhe 
Manor,  ib.,  Sept.  IG,  1857.  Amateur  dra- 
matic composer  of  considerable  ability,  en- 
tered at  an  early  age  the  service  of  his  uncle, 
the  Czar  Paul  of  Russia,  took  part  in  the 
campaigns  of  180G-7  in  East  Prussia,  and 
1810  in  Turkey,  and  distinguished  himself 
as  a  general  in  the  wars  of  independence, 
and  in  1828  against  the  Turks.  After  re- 
tiring from  military  service  he  lived  mostly 
on  his  estate  Karlsruhe,  in  Silesia.  His 
compositions,  comprising  songs,  instru- 
mental works,  and  operas,  among  which 
especially  Die  Geisterbraut,  were  widely 
known  and  popular. 

EUGENIUS,  TRAUGOTT,  German  com- 
poser of  the  15th  centurj'.  He  was  cantor 
at  Thorn  about  1100,  and  was  one  of  the 
oldest  German  contrapuntists  whose  name 


has  survived.  He  published  songs. — Ger- 
ber  ;  Mendel ;  Fetis. 

EULE,  C.  D.,  born  in  Hamburg  in  1776, 
died  there  in  1827.  The  son  of  an  actor,  he 
brought  out  an  opera  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
and  became  later  the  musical  director  of 
the  theatre  of  his  native  citj'.  Works  :  Die 
verliebten  Werber,  opera,  Hamburg,  1796  ; 
Das  Amt-  und  Wirtshaus,  opera,  ib.,  about 
1800  ;  Giafiar  und  Zaide,  opera,  ib.,  1800  ; 
Der  Unsichtbare,  opera,  text  by  Costenobel, 
ib.,  about  1800  ;  Music  for  pianoforte. — Men- 
del ;  Schilling  ;  Fetis. 

EULENSTEIN,  ANTON  HEINRICH  SI- 
GORA,  Edler  VON,  born  in  Vienna  in 
1772,  died  there,  Nov.  14,  1821.  He  was  a 
government  official  ;  for  a  short  time  took 
lessons  of  Mozart,  and  became  the  leader 
of  an  amateur  orchestra.  Works  :  Der  Per- 
riickeumacher,  opera,  given  in  Vienna,  about 
1800  ;  Vetter  Damian,  opera,  ib.,  about  1800 ; 
Die  Wauderschaft,  ib.,  about  1800  ;  Der 
gebesserte  Lorenz,  opera,  ib.,  about  1810; 
Sonatas;  Quartets;  Songs,  etc. — Mendel; 
Fetis ;  Schilling. 

EUMENE  (Eumenes),  Italian  opera,  mu- 
sic by  Ziaui,  represented  at  Venice  in  1696. 
The  subject  is  the  same  as  that  of  Antigono 
(Antigonus).  It  has  been  musically  treated 
also  by  Albinoni,  Rome,  1717  ;  Porpora, 
Rome,  1721 ;  Jommelli,  Naples,  1746  ;  Man- 
na, Turin,  1750  ;  Sacchini,  Rome,  1763  ; 
Borghi,  Turin,  1778  ;  Buroni,  Stuttgart, 
1778  ;  Bertoni,  Venice,  1784. 

EUilENIDES,  choruses  and  incidental 
music  to  the  tragedy  by  iEschylus,  by 
Charles  Villiers  Stanford,  op.  24,  first 
given  at  Cambridge,  England,  Dec.  1,  1885. 
— Athenaum  (1885),  ii.  740,  741. 

EUPHROSINE  ET  CORADIN,  ou  le 
tyran  corrige,  opcra-comique  in  three  acts, 
in  verse,  text  by  Hoffmann,  music  by  Mehul, 
first  represented  at  the  Theatre  Italien, 
Paris,  Sept.  4,  1790.  Mehul,  then  twenty- 
seven  years  old,  had  struggled  with  fortune 
until  the  production  of  this  work,  which 
'  met  with  gratifying  success  and  insured 
;  his  future.     The   duet  in  the  second  act, 


31 


EUPJDIGE 


"  Gardez-vous  de  la  jalousie,"' is  a  master- 
piece of  dramatic  expression. 

EURIDICE,  musical  drama,  text  by  Otta- 
vio  Einucciui,  music  by  Jacopo  Peri  and 
Giulio  Caccini,  represented  at  the  Palazzo 
Pitti,  Florence,  on  tbe  occasion  of  the  mar- 
riage of  Henri  IV.  of  France  with  ilaria  de' 
Medici,  December,  1600.  This  work,  found- 
ed on  the  story  of  Ori^heus  and  Eurydice, 
was  the  first  opera  ever  performed  in  jjub- 
lic.  Peri's  earlier  drama,  Dafne,  having  been 
performed  only  privately.  Both  composers 
wrote  music  to  the  whole  test,  indepen- 
dently of  eacih  other,  but  at  the  performance 
2)art  of  Peris  score  and  part  of  Caccini's 
were  used.  Peri's  Euridice  was  published 
in  Florence  in  1600  and  reprinted  at  Venice 
in  1008  ;  and  a  new  edition  was  ijublished 
in  Florence  in  18G3.  Caccini's  Euridice 
was  also  published  separately  in  Florence 
in  1660.  Peri's  Euridice  was  given  in  Paris, 
at  the  Petit  Bourbon,  1017,  by  a  company 
of  Italian  singers  invited  to  France  by  Car- 
dinal Mazarin. — Ambros,  iv.  253;  Naumann 
(Ouseley),  i.  524. 

EURYANTHE,  gi-and  romantic  opera  in 
three  acts,  test  by  Helmina  von  Chezy  (born 
von  Klencke,  1783-1856),  music  by  Carl 
Maria  von  Weber,  first  represented  at  the 
Court  Opera  House,  Vienna,  Oct.  25,  1823. 
The  cast  was  as  follows  : 

Euryanthe  (S  ) Frl.  Henrietta  Sontag. 

Eglantine  (M.-S.) Frau  Griinbaum. 

Lysiart  (B.) Herr  Forti. 

Adolar  (T.) Herr  Heitzinger. 

Ludwig  M.  (B.) Herr  Seipelt. 

The  libretto  is  from  a  French  romance  en- 
titled :  "  Histoire  de  Gerard  de  Nevers  et 
de  la  belle  et  vertueuse  Euryant  de  Savoj-e, 
sa  mie,"  which  both  Boccaccio  and  Shake- 
speare ("  Cymbeline  ")  had  previously  used. 
Adolar,  Count  de  Nevers,  is  betrothed  to 
the  beautiful  Euryanthe  de  Savoy.  Eglan- 
tine, her  rival,  in  league  with  Lysiart, 
Count  de  Forest,  succeeds  in  arousing 
Adolar's  suspicious  in  regard  to  Eglantine's 
faith,    and    Adolar    himself    conducts    his 


betrothed  into  the  wilderness  and  leaves 
her  to  perish.  Lysiart  gets  possession  of 
Adolar's  estates  and  marries  Eglantine,  but 
the  latter,  tortured  by  remorse,  confesses 
the  deceit  practised  upon  Adolar,  and  is 
stabbed  by  Lysiart.  Adolar  challenges  the 
robber  of  his  inheritance,  but  the  combat  is 
pi'evented  by  King  Ludwig,  who  declares  the 
oft'ender  forfeited  to  the  law,  and  reinstates 
Adolai-.  Euryanthe,  who  has  been  found 
in  the  wilderness  by  huntsmen,  I'eturns  and 
brings  joy  to  all.  The  performance  was 
conducted  by  the  composer  in  person,  who 


Henrietta  Sontag. 

was  received  with  a  storm  of  apj^lause  ;  but 
enthusiasm  soon  grew  cold,  and  the  ojjera 
was  given  only  seven  times.  It  was  given 
later  in  Vienna  with  Schrikler-Devrieut  in 
the  chief  part,  and  again,  under  the  admin- 
istration of  Count  Gallenberg.  It  was  pro- 
duced with  success  in  Berlin,  Dec.  23, 
1825  ;  then  in  Weimar  and  Dresden  ;  in 
Paris,  at  the  Opera,  April  6,  1831,  with  in- 
terpolations from  Oberon  and  generall}'  dis- 
aiTansred  bv  Castil-Blaze  ;  in  London,  at 
Covent  Garden,  June  29,  1833  ;  and  again 
in  Paris,  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique,  Sept.  1, 
1857,  with  a  new  libretto.     The  opera  was 


32 


EUTITIITS 


played  in  New  York  about  18G3,  but  the 
first  proper  representation  was  at  the  j\Iet- 
rojiolitan  Opera  House,  Dec.  28,  1887,  when 
it  was  sung  in  German,  witli  Lilli  Lehmann 
in  the  title-role. — Max  M.  von  Weber,  Carl 
M.  von  W.  (Leipsic,  1864),  ii.  352,  451  ; 
HcUborn  (Coleridge),  Life  of  Schubert,  i. 
21G  ;  Hauslick,  INIodcrue  Oper,  G'J  ;  Kreh- 
biel.  Review  (1887-1888),  62. 

EUTITIUS,  AUGUSTIN,  Polish  com- 
poser of  the  17th  century.  A  Minorite,  at- 
tached in  1613  to  the  chaisel  of  Ladislaus 
IV.,  of  Poland.  He  comj)osed  church  music. 
— Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Sowiuski,  184 

EVANS,  CHARLES  SMART,  born  in 
Loudon  in  1778,  died  there,  Jan.  4,  1849. 
A  chorister  in  the  Chajjel  Royal  under  Dr. 
Ayrton,  he  was  admitted  as  gentleman  of 
tlie  Chapel  Royal  in  1808.  The  Glee  Club 
awarded  him  a  prize,  in  1811,  for  "Beauties, 
have  you  seen  a  toy?,"  and  in  1812  for  "  Fill 
all  the  glasses."  He  took  the  Catch  Club 
prize,  in  1817,  for  the  best  setting  of 
William  Liuley's  "  Ode  to  the  Memory  of 
Samuel  Webb,"  the  eminent  glee  composer  ; 
and  obtained  another  prize  in  1821  for  his 
glee,  "  Great  Bacchus."  He  was  the  com- 
poser of  anthems,  two  of  which  were 
printed  ;  and  of  several  motets  written  for 
the  choir  of  the  Portuguese  Ambassador's 
Chapel,  some  of  which  are  printed  in  No- 
vello's  Collection  of  IMotets. — Grove. 

iiVE,  a  mystery  iu  three  parts,  text  by 
Louis  Gallet,  music  by  Jules  Massenet,  first 
given  in  Paris,  March  IS,  1875. 

i5VE  (D^ve),  ALPHONSE  D',  born  near 
Courtrai,  France,  about  the  middle  of  the 
17th  centurj'.  Church  composer,  priest,  and 
niaitre  de  chapelle  of  Notre  Dame,  AutwerjJ, 
from  1718  to  1725  ;  and  for  many  years 
leader  of  the  choir  of  the  Church  of  Saint- 
Martin,  Courtrai.  His  motets  and  other 
church  music  in  MS.  are  preserved  in  the 
Church  of  Sainte-Walburge,  at  Audenarde. 
— Fetis ;  Vander  Straeten,  ii.  128  ;  iii.  6  ;  v. 
145  ;  Biog.  nat.  de  Belg.,  vi.  740  ;  Mendel. 

E^T^RAERTS,  PIERRE  FRANCOIS, 
born  in  Louvaiu  iu  1816,  still  living,  1888. 


Dramatic  comjjoser,  pupil  of  Brigode,  maitre 
de  cliapelle  of  St.  Peter's,  Louvaiu.  He  has 
served  as  bandmaster  in  several  Belgian  reg- 
iments, and  became  in  1844  professor  of  the 
bugle,  trumpet,  and  coruet-a-pistous  at  the 
Conservatoire,  Liege.  Works :  L' Avalanche, 
opera  ;  Hommage  a  Gretrj-,  dramatic  over- 
ture ;  much  military  and  church  music  pub- 
lished iu  Liege. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  309. 

EVERS,  KARL,  born  iu  Hamburg,  April 
8,  1819,  died  in  Vienna,  Dec.  31,  1875. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  Jacques  Schmitt  ;  played 
in  public  at  the  age  of  twelve  ;  then  made  a 
concert  tour  of  Denmark  and  Sweden.  He 
studied  theorj'  under  Zieger  in  Hanover, 
and  Karl  Krebs  iu  Hamburg,  and  received 
in  1839  some  instruction  from  Mendelssohn 
in  Leipsic  ;  visited  Paris,  where  he  was  well 
received  by  Chopin  and  Auber  ;  then  went 
to  Vienna,  and  settled  in  Gratz  as  music- 
dealer  iu  1858,  but  returned  to  Vienna  in 
1872.  Works  :  4  pianoforte  sonatas ;  Chan- 
sons d'amour,  or  12  songs  without  words 
characterizing  different  nations  ;  Fantasias  ; 
Fugues  ;  Songs  ;  in  all,  more  than  one  hun- 
dred works. — Mendel,  iii.  442  ;  Ergiinz.,  98  ; 
Fetis,  iii.  165 ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  309  ; 
Wurzbach,  iv.  114  ;  Grove  ;  Riemann. 

EV'RY  VALLEY,  tenor  air  in  E,  in  Han- 
del's 3Iessiah,  Part  I. 

EXNER,  GUSTAV  HERMANN,  born  at 
Berbisdorf,  near  Hirschberg,  Silesia,  Oct. 
28,  1815.  Organist,  jjupil  of  his  father, 
who  was  a  Cantor  ;  finished  his  education 
in  Hirschberg,  Jena,  and  Bunzlau.  He 
was  organist  and  director  of  musical  soci- 
eties iu  Goldberg  in  1841-45,  and  then  in 
Sagau.  His  compositions  are  mostly  vocal 
church  music. — Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

EYBLER,  JOSEPH,  Edler  VON,  boru 
at  Schwechat,  near  Vienna,  Feb.  8,  1765, 
died  in  Schonbrunn,  July  24,  1846.  Pupil 
of  his  father  and  of  Albrechtsberger  iu  Vi- 
enna. He  adopted  law  as  a  profession, 
but  changed  to  music  when  his  parents  be- 
came poor,  and  was  assisted  by  the  friend- 
ship of  Haydn  and  Mozart.  He  attended 
Mozart  in  his  last  illness,  and  was  commis- 


33 


EYKEN 


sioned  by  his  widow  to  finisli  tlie  Requiem, 
but  gave  up  the  tcask.  lu  1792  he  became 
choir-master  of  the  Carmelite  Church  in 
the  Vienna  subm-b  of  Leoj)oldstadt,  in  1793 
of  the  Schotteu  monastery  in  Vienna,  in 
1801  music-teacher  to  the  irajierial  princes, 
in  1804  vice-Kapelhueister ;  1824,  on  Sa- 
lieri's  retirement,  Kapellmeister  to  the  Em- 
peror of  Austria.  He  was  ennobled  in  1834. 
While  conducting  Mozart's  Requiem  in 
1833,  he  was  struck  by  aploplexy,  which 
compelled  him  to  renounce  the  active  prac- 
tice of  his  profession.  He  took  Mozart's 
advice  in  composing  mostly  church  music. 
His  works  show  a  devotional  spirit,  in  sjjite 
of  great  mobility  and  occasionally  too  heavy 
instrumentation,  and  bear  some  likeness 
to  the  compositions  of  ISIichael  Haydn. 
Works :  Das  Zauberschwert,  opera,  1803 
(not  represented) ;  Die  Mutter  der  Gracchen, 
pantomime  ;  Die  Hirten  bei  der  Krippe  zu 
Bethlehem,  cantata,  sung  in  1794  ;  Die  vier 
letzteu  Dinge,  oratorio,  performed  in  1810  ; 
32  masses  (7  printed)  ;  Requiem  ;  7  Te  De- 
um  ;  30  offertories  ;  35  graduals  ;  7  piano- 
forte sonatas  ;  Symphonies  ;  Concertos  ; 
Overtures  ;  Chamber  music  ;  Songs. — All- 
gem,  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  453  ;  Wurzbach,  iv.  120  ; 
Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling ;  Riemann  ;  Grove. 

EYKEN  (Eijken),  GERRIT  JAN  VAN, 
born  at  Amersfoort,  Netherlands,  May  5, 
1832,  still  living,  1889.  Organist,  pupil  of 
his  father,  Gerard  van  Eyken,  organist,  of 
his  brother,  Jan  Albert,  and  (1851-53)  at 
the  Leipsic  Conservatorium  and  at  Dres- 
den of  Johann  Schneider  and  Magnus 
Bohme.  After  his  return  to  Holland  he 
settled  first  at  Amsterdam,  and  in  1855  at 
Utrecht,  where  he  became  organist  of  the 
Waalsche  kerk,  and  Kapelraeester  of  the 
schutterij.  Works  :  Het  Krooningsfeest 
van  keizer  Karel  V.  te  Bologna,  opera, 
given  at  Amsterdam,  May  14,  1858,  Utrecht, 
Nov.  20,  1859  ;  Sonata  for  j^ianoforte  and 
violin  ;  3  sonatinas  for  pianoforte ;  Songs. 
— Viotta. 

EYKEN  (Eijken),  JAN  ALBERT  VAN, 
born  at  Amersfoort,  Netherlands,  April  29, 


1823,  died  at  Elberfeld,  Sept.  24,  18C8. 
Organist,  pupil  of  his  father,  Gerard  van 
Eyken,  organist ;  subsequently  at  the  Leip- 
sic Conservatorium  in  1845-46.  On  Men- 
delssohn's recommendation  he  finished  his 
organ  studies  under  Johaun  Schneider,  in 
Dresden.  Ho  gave  organ  concerts  in  Hol- 
land in  1847,  became  organist  in  the  Church 
of  the  Remonstrants,  Amsterdam,  in  1848, 
and  professor  of  the  organ  in  the  music 
school  of  Rotterdam  in  1853.  In  1854  he 
went  to  Elberfeld  as  organist  of  the  Re- 
formed Church.  He  received  prizes  for 
the  following  compositions  written  for  the 
Netherlands  Society  for  the  Encouragement 
of  Music  :  Quartet  for  jiianoforte,  violin,  vi- 
ola, and  violoncello  ;  2  organ  sonatas  ;  music 
for  a  Dutch  drama,  Lucifer  ;  and  songs  for 
four  male  voices.  He  arranged  Goudiniel's 
150  psalms  for  the  Reformed  Church  for 
choir  and  organ,  besides  composing  church 
music  and  Lieder  with  pianoforte  accompa- 
niment, hymns  for  men's  voices,  etc. — Fi'tis  ; 
Riemann  ;   Mendel. 

EYKENS,  JEAN  SIMON,  born  at  Ant- 
werp, Oct.  13,  1812,  still  living,  1889.  Dra- 
matic com]50ser,  pupil  of  Ravets,  organist 
of  the  church  of  the  Augustiues,  Antwerji, 
and  at  the  Conservatoire,  Liege,  of  Jalheau 
on  the  pianoforte,  and  of  Danssoigne-Mchul 
in  harmony.  Returned  to  Antwerp  in  1831, 
devoted  himself  to  teaching  the  jjianoforte, 
became  conductor  of  the  Reunion  lyrique 
anversoise  in  1843,  and  president  of  the 
Reunion  des  socictes  lyriques  in  1848. 
Member  of  the  Societe  royale  des  sciences, 
Antwerp,  and  of  the  Societo  d'emulation, 
Lic'ge.  Works  :  Le  depart  de  Grctry,  op- 
eretta, given  at  Liege,  1829  ;  Le  bandit, 
opera,  Antwerp,  1836  ;  La  cle  du  jai-din, 
ib.,  1837  ;  Cantata  for  the  unveiling  of  the 
statue  of  Rubens,  ib.,  1840  ;  Masses  and 
other  church  music  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ; 
Choruses  for  male  voices,  with  or  without 
orchestra  ;  Songs,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Viotta. 

EYRE,  ALFRED  JAMES,  born  at  Lam- 
beth, London,  Oct.  24,  1853,  still  living, 
1889.     Organist,  impil  at  the  Royal  Acad- 


34 


EYSEL 


emy  of  IMusic  under  Maefarren,  Westlake, 
ami  Smith,  and  on  the  organ  under  Hoyte 
and  Cooper.  He  has  served  as  organist  of 
several  metropolitan  churches,  lastly  of  St. 
John  Evangelist,  1881  ;  was  organist  of  the 
Crystal  Palace,  1880.  Works  :  Commun- 
ion Service  in  E-flat  ;  Evening  Service  for 
the  Salisbury  Diocesan  Choral  Associa- 
tion ;  The  12Cth  Psalm  for  four  voices ; 
String  quartet ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  Songs, 
etc. 

EYSEL,  JOHANN  PHILIPP,  born  at 
Erfurt,  1G98,  died  there,  17G3.  Amateur 
violoncellist,  and  composer  of  more  than 
ordinary  ability  ;  published  several  cantatas, 
a  great  number  of  motets  (Nuremberg, 
1738-16),  solos  for  violin,  and  flute,  with 
thorough  bass.— Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

EZIO  (^tius),  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Metastasio,  first  set  to  music 
by  Auletta  and  represented  in  the  Teatro 
delle  Damme,  Rome,  Dec.  2G,  1728.  The 
libretto,  founded  on  incidents  in  the  career 
of  ^tius,  the  famous  general  of  the  Western 
Empire  and  conqueror  of  Attila,  is  one  of 
Metastasio's  best  works.  Scene  in  Rome. 
Characters  represented  :  Valentiniano  III., 
emperor,  in  love  with  Fulvia  ;  Fulvia,  daugh- 
ter of  Massimo,  betrothed  to  Ezio  ;  Ezio,  lover 
of  Fulvia  ;  Onoria,  sister  of  Valentiniano, 
secretly  in  love  with  Ezio  ;  Massimo,  father 
of  Fulvia,  confidant  and  secret  enemy  of 
Valentiniano  ;  Varo,  jDrefect  of  prretorians 
and  friend  of  Ezio.  The  libretto  has  been 
set  to  music  also  by  Porpora,  Venice,  1728 ; 
Handel,  London,  Jan.  15,  1732  ;  Lampu- 
gnani,  Venice,  1737  ;  Jommelli,  Bologna, 
174:1,  and  Naples,  1748  ;  Pescetti,  Venice, 
1747  ;  Bonno,  Vienna,  1749  ;  Traetta,  Rome, 
1754  ;  Perez,  London,  1755  ;  Graun,  Ber- 
lin, 1755  ;  Gassraann,  Italy,  about  1760  ; 
Schwanberg,  Brunswick,  17G3  ;  Gluck,  Vi- 
enna, 1763  ;  Felice  Alessandri,  Verona, 
1767  ;  Johann  Christian  Bach,  about  1770  ; 
Pietro  Guglielmi,  London,  1770  ;  Sacchiui, 
Naples,  about  1770  ;  Gazzaniga,  Venice, 
1772  ;  Bertoui,  Venice,  1777  ;  Mortellari, 
Milan,   1777 ;  Calvi,  Pavia,    1784  ;   Tarchi, 


Vicenza,  1790  ;  Mercadante,  Turin,   1826 ; 
Celli,  Florence,  1830. 

EZIO,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Metastasio,  music  by  Handel,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  King's  Theatre,  London, 
Jan.  15,  1732.  The  MS.,  preserved  in 
Buckingham  Palace,  is  undated,  the  last 
sheet  being  missing.  The  text  of  Metas- 
tasio is  much  abridged  and  altered.  The 
principal  charactei-s  were  sung  by  Senesino, 
Montagnana,  and  Signora  Strada.  It  was 
given  five  times.  Published  first  by  Walsh  ; 
full  score  by  Hilndelgesellschaft  (Leipsie, 
1880).— Rockstro,  Handel,  167  ;  Schoilcher, 
103  ;  Chrysander,  ii.  248. 


FABER,  BENEDICT,  born  at  Hildburg- 
hausen  about  the  end  of  the  16th 
century,  died  (?).  Church  comp)Oser 
of  distinction,  in  the  service  of  the  Duke  of 
Saxe-Coburg  about  the  first  quarter  of  the 
17th  century.  Works:  The  148th  Psalm 
(in  Latin),  for  8  voices  (Coburg,  1602) ;  Sa- 
crpe  cautiones,  4,  5,  G,  7  et  8  vocibus  conci- 
nendiB  (ib.,  1G05)  ;  Gratulatio  musica  ex 
primo  capite,  etc.  (ib.,  1607) ;  Canticum 
sex  vocibus  in  festivitatem  nuptiarum  (ib., 
1607)  ;  The  51st  Psalm,  Miserere  mei  Deus, 
for  8  voices  (ib.,  1G08)  ;  Adhortatio  prima 
Christi,  etc.  (ib.,  1609)  ;  Cautio  nuptialis  ex 
psalmo  Davidis,  etc.  (ib.,  1609) ;  Cantiones 
sacra;,  4-8  voc.  (ib.,  1610)  ;  Triumphus  mu- 
sicalis  in  victoriam  resurrectiouis  Christi,  7 
vocibus  compositus  (ib.,  1611)  ;  Zwei  neue 
Hochzeits  Gesilnge  mit  5  Stimmen  ;  Gratu- 
latorium  musicale  6  vocum  (ib.,  1631). — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

FABRE  D'OLIVET,  ANTOINE,  born  at 
Ganges  (Herault),  Dec.  8,  1768,  died  in 
Paris,  April,  1825.  Dramatic  composer  ;  he 
endeavoured  to  reproduce  the  old  Hellenic 
system  of  music  in  an  oratorio  written  for 
the  coronation  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  1804. 
His  system  was  analogous  to  Blainville's 
mode  mixte,  or  the  mode  plagal.  Works  : 
Le  sage  de  llndostan,  philosophical  drama 
with   choruses,  given  in  Paris,   1796  ;  Ro- 


FABIII 


mances  ;  Quartets  for  two  flutes,  viola,  and 
bass  (1800). — Fetis  ;  Larousse. 

FABRI,  STEFANO,  tbe  elder,  bom  latter 
half  of  tbe  IGth  century.  He  was  maestro 
di  cappella  of  tbe  Vatican  in  1599-1601, 
visited  Germany  in  1601-2,  and  was  maes- 
tro di  cajjpella  of  S.  Giovanni  in  Laterano, 
Rome,  in  1G03-7.  He  'wrote  two  books, 
Duodecim  modi  musicales,  etc.  (Nurem- 
berg, 1602)  and  Trieinia  sacra,  etc.  (ib., 
1607),  and  other  church  music. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

FABRI,  STEFANO,  the  younger,  born  in 
Rome  in  160G,  died  there,  Aug.  27,  1658. 
Composer  of  the  Roman  school,  pujjil  of 
Naniui.  He  was  maestro  di  cappella  of  S. 
Luigi  de'  Frances!,  Rome,  in  1648,  and  in 
1657  of  Santa  Maria  Maggiore.  "Works : 
Motets  for  two  to  five  voices  (Rome,  1G50) ; 
Salmi  concertati,  five  parts  (ib.,  1G60). — Fc- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

FABRICIUS,  WERNER,  born  at  Itzehoe, 
Holstein,  April  10,  1633,  died  at  Leii)sic, 
Jan.  9,  1679.  Organist,  first  instructed  by 
his  father,  who  was  organist  at  Flensburg, 
and  by  the  cantor  Karl  Moth  ;  then  pujail  of 
Heinrich  Scheidmann  and  in  composition 
of  Sellius  at  Hamburg.  In  1G50  be  went  to 
Leipsic  to  study,  and  afterwards  to  pi-actise 
law  ;  in  1656  he  was  made  director  of  mu- 
sic at  the  Paulinerkircbe,  and  two  years 
later  organist  at  St.  Nicolai.  Works :  De- 
licite  harmouite,  musikalische  Gemiithser- 
gotzung  in  Paduanen,  Allemanden,  Couran- 
ten,  Balletten,  Sarabanden,  etc.  (Go),  zu  5 
Stimmen  fiir  Violen  und  andere  lustru- 
mente  (Leipsic,  1656) ;  Geistlicbe  Lieder 
(Jena,  1659) ;  Geistlicbe  Alien,  Dialogen, 
Concerten,  etc.,  fiir  4-8  Vocalstimmen  (Leip- 
sic, 1662) ;  Motets,  etc. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
vi.  525 ;  Fetis ;  Monatshefte  fiir  Musikge- 
schichte  (1875),  180  ;  Winterfeld,  ii.  477. 

FABRIZI  (Fabrizio),  PAOLO,  born  at 
Spoleto  in  1809,  died  in  Naples,  Maix-h  3, 
1869.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  tbe 
Naples  Conservatorio,  and  especially  of  Zin- 
gareUi  in  composition.  Works — Operas  : 
La  vedova  d'un  vivo,  given  at  Naples,  Te- 


atro  Partenoi^e,  1833  ;  La  festa  di  Carditi- 
eUo,  ib.,  Teatro  Nuovo,  1833  ;  R  Blondello, 
ib.,  1834  ;  La  caravana  del  Cairo,  il  conte 
di  Saverna,  ib.,  1835  ;  L'  inganuo  uon  dura, 
ib.,  1836  ;  R  giorno  degli  equivoci,  ib.,  1837  ; 
II  portator  d'acqua,  ib.,  1840  ;  Lara,  o  il  ca- 
valiere  verde,  Cristina  di  Svezia,  Sjjoleto, 
1844. — Ft'tis  ;  do.,  Supislement,  i.  310. 

FABRIZI,  VINCENZO,  born  in  Naples 
about  1765,  time  of  death  not  known. 
Dramatic  comjioser,  probably  pupil  at  the 
Conservatorio,  Naples,  where  he  had  his 
permanent  residence,  although  be  spent  a 
goodly  portion  of  his  life  travelling,  to 
bring  out  his  ojDeras,  which  were  very  suc- 
cessful. Works — Comic  operas  :  I  due 
castellani  burlati,  given  at  Bologna,  1785  ; 
La  sposa  in^dsibile,  Rome,  1786  ;  La  neces- 
sitii  nou  ha  legge,  Dresden,  1786  ;  La  con- 
tessa  di  nova  luna,  Bologna,  1767  ;  I  pun- 
tigli  di  gelosia,  Florence,  1786 ;  Chi  la  fa 
I'aspetta,  Bologna,  1787  ;  La  nobiltii  viUana, 

1787  ;  Gli  amanti  trajspolieri,  Naples,  1787  ; 
II  cafe  di  Barcelona,  1788  ;  II  Don  Gio- 
vanni, ossia  il  convitato  di  pieti-a,  Fano, 
1788 ;  L'  incontro   per   accidente,  Naj)les, 

1788  ;  La  tempesta,  ossia  da  uu  disordine 
ne  nasce  un  ordiue,  Rome,  1788  ;  R  Colom- 
bo, 1789 ;  La  moglie  capricciosa,  Milan, 
1799.— FiHis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

F.ICCIO,  FRANCO,  born  in  Verona, 
Jlarch  8, 1841,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  Conservatorio,  ililan, 
1855-1861,  under  Roncbetti  and  Mazzucato. 
He  obtained  a  subsidy  from  tbe  govern- 
ment which  enabled  him  to  travel  and 
study.  With  his  friend  and  co-labourer, 
Arrigo  Boito,  he  pursues  a  progressive 
course,  deviating  from  the  trodden  path  of 
the  Italian  oi^eratic  style.  He  was  professor 
of  harmony  at  tbe  Milan  Conservatorio, 
1868,  and  subsequently  of  counterpoint  and 
fugue,  and  maestro  concertatore  and  maes- 
tro di  cajipella  at  La  Seala,  being  consid- 
ered tbe  best  conductor  in  Italy  since 
Marlani.  Works  :  Concert  overture,  1860  ; 
Le  sorelle  d'  Italia,  cantata  (with  Boito), 
18G2  ;  I  profughi  Fiamminghi,  opera,  text 


FACKELTANZ 


by  Praga,  given  in  Milan,  La  Scala,  Nov. 
10,  1863  ;  Amleto,  do.,  text  by  Boito,  Flor- 
ence, 1865,  Milan,  1871  ;  Cantata  for  the 
inauguration  of  tlie  Turin  Exhibition,  1884  ; 
Album  nielodico  (Milan,  Eicordi)  ;  Cinque 
cauzonette  veueziane  (ib.). — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  311  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  99  ;  Eie- 
mann. 

FACKELTAXZ  (Torch  Dance  ;  Fr., 
^larche  aux  lianibeaus),  a  procession  with 
torches  and  military  music,  customary  at 
some  of  the  German  courts  on  the  occasion 
of  the  marriage  of  a  member  of  the  royal 
famih'.  Meyerbeer  wrote  the  music — a  Po- 
lonaise in  march  tempo — for  four :  1.  For 
the  wedding  of  the  King  of  Bavaria,  1846  ; 
2.  For  the  wedding  of  the  Princess  Char- 
lotte of  Prussia,  1850  ;  3.  For  the  wedding 
of  the  Princess  Anne  of  Prussia,  1853  ;  4. 
For  the  wedding  of  the  Princess  Eoj-al  of 
England  and  the  Crown  Prince  Friedrich  of 
Prussia,  Jan.  25,  1858.  Spontini,  Flotow, 
and  others,  have  also  written  them. — Men- 
del ;  Grove. 

FAGO,  NICOL(X  called  II  Tarentino, 
born  at  Taranto  in  1674,  died  in  Naples 
after  1729.  Dramatic  composer,  j)upil  of 
Scarlatti  at  the  Conservatorio  de'  Poveri, 
Naples,  and  of  Proveuzale  at  the  Conserva- 
torio de'  Turchini.  He  succeeded  Proven- 
zale  as  maestro,  and  had  as  pujsils  Nicola 
Sala,  Leonardo  Leo,  and  other  celebrated 
musicians.  Of  his  several  operas  the  name 
of  one  only,  Eustachio,  is  preserved.  As- 
tarte,  a  lyrical  drama,  was  produced  at  Na- 
ples, Teatro  Sau  Bartolomeo,  in  1709.  His 
church  music  includes  masses,  motets,  lita- 
nies, Te  Deum,  two  Magnificat,  a  Benedic- 
tus,  psalms,  etc.  Some  are  in  the  MSS.  of 
the  National  Library,  Paris,  others  in  the 
archives  of  the  Naples  Conservatorio  and 
other  musical  libraries  in  Italy.  Bassevi's 
collection  contains  an  oratorio,  Faraone 
sommerso,  for  four  voices  and  instruments. 
— Fetis  ;  do.,  Supph'ment,  i.  311  ;  Mendel ; 
do.,  Ergiinz.,  99 ;  lliemann. 

FAHEBACH,  JOSEF,  born  in  Vienna, 
Aug.  25,   1804,   died  there,  June  7,  1883. 


Virtuoso  on  the  flute  and  guitar,  self-taught ; 
was  for  years  first  flute  in  the  orchestra  of 
the  Opera  in  Vienna,  then  conductor  of  an 
orchestra  for  dance  music.  He  has  written 
a  large  number  of  fantasias,  variations,  pre- 
ludes, transcriptions,  etc.,  for  flute  solo,  and 
with  other  instruments,  and  dance  music  for 
orchestra ;  also  Methods  for  oboe  (op.  27) 
and  flute. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Suiiplcmeut,  i.  312  ; 
Mendel  ;  Wurzbach. 

FAHEBACH,  PHILIPP,  the  elder,  born 
in  Vienna,  Oct.  25,  1815,  died  there,  March 
31,  1885.  Dramatic,  church,  and  dance 
composer,  pujnl  of  Lanner  ;  conducted  for 
years  a  well-trained  orchestra  in  Vienna, 
and  was  afterwards  Kapellmeister  of  a  regi- 
mental band.  AVorks :  Der  Liebe  Opfer, 
opera,  given  in  Vienna,  1844  ;  Das  Scliwert 
des  Konigs,  do.,  ib.,  1845  ;  Church  music, 
and  more  than  150  works  of  dance  music. 
— AUgem.  wiener  Musik-Zeitung  (1845), 
394,  504  ;  Wurzbach. 

FAHEBACH,  PHILIPP,  the  younger, 
born  in  Vienna  in  1843,  still  hving,  1889. 
Dance  music  composer,  son  and  pupil  of 
Philipp  Fahrbach,  the  elder,  in  whose  or- 
chestra he  played  first  violin,  then  first 
flute,  and  in  1865  shared  the  conductor- 
shii5  with  his  father,  before  organizing  an 
orchestra  of  his  own,  when  he  rapidly  won 
the  reputation  of  an  able  conductor.  In 
1870  he  became  Kapellmeister  of  a  regi- 
ment, and  in  1872  instituted  at  Pesth  well- 
attended  concerts,  at  which  he  plays  his 
own  compositions,  now  numbering  more 
than  300,  which  are  almost  as  much  in  de- 
mand as  those  of  Strauss. — Mendel,  Er- 
giinz., 99  ;  Fetis,  SuiJjilement,  i.  312. 

FAIDIT  (Faydit),  GAUCELM,  born  at 
Uzerche  (Correze),  France,  about  1150,  died 
about  1220.  Eichard  Cceur  de  Lion  called 
him  to  his  court,  and  he  accompanied  that 
monarch  to  the  Holy  Land,  and  wrote  a  dirge 
at  the  time  of  his  death  (1199).  He  lived 
subsequently  at  the  court  of  the  Marquis  de 
Montferrat,  and  at  that  of  Eaymond  dA- 
goult.  About  fifty  of  his  songs  are  pre- 
served.— Fetis  ;   Larousse  ;    Gerber  ;  Men- 


faig:xient 


del ;  Brockbaus  ;  Allgera.  d.  Biogr.,  vi. 
575  ;  Ambros,  ii.  226  ;  Viotta,  i.  49G. 

FAIGNIENT,  NOE,  Dutcb  contrapuntist 
of  tbe  16tb  centuiy.  He  lived  in  Antweip 
about  1570  ;  his  airs,  motets,  and  madrigals 
were  printed  in  Paris  and  Antwerp  (1567- 
1595).  His  works,  written  in  the  style  of 
Orlando  Lasso,  are  in  the  collections  of  that 
time,  some  of  tliem  in  the  Antwerp  col- 
lection of  the  Brussels  library,  in  the  Livre 
septieme  des  chansons  vulgaires. — Fetis  ; 
Van  der  Straeten,  i.  95  ;  v.  283  ;  Burney, 
Hist.,  iii.  262  ;  Mendel  ;  AValther,  328  ; 
Viotta,  i.  497. 

FAffiFAX.     See  Fayrfax. 

FAmLAMB,  JAMES  EEinXGTON, 
born,  of  American  parentage,  in  Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania,  Jan.  23,  1837,  still  liv- 
ing, 1889.  Organist,  pupil  of  his  mother, 
and  of  Charles  Boycr,  then  organist  of  St. 
Steijheu's  Church,  Philadelphia.  Before  he 
was  sixteen  years  old  he  became  organist 
of  the  Western  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
Philadelphia  ;  a  year  later  of  the  Tabernacle 
Baptist  Church,  and  four  years  afterwards 
of  the  Clinton  Street  Presbyterian  Church, 
where  he  remained  two  years.  In  1858 
he  went  to  Europe,  and  studied,  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire,  singing  under  Michel 
Masset  and  Madame  Bockholtz-Falconi,  and 
harmonj"  under  Adolphe  Dauhauser,  and 
at  Florence,  singing  under  Mabellini.  In 
1860  he  settled  in  Washington,  D.  C,  as 
organist  and  choir-director  of  the  Church 
of  the  Epiphany,  but  returned  in  1861  to 
Europe  as  United  States  Consul  at  Ztlrich, 
Switzerland,  where  he  remained  four  years, 
durinjr  which  he  received  from  the  King  of 
Wiirtemberg  the  grand  gold  Medal  of  Art 
and  Science.  In  1865  he  returned  to  the 
Church  of  the  Epiijhany,  Washington,  but 
a  year  later  removed  to  Philadelphia,  and 
in  1870,  became  organist  of  St.  John's 
Episcopal  Church,  Washington,  and  later 
of  the  Assembly  Presbyterian  Church  in 
the  same  city.  During  his  residence  in 
Washington  he  organized  an  amateur  ojjera 
company,  which  produced  Balfe's  Bohemian 


Girl,  Gounod's  Faust,  and  his  own  opera, 
Valerie.  The  organization  was  subse- 
quently changed  into  a  choral  society.  In 
1878-81  he  was  organist  of  St.  John's 
Church,  Elizabeth,  N.  J.,  then  of  Grace 
Church,  Jersey  City,  in  1883  of  Ascension 
Church,  New  York,  and  in  1884  of  St. 
Ignatius  Church  in  the  same  city,  which 
position  he  still  retains.  He  has  published 
about  150  comjjositions,  of  which  nearly 
100  are  songs  and  about  40  are  sacred 
choral  works ;  the  remainder,  pianoforte 
pieces.  He  has  written  also  a  grand  opera, 
Valerie,  in  four  acts. 

FAHl  ROSAMOND,  English  opera  in 
four  acts,  text  by  C.  Z.  Barnett,  music  by 
John  Barnett,  first  represented  at  Drury 
Lane  Theatre,  London,  Feb.  28,  1837.  It 
is  full  of  charming  music,  but  owing  to  a 
poor  libretto  had  indifferent  success. 

FAISST,  IM  MANUEL  (GOTTLOB 
FRIEDRICH),  born  at  Esslingeu,  AViirtem- 
berg,  Oct.  13,  1823,  still  living,  1889.  Or- 
ganist, self-taught ;  served  as  organist  when 
nine  years  old,  went  to  Berlin  in  1844,  and 
was  advised  by  Mendelssohn,  to  whom  he 
showed  some  of  his  compositions,  to  jjursue 
his  studies  independently.  Having  given  or- 
gan recitals  in  several  cities,  he  settled  in 
184G,  at  Stuttgart,  where  he  founded  in  1847 
the  Union  for  classical  church  music,  in  1849 
the  Suabian  Silngerbund,  and  in  1857  with 
\  Lebert  the  Conservatorium,  at  which  he 
taught  the  organ  and  composition,  and  of 
which  he  assumed  the  directorship  in  1859. 
He  is  also  organist  of  the  Stiftskirche.  Tlie 
university  of  Tubingen  conferred  on  hira 
the  degree  of  doctor,  and  the  King  of  Wiir- 
temberg the  title  of  professor.  His  com- 
positions consist  of  cantatas,  motets,  cho- 
ruses, songs,  organ  and  pianoforte  music. 
— Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

FAITHFUL  SHEPHERD.  See  Pastor 
fido. 

FALANDRY,  ALEXIS  GERjMAm,  born 
at  Lavalette  (Aude),  France,  April  28,  1798, 
died  in  1853.  Composer  of  church  and 
chamber  music,  pupil  of  Fetis  at  the  Paris 


38 


FALCONE 


Conservatoire,  1824-1827  ;  became  maitre 
de  cbapelle  in  Southern  France.  Of  his 
church  music  and  romances  were  published 
in  Paris  (Canaux)  :  Mass  for  three  voices, 
with  two  violins,  viola,  and  bass  ;  Memorare, 
motet  for  four  voices,  and  organ  ;  Domine 
nou  secundum,  for  three  voices  and  organ  ; 
O  sacrum  couvivium,  do.  ;  Ecce  panis,  do.  ; 
Attende  Domine,  do.  ;  Ave  vcrum,  for  two 
voices ;  Hymn  to  St.  Vincent  de  Paule, 
for  do. ;  Organ  pieces,  and  many  romances. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FALCONE,  ACHILLE,  Italian  contra- 
puntist of  the  end  of  the  16th  century,  died 
at  Cosenza,  Italy,  Nov.  9,  1600.  He  was 
maestro  di  cappella  at  Caltagirone.  His 
name  is  well  known  in  musical  history  from 
the  long  musical  discussion  as  to  the  supe- 
riority of  his  merits  over  those  of  his  rival, 
Sebastiano  Eaval ;  several  of  the  best  musi- 
cians of  the  time,  including  Nanini  and  So- 
riano, were  made  umpires.  Baiui  accords 
him  much  praise.  His  madrigals  were  pub- 
lished after  his  early  death. — Fctis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling  ;  Ambros,  iii.  591. 

FALCONIO  (Falconius),  PLACIDUS, 
Benedictine  monk,  born  at  Asola,  died  in 
the  beginning  of  the  17th  century.  Church 
composer,  entered  the  convent  of  his  order 
at  Brescia  in  15-19.  Works  :  Missai  iutroi- 
tus  per  totum  annum  (Venice,  1575)  ;  Pas- 
sio,  S.  Voces  hebdomadse  sanctpe  (ib., 
1580) ;  Eesponsoria  hebdomadaj  sanctte,  etc. 
(Brescia,  1580)  ;  Turbarum  vocis,  etc.  (ib., 
1580)  ;  Magnificat  octo  touorum  (ib.,  1588). 
— Ft'tis  ;  Gerber  (1812),  ii.  73  ;  Mendel  ; 
Ambros,  iv.  79. 

FALEGNAiNIE  DI  LIVONIA,  IL  (The 
Carpenter  of  Livonia),  Italian  comic  opera, 
text  by  Eomani,  music  by  Donizetti,  repre- 
sented at  the  Teatro  di  San  Luca,  Venice, 
1819.  The  same  libretto,  set  to  music  by 
Giovanni  Pacini,  was  given  at  Milan  in 
1819,  and  at  Bergamo  in  1832. 

FALKNERS  BRAUT,  DES  (The  Fal- 
coner's Bride),  German  opera,  music  by 
Heinrich  Marschner,  given  at  Leipsie, 
1832. 


FALLANI,  DO  MEN  I  CO,  Neapolitan 
church  composer,  maestro  di  capisella  at 
Pozzuoli  in  the  second  half  of  the  18th 
centurj'.  He  wrote  masses,  vespers,  and 
psalms  for  three  and  four  voices,  with  two 
violins,  viola,  and  bass.  His  Orazione  di 
Geremia,  for  a  solo  voice,  with  violins,  viola, 
and  organ,  suggesting  the  style  of  Pergolesi 
and  Leo,  is  commended  as  a  masterpiece. 
—Fctis. 

FALL  BABYLONS,  DER  (The  Fall  of 
Babylon),  oratorio  in  two  parts,  text  by 
Oetker  after  the  English  of  Edward  Taylor, 
music  by  Spohr,  composed  1840,  iirst  per- 
formed at  Cassel,  Good  Friday,  1811  ;  Mu- 
sic Festival,  Norwich,  1812  ;  Exeter  Hall, 
London,  1843,  conducted  by  Spolir  in  per- 
son.— Spohr's  Autobiography  (English  ed.), 
ii.  247. 

FALL'N  IS  THE  FOE,  chorus  in  D  mi- 
uoi",  in  Handel's  Judas  Maccabwus,  Part  II. 

FALLOUARD,  PIERRE  JEAN  IMICHEL, 
born  at  Honfleur  (Calvados),  France,  July 
11,  1805,  died  there,  April  16, 1865.  Organ- 
ist, pupil  of  Delaporte,  whose  successor  he 
became  at  St.  Catharine's,  Honfleur,  in  1825, 
and  of  Godefroi  at  Rouen.  He  then  studied 
the  works  of  Haydn,  Mozart,  and  Beethoven, 
and  formed  many  able  jjupils.  Works : 
6  series  of  marches,  pas-redoubles,  etc.,  for 
military  band  ;  6  valses  brillantes  for  piano- 
forte ;  2  quadrilles  for  4  hands  ;  Variations 
for  clarinet ;  3  duos  concertants  for  2  clar- 
inets ;  Romances,  with  pianoforte  ;  Organ 
and   pianoforte  music,    and    songs. — Fetis. 

FAXiSTAFF,  Italian  comic  opera  in  two 
acts,  text  by  Manfredo  Maggioni,  music  by 
Balfe,  represented  at  Her  Majesty's  Thea- 
tre, London,  July  19,  1838.  The  libretto 
is  an  adaptation  from  Shakespeare's  "  Merry 
Wives  of  Windsor."  The  music  was  en- 
tirely written  within  two  mouths.  Sung  by 
Grisi,  Albertazzi,  Caremoli,  Lablache,  Ru- 
bini,  and  Tamburini,  it  won  an  unqualified 
success.  The  trio,  "  Vorrei  parlar,"  and  the 
melody,  "  O  mia  gioia,"  were  very  popular 
and  are  still  found  in  programmes. — Bar- 
rett, Balfe,  122  ;  Kenney,  Memoir,  126. 


FAMILLE 


FAMELLE  SUISSE,  LA,  opera-comique 
iu  one  act,  text  bj  Godart  d'Ancourt  (Saint- 
Just),  music  by  Boieldieu,  reinesented  at 
the  Theatre  Feydeau,  Paris,  Feb.  12,  1797. 
This,  the  composer's  first  work  of  impor- 
tance, had  a  successful  run  of  thirty  nights, 
alternately  with  Cherubini's  Medee. — Pou- 
gin,  Boieldieu,  48. 

FAMINZIN,  ALEXANDER  SERGIE- 
VITCH,  born  at  Kaluga,  Russia,  in  1841, 
still  living,  1888.  Dramatic  composer,  pu- 
2)il  of  Jeau  Vogt  in  St.  Petersburg,  of  Haupt- 
mann,  Richter,  and  Riedel  in  Leipsic  (18G2- 
Go),  and  of  Seifriz  at  LOwenberg.  In  1860 
he  was  made  jjrofessor  of  musical  history 
and  aesthetics  at  the  Conservatory  of  St. 
Petersburg,  and  in  1870  secretary  of  the 
Russian  Music  Society.  Since  1869  he  has 
edited  the  Russian  perioilical  Musical  Sea- 
son, and  he  contributes  also  to  other  papers. 
Works :  Sardanapal,  opera,  given  iu  St. 
Petersburg,  1875  ;  Uriel  Acosta,  do.,  ib., 
1883  ;  Triumph  of  Dionysos,  symphonic 
poem  ;  Russian  rhapsody  for  violin  and  or- 
chestra ;  Quintet  with  pianoforte  ;  String 
quartets  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  and  songs. 
— Mendel,  Ergiinz. ;  Riemann. 

FAN.\TICO  BURL.\TO,  IL  (The  Fanatic 
Ridiculed),  opera  buffa,  music  by  Cimarosa, 
performed  at  the  Teatro  del  Foudo,  Naples, 

1787.  It  is  probably  identical  with  II  fa- 
natico  in  berliiia  (The  Fanatic  iu  the  Pillory), 
given  iu  Milan,  1792. 

FANCHETTE,  ou  I'heureuse  eprcuve, 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  bj-  Des- 
fontaines,  music  by  Dalayrac,  rejiresented 
at   the   Opera   Comique,    Paris,    Sept.    13, 

1788.  An  opera-comique  of  the  same  title, 
in  one  act,  text  and  music  by  Eugene  De- 
jazet,  was  produced  at  the  Theatre  Dejazet, 
Paris,  Feb.  4,  1860. 

FANISKA,  German  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Sonnleithner  from  the  French,  mu- 
sic by  Cherubini,  represented  at  the  Kiirnth- 
nerthor  Theater,  Vienna,  Feb.  25,  1806.  It 
had  an  immense  reputation,  being  consid- 
ered at  one  time  superior  to  Beethoven's 
Fidelio. 


FANNA,  ANTONIO,  born  in  Venice  in 
1795,  died  there,  March  15,  1845.  Pianist, 
wrote  fantasias  for  pianoforte,  caprices,  etc., 
besides  romances  and  canzonets  for  the 
voice. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Viotta,  i.  499. 

FANTASIE  mT  CHOR,  for  pianoforte, 
with  orchestra  and  chorus,  text  by  Christian 
Kuffuer,  music  by  Beethoven,  op.  80,  in  C 
minor,  composed  1808,  first  performed  iu 
Vienna,  Dec.  22,  1808 ;  dedicated  to  King 
Maximilian  Josejih  I.  of  Bavaria.  Pub- 
lished by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1811). 
— Thayer,  Verzeichniss,  77 ;  Lenz,  Bee- 
thoven, ii.  188. 

FANTASIO,  opera-comique  in  three  acts, 
text  after  the  comedy  of  Alfred  de  Musset, 
music  by  Otfeubach,  represented  at  the 
Opera  Comique,  Paris,  Jan.  18,  1872.  The 
role  of  the  buffoon  was  played  by  Slme 
Galli-:Marie  ;  Elsbeth  by  Mile  Priola. 

FANTASTIC  SYMPHONY.  See  Epi- 
sode de  la  vie  d'un  artiste. 

FANTE,  ANTONIO  DEL,  died  in  Rome, 
Jlarch,  1822.  He  was  maestro  di  cappella 
of  S.  M.  Maggiore,  Rome,  from  1817.  He 
left  church  and  chamber  music  in  MS. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FANTON,  NICOLAS,  maitre  de  musique 
of  the  Sainte-Chapelle,  Paris,  1757.  He  bad 
previously  held  a  similar  position  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Blois.  He  comiioscd  motets, 
and  phyed  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels  from 
1754.  His  best  compositions  are  in  La- 
lande's  style.  They  were  never  published. 
—Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FANUCCHI,  DO:\IENICO,  born  in  Lucca, 
Italy,  about  1795,  died  there,  June  24,  1862. 
Organist,  pupil  of  Domenico  Quilici,  and  of 
Domenico  Puccini.  He  became  one  of  the 
best  performers  of  his  tiine  ;  was  maestro 
of  the  Seminario  of  S.  Martino.  Works : 
Masses ;  Psalms  ;  Motets  ;  Hymns,  etc. 
(1820-1840).— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  313  ; 
Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  xii.  100. 

FARAMONDO  (Pharamond),  Italian  op- 
era in  three  acts,  text  by  Apostolo  Zeno, 
but  considerably  altered,  music  by  Handel, 
fii'st    performed    at     the   King's   Theatre, 


40 


FxiKEWELL 


London,  Jan.  7,  1738.  The  MS.,  in  Buck- 
ingliam  PaLice,  is  dated,  at  the  beginning, 
Nov.  15,  1737,  and  at  the  end,  Dec.  24, 
1737.  Within  this  time  Handel  wrote  also 
the  Funeral  Anthem  for  the  obsequies  of 
Queen  Caroline.  The  opera,  the  principal 
parts  in  which  were  sung  by  the  famous 
artificial  soprano  Gaetano  Majorauo  (1703- 
1783),  called  Caffarelli  and  by  Madame 
Elizabeth  Duparc,  called  La  Francesina,  was 
given  but  five  times.  Characters  repre- 
sented :  Faramondo,  Clotilde,  Rosimonda, 
Gustavo,  Adolfo,  Gernaudo,  Teobaldo, 
Childerico.  It  was  first  published  by 
"Walsh,  1738  ;  full  score,  Htindelgesellschaft 


(Leipsic,  1884).  Ojseras  of  the  same  title 
had  been  given  previously  by  Pollarolo, 
Venice,  1699  ;  and  Pori^ora,  Naples,  1719. 
■ — Schoelcher,  Handel,  192  ;  Eockstro,  Han- 
del, 208  ;  Chrysander,  ii.  447. 

FAEEWELL  OF  HIAWATHA,  THE, 
ballad  for  baritone  solo,  male  chorus,  and 
orchestra,  by  Arthur  Foote,  op.  11,  first 
given  in  the  Boston  (Mass.)  Music  Hall  by 
the  Apollo  Club,  May  12,  188G.  The  text 
is  from  Longfellow's  poem. 

FAEEWELL  SYMPHONY.  See  Ab- 
schieda  sinfonie. 

FAELi,  LLTZ  DA  COSTA  E,  born  at 
Guarda,  Portugal,  Oct.  14,  1679,  died  (?). 
He  studied  at  the  Theological  Seminary, 
took  orders  in   1724,  and  held  important 


offices  in  the  province  of  Jlinho.  Works  : 
Zarzuelas  and  vilhancicos,  of  which  he  wrote 
words  and  music. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i., 
313  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  100  ;  Vasconcellos. 

FAEINA,  CAELO,  born  in  Mantua,  Italy, 
about  1.580,  died  (?).  He  was  solo  violinist 
at  the  court  of  Savoy,  and  one  of  the  earli- 
est to  write  solo  music  for  his  instrument. 
He  published  at  Dresden,  in  1G27,  a  collec- 
tion of  galliards,  courants,  etc.,  the  best 
part  of  which  is  appropriately  called  "  Ca- 
priccio  Stravagante,"  wherein  the  violin  is 
made  to  imitate  animal  sounds,  tlie  fife,  and 
the  guitar.  A  copy  of  this  book  is  in  the 
Dresden  Library. — Hart,  Violin  and  its 
Music,  172. 

FAEINELLI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  at  Este, 
Venetia,  May  7,  1769,  died  at  Trieste,  Dec. 
12,  1836.  Eeal  name  Finco.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  in  his  native  city  of  Do- 
menico  Liouelli,  then  in  Venice  of  Marti- 
nelli,  and  in  Naples  at  the  Conservatorio 
della  Pieta  de'  Turchini  (where  he  changed 
his  name  to  Farinelli),  of  Barbiella  in  sing- 
ing, of  Fugo  in  thorough  bass,  and  of  Sala 
and  Tritto  in  composition.  He  pursued 
also  special  studies  under  Picciuni,  Fena- 
roli,  and  Guglielmi.  In  1808  he  brought 
out  iu  Venice  the  cantata  II  nuovo  destino, 
lived  in  Turin  from  1810  to  1817,  then  for 
a  time  in  Venice,  and  in  1819  was  appointed 
maestro  di  cappella  of  San  Giusto  cathedral 
and  of  the  Teatro  Grande  in  Trieste.  His 
operas,  mostly  comic,  are  in  the  style  of 
Cimarosa,  and  obtained  great  success  ;  he 
was  repeatedly  invited  to  Vienna  and  Lis- 
bon. As  one  of  the  last  disciples  of  the 
masters  mentioned,  he  adhered  strictly  to 
the  old  Neapolitan  school,  and  was  averse  to 
modern  Italian  music.  Works — Operas  : 
La  locandiera  scaltra,  Italy,  about  1790, 
Paris,  1805  ;  L'  amor  sincero,  about  1790  ; 
Bandiera  d'  ogui  vento,  1791  ;  II  finto  sordo, 
1791  ;  La  Pamela  maritata,  Venice,  1791  ; 
Oro  seuza  oro,  ib.,  1792  ;  LaGiulietta,  1792  ; 
La  finta  sposa,  about  1793  ;  Teresa  e  Clau- 
dio,  Venice,  1793  ;  L'  amico  dell'  uomo, 
about   1793  ;    Uu    effetto    naturale,    1793 ; 


41 


FARINELLI 


Odoardo  e  Cailottti,  do.  ;  II  colpevole  salvato 
dellacolpa,  1793;  Aiiiietta.ossiavirtu  trionta, 
1794 ;  L'  iudoleute,  about  1795 ;  L'  iucognita, 
1795  ;  La  terza  lettera  ed  il  terzo  martinel- 
lo,  Veuice,  1795 ;  II  duello  jjer  comi^limeuto, 
1795  ;  Idomeueo,  1796  ;  Attila,  1797  ;  L' 
uomo  iudolente,  Najsles  about  1797 ;  11 
Cid  delle  Sjjagne,  do.  ;  La  Ginevra  degli 
Almieri,  Turin,  1798  ;  Lauso  e  Lidia,  about 

1798  ;   II  matrimonio  per   concorso,  about 

1799  ;  Climeue,  1800  ;  II  trionfo  d'  Emilio, 
about  1800  ;  La  caritea,  1801  ;  II  dotto- 
rato  di  Pulcinella,  1802 ;  La  contadina  di 
spirito,  1803  ;  H  nuovo  savio  della  Giecia, 
1804  ;  Raggiri  a  sorpresa,  1804  ;  I  riti  d' 
Efeso,  1804 ;  L'  inganno  non  dura,  Naples, 
1806  ;  Adriano  in  Siria,  Milau,  1815  ;  Scij)i- 
one  in  Cartagine,  Turin,  1815  ;  Zoraide, 
Venice,  1816  ;  La  Cbiarina,  Milan,  1816  ;  II 
testameuto  a  sei  cento  mille  fraucbi,  Turin, 
1816 ;  La  donna  di  Bessarabia,  Venice,  1819  ; 
II  nuovo  destino,  cantata,  Veuice,  1808. — Nu- 
volato,  Storia  di  Este  e  del  suo  tenitorio 
(Este,  1851),  563;  Fotis,  iv.  230;  Grove; 
Meudel  ;  Schilling  ;  do.,  Supjslement,  123  ; 
Wurzbacli. 

FARINELLI,  serio-comic  opera  in  two 
acts,  text  by  C.  Z.  Barnett,  music  by  John 
Barnett,  represented  at  Druiy  Lane  Thea- 
tre, London,  Feb.  8,  1839.  The  part  of 
Farinelli  (Carlo  Broschi)  was  sung  by 
Balfe. 

FARMER,  JOHN,  EngUsh  composer  of 
the  16th  century.  Nothing  is  known  of  his 
life.  In  1591  he  published  a  tract  entitled 
'"Divers  and  Sundrie  waies  of  two  Parts  iu 
one,  to  the  number  of  fortie  upon  one 
playn  Song,"  etc.,  and  he  was  one  of  the  ten 
composers  employed  by  Este  to  harmonize 
the  tunes  for  his  "  Whole  Book  of  Psalms  " 
(1592).  In  1599  he  published  his  "First 
Set  of  English  Madrigals  to  Foure  Voyces," 
and  in  1601  contributed  to  the  "  Tri- 
umphes  of  Oriaua "  the  six-part  madrigal, 
"Faire  uimphes  I  heard  one  telling." 
— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iii.  134 ; 
Hawkins,  Hi.st.,  iii.  400  ;  Meudel  ;  Ritter, 
Music  iu  England,  40. 


FARMER,  THOiLVS,  Euglish  composer 
of  the  17tli  centurj-.  He  was  originally 
one  of  the  Waits  of  London,  aud  received 
the  degree  of  Mus.  Bac,  Cambridge,  in 
1684.  He  conti'ibuted  songs  to  the  "The- 
atre of  Music"  (1685-1687)  and  to  D'Urfey's 
"  Third  Collection  of  songs  "  (1685)  ;  pub- 
lished a  "  Consort  of  Musick  in  four  parts, 
containing  33  Lessons  beginning  with  an 
Overture  "  (1868)  and  a  "  Second  Consort  of 
Musick,  iu  four  jjarts,  containing  eleven 
Lessons  beginning  with  a  Ground  "  (1G90). 
PurceU  composed  an  Elegy,  text  by  Nahum 
Tate,  on  his  death,  from  which  it  is  inferred 
that  he  died  young. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Haw- 
kins, Hist,,  V.  18  ;  Meudel. 

FARNABY,  GILES,  born  in  Truro, 
Cornwall,  England,  second  half  of  16th  cen- 
tury, died  ('?).  Comjjoser,  graduated  at 
Oxford  as  Mus.  Bac,  July  9,  1592.  He  was 
one  of  the  composers  employed  by  Thomas 
Este  to  harmonize  the  tunes  for  the  "  Whole 
Book  of  Psalms  "  (1592).  Works :  Canzonets 
to  foure  voyces  with  a  song  of  eight  parts 
(Loudon,  1598);  Madrigal,  "Come,  Cha- 
ron, Come,"  in  MS.  ;  Music  iu  Queen  Eliza- 
beth's Virginal  Book,  preserved  in  the  Fitz- 
william Museum,  Cambridge. — Grove;  Fetis; 
Larousse  ;  Bumey,  Hist.,  iii.  112  ;  Hawkins, 
Hist.,  iii.  367  ;  Ritter,  Music  iu  England,  129. 

FARNACE  (Pharnaces),  Italian  opera, 
music  by  Caldara,  represented  in  Venice, 
1703.  The  hero  is  Pharnaces,  son  of  Mith- 
ridates.  King  of  Pontus,  whose  revolt  led  to 
his  father's  death.  The  same  subject  has 
been  treated  also  by  Pollarolo,  Venice,  1718  ; 
Bononcini,  London,  1723 ;  Vinci,  Venice, 
1724  ;  Vivaldi,  Venice,  1726  ;  Riualdo  da 
Capua,  Italy,  about  1740  ;  Arena,  Rome, 
1742  ;  Traetta,  Naples,  1750  ;  Perez,  Rome, 
1750  ;  Guglielmi,  Italy,  about  1765  ;  Sarti, 
Veuice,  1776  ;  Sterkel,  Naples,  1780  ;  Ur- 
bani,  Dublin,  1784. 

FARRANT,  RICHARD,  born  in  first  half 
of  16th  century,  died  at  Windsor,  Nov.  30, 
1580.  He  was  one  of  the  Gentlemen  of  the 
Chapel  Royal  up  to  1564 ;  Master  of  the 
Children  of  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor, 


42 


FARREXC 


q^. 


aucl  probably  organist,  in  1564-69 ;  and 
again  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Eoj-al,  from 
1569  until  his  death.  Works  :  High  Ser- 
vice, in  G  minor  and  A  minor,  in  Tudway's 
Collection,  British  Museum  ;  The  anthems, 
"Call  to  remembrance,"  and,  "Hide  not 
Thou  thy  Face,  O  Lord,"  i^reserved  in  the 
collections  of  Barnard  and  Boyce.  The 
anthem,  "Lord,  for  Thy  tender  mercies' 
sake,"  assigned  to  him,  is  attributed  by  ear- 
lier writers  to  John  Hilton  ;  and  the  anthem, 
"  OLord  Almighty,"  is  questionably  assign- 
ed to  him  by  Tudway. — Grove  ;  Fe- 
tis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iii.  11;  Hawkins, 
Hist.,  iii.  249  ;  Bitter,  Music  in  Eng- 
land, 39  ;  Naumanu  (Ouseley),  i.  679. 
F.ARRENC,  JEANNE  LOUISE, 
(Dumont)  in  Paris,  May  31,  1804, 
there,  Sept.  15,  1875.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Moscheles,  Hummel,  and  Reicha.  In  1821 
she  married  Aristide  Farrenc  (born  at  Mar- 
seilles, April  9,  1794,  died  in  Paris,  Feb.  12, 
1869),  flutist  and  writer  on  music,  with  whom 
she  made  several  professional  journeys.  She 
was  professor  of  the  pianoforte  at  the 
Conservatoire,  Paris,  from  1842  to  1873. 
Works  :  Etudes,  sonatas,  etc.,  for  the  piano- 
forte ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and 
violoncello  ;  Duos  ;  2  quintets  ;  a  sestet  ;  a 
nonet  ;  2  symphonies ;  and  3  overtures  for 
full  orchestra.  lu  1869  she  was  awarded  by 
the  Academie  des  Beaux-Arts  the  prize  for 
chamber  music.  Her  Tresor  des  Pianistes 
(20  parts,  Paris,  1861-72)  contains  master- 
pieces of  all  the  classical  writers  from  the 
16th  century  downwards.      Her  daughter. 


Naumburg,  for  which  he  composed  three 
operas,  then  visited  Italy,  and  after  his  re- 
turn to  Leipsic  went  to  Darmstadt  to  study 
harmony  and  counterpoint  under  Graupner 
and  Griiuewald.  Having  occupied  different 
positions  at  Gera  (1715),  Zeitz  (1720),  and 
in  the  service  of  Count  Morzin  in  Bohemia 
(1721),  he  was  appointed  Hof kapellmeister 
at  Zerbst  in  1722.  Works  :  Berenice,  op- 
era, given  at  Zerbst,  1725  ;  2  sacred  canta- 
tas, for  four  voices  and  orchestra ;  Orato- 
rios ;   Masses  ;  Motets  ;  Passions.      In   the 


•'ivw 


.^a 


born  1  Royal  Library  at  Dresden  are  in  MS.  :  45 
died  concertos  for  violin,  flute,  oboe,  bassoon, 
etc.,  with  accompaniment ;  61  overtures  for 
orchestra  ;  12  trios,  and  13  symphonies  for 
string-  and  wind-instruments. — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  vi.  576  ;  Fetis ;  Marpurg,  Histo- 
rischkritische  Beitriige  (Berlin,  1757),  iii. 
124  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FASCH,  KARL  FRIEDRICH  CHRIS- 
TIAN, born  in 
Zerbst,  Nov.  18, 
1736,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, Aug.  3,  1800. 
Son  and  pupil  of 
Jobann  Friedrich 
Fasch  in  organ 
and  theory,  of 
HOckli  for  violin, 

and  in  Strelitz  of  —  '       " 

Hertel  in  all  branches.     He  became  in  1756 


Victorine  Louise  Farrenc  (1826-1859),  was  ,  accompanist  to   Frederick    the   Great,   his 
also  a  pianist  and  wrote  music  for  her  in-   duty  being,  alternately  with  C.  P.  E.  Bach, 


to  play  the  harpsichord  to  the  king's  flute. 
In  1774-76  he  directed  the  Court  Opera.    In 


strument. — Fctis,  iii.  186;  do., Supplement, 
i.  314 ;  Grove  ;  Larousse. 

FASCH,  JOHANN  FRIEDRICH,  born  at   1792  a  small  choral  society  for  which  he  had 
Buttelstiidt,  Saxe-Weimar,   April  15,  1688,  ^  written  pieces  obtained  a  haU  in  the  Acad- 


died   at  Zerbst,  Anhalt,    in   1758   (1759?). 
Dramatic  comj)oser,  pupil  of  Kuhnau  at  the 


amy  building,  and  became  the  Berlin  Sing- 
akademie,  the  prototj'pe  of  many  such  insti- 
Thomasschule  in  Leipsic  (1702-7),  where  he  tutions  all  over  Germany.  He  was  its  first 
became  a  good  pianist,  and  studied  compo-  artistic  director,  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
sition  from  the  works  of  Telemann.  In  ,  pupil  Zelter.  Shortly  before  his  death  he 
1710   he  accepted   a  call   to   the   court  of ,  caused  to  be  burned  all  his  compositions 


43 


FASCIIINGSSCHWANK 


written  previous  to  the  mass  for  16  voices. 
Works :  Vasco  da  Gama,  opera,  given  in 
Vienna,  1792;  Mass  for  16  voices;  Chorals  ; 
Psahns  ;  Requiem  ;  Funeral  cantata  ;  Can- 
ons ;  Cantatas  ;  Harpsichord  pieces.  Some 
of  his  manuscript  music  is  in  the  Berlin 
Rojal  Library-.  His  principal  works  were 
2)ublished  by  the  Singakademie  in  1839. 
— Zelter,  K."  F.  C.  Fasch  (Berlin,  1801)  ; 
AUgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vi.  576  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FASCHINGSSCHW.YNK  AUS  WIEN 
(Carnival  Jest  from  Vienna),  for  jjianoforte, 
by  Robert  Schumann,  op.  26,  composed  1839. 
It  consists  of  five  movements,  three  of  which 
are  among  the  brightest  and  most  attrac- 
tive creations  of  the  composer.  The  jjoiut 
of  the  jest  lies  iu  the  first  movement,  in 
which  the  Marseillaise,  at  that  time  inter- 
dicted in  Vienna,  is  surrej^titiously  intro- 
duced. External  influences  are  easily  recog- 
nizable iu  the  other  three  movements,  where 
certain  moods  are  represented  iu  the  firmly 
fixed  forms  of  the  Romance,  the  Scherzino, 
and  the  Finale  iu  rondo  form. — Maitland, 
60  ;  Riemann,  72. 

FASTRli,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Flushing, 
June  22,  1783,  died  at  The  Hague,  April  13, 
1812.  Instrumental  and  vocal  composer; 
entered  the  service  of  a  French  regiment 
in  1803,  was  stationed  at  Flushing  and  at 
Dunkirk  iu  1804,  went  with  the  regiment 
to  Germany  in  180.5,  and  took  part  iu  the 
battle  of  Austcrlitz  ;  returned  home  in  1806, 
and,  having  afterwards  lived  at  Alkmaar  and 
Middelburg  (1807),  settled  a"t  The  Hague, 
where  he  became  a  member  of  the  I'oyal 
orchestra,  and  i^rofessor  at  the  Conserva- 
toire in  1830.  AYorks :  12  songs  for  2 
voices  ;  12  do.  for  3  voices  ;  6  do.  for  2  so- 
pranos and  contralto ;  Compositions  for  flute, 
clarinet,  and  jjianoforte.  — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  316  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  101 ;  Viotta. 

FAT.\L   OATH.     See  Oberon. 

FATINITZA,  operetta  in  three  acts,  text 
by  Zell  and  Genue,  music  by  Franz  von 
Suppe,  first  represented  in  Vienna,  Jan.  5, 
1876.  The  libretto  is  an  adaptation  of  La 
Circassienne,  opera-comique  by  Scribe  and 


Auber.  On  its  production  iu  Paris,  the 
same  year,  a  French  text  was  supplied  by 
A.  Delacour  and  Victor  Wilder,  in  which  a 
woman  inlays  the  riile  of  the  young  Russian 
officer  of  Scribe's  libretto.  Fatinitza  was 
given  in  London  in  1878. 

FATTORIXI,  GABRIELE,  born  at  Fa- 
enza,  Roman  States,  lived  in  the  begiuuing 
of  the  17th  centiuy.  A  work  by  him,  in  the 
Lyceo,  Bologna,  entitled:  "I  Sacri  Con- 
eerti  a  2  voci  col  basso  generale "  (1608), 
is  supposed  to  be  a  reprint  of  his  Sacri  Con- 
cert! a  2  voci  commodi  da  cantare  col  or- 
gano  (Venice,  1600).  This  is  interesting 
as  being  one  of  the  first  works  of  the  kind 
ever  produced,  it  marking  the  origin  of  the 
new  forms  of  religious  music.  His  masses 
are  iu  the  Royal  Librai'y,  Munich. — Fe- 
tis ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel. 

FAUBEL,  JOSEF,  born  at  Aschaffen- 
burg,  June  12,  1801,  still  living,  1889  (?). 
Virtuoso  on  the  clarinet,  attached,  when  only 
ten  years  old,  to  the  orchestra  of  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Frankfort.  In  1813,  when  that 
State  ceased  to  exist,  he  w-as  enrolled  in  a 
regiment  of  the  city  of  Frankfort,  and  took 
part  in  the  campaign  against  France  in 
1811.  After  his  return  he  devoted  himself 
to  a  thorough  study  of  his  instrument,  and 
in  1816  appeared  wdth  great  success  in 
Frankfort,  and  in  1818  in  Munich,  where  he 
was  at  once  engaged  as  court  musician  for 
the  royal  orchestra.  There  Biirmann  became 
his  great  model,  and  his  perseverance  in 
emulating  him  won  him  much  well-deserved 
applause  ou  concert  tours  in  North  Ger- 
many (1825),  Vienna  (1831),  Switzerland 
(1833),  Paris  (1837),  and  Holland  (1811). 
He  has  composed  solos,  variations,  duos, 
etc.,  for   his   instrument.— Fetis  ;   Mendel. 

FAUCON,  LE,  opera-comique  in  one 
act,  text  by  Sedaine,  music  by  Monsigny, 
represented  at  the  Italiens,  Paris,  March 
19,  1772.     The  subject  is  from  Boccaccio. 

FAUCONIER,  BENOIST  CONSTANT, 
born  at  Fontainc-rEveque,  April  28,  1816, 
died  at  Thuiu,  Feb.  16,  1877.  Pianist,  pu- 
pil  at  the   Brussels   Conservatou-e,    under 


44 


FAUGUES 


Miclielot  and  Fotis,  and  became  accom- 
panist at  the  Conservatoire  in  1839.  After 
making  a  professional  tour  with  his  wife 
and  Fi'Hx  Godefroid,  he  settled  in  Paris 
in  1840,  but  was  in  Rome  in  18iG-1848. 
AYorks  :  Uu  an  d'avenir,  opera-comique,  one 
act,  given  in  Brussels  about  1850  ;  La  pa- 
gode,  opera-comique,  two  acts,  text  bj* 
Saint-Georges,  Paris,  Sept.  26,  1859; 
Masses,  op.  88,  89,  90,  91,  117  ;  Quartets 
for  violin,  pianoforte,  etc.,  with  orchestral 
accompaniment  ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  Violin 
music  ;  Hymns,  songs,  etc. — Fetis  ;  do..  Sup- 
plement, i.  317  ;  Mendel  ;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  101. 

FAUGUES  (Fauques,  Fagus,  La  Fage), 
VINCENT,  Flemish  composer,  born  about 
1415.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Guillaume  Du- 
fay  and  a  writer  of  considerable  merit. 
His  masses  were  much  used  during  the 
pontificate  of  Nicholas  VL  (1417-55). 
Ambros  gives  part  of  his  "Omme  Anne," 
a  mass  preserved  in  MS.  in  the  Pontifical 
Chapel. — Fetis  ;  Kiesewetter,  Gesch.  ;  Men- 
del ;  Nauraann  (Ouseley),  i.  317. 

FAURE,  GABRIEL^  French  composer, 
contemporary.  Pianist,  pujjil  at  the  Ecole 
de  Masique  Religieuse,  Paris,  where  he  won 
the  first  prize  for  jiianoforte,  and  a  prize  for 
harmony,  18G0,  and  one  for  composition  in 
1861.  Works  :  Symphony  for  orchestra  ; 
Cantique  de  Racine,  chorus  ;  Sonata  for 
violin  and  pianoforte  ;  Duos  for  2  female 
voices ;  Vocal  melodies. — Fetis,  Supjjle- 
ment,  i.  320  :  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  102. 

FAURE,  JEANBAPTISTE,  born  at  Mou- 
liiis  (Allier),  France, 
Jan.  15,  1830,  living  in 
Paris,  1889.  Baritone 
singer  and  composer, 
pupil  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire in  1843  in 
solfege,  then  at  the 
Maitrise  of  the  Ma- 
deleine under  Trevaux, 
and  subsequently  of 
Ponchard  and  Moreau- 
Sainti  at  the  Conservatoire.  In  1852  he 
won  the  1st  prize  for  singing  and  the  1st 


prize  for  opera-comique.  He  made  his  de- 
but, Oct.  20,  1852,  at  the  Opera  Comique 
as  Pygmalion  in  Masse's  Galatee,  sang  in 
London  in  1860,  in  Berlin  in  1861,  and  in 
the  same  year  made  his  first  appearance  at 
the  Opera,  where  he  soon  acquired  great 
reputation  in  leading  roles,  especially  in 
Don  Giovanni,  L'Africaine,  Thomas's  Ham- 
let, and  Gounod's  Faust.  He  alternated 
many  years  between  Loudon  and  Paris,  and 
has  sung  also  in  Italy  and  Russia.  He  was 
for  a  time  in  1857  professor  of  singing  at 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  and  in  1874  at  that 
of  Brussels.  He  is  a  man  of  wide  general 
culture  and  his  eomj)ositions  are  highly 
creditable.  Works  :  25  melodies  for  voice 
and  pianoforte  ; 
20  melodies  for  CA 
do. ;  Church 
music  ;  Piano- 
forte music. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i. 
318  ;  Larousse  ;  Grove,  i.  571  ;  Mendel, 
Ergiinz.,  xii.  101. 

FAUSSE  MAGIE,  LA,  opera-comique  in 
two  acts,  in  verse,  text  by  Marmontel,  mu- 
sic by  Gretry,  rej)resented  at  the  Comedie 
Italienne,  Paris,  Feb.  1,  1775.  It  contains 
a  famous  duet  between  two  old  men, 
"  Quoi !  c'est  vous  qu'elle  prefere  !  "  which 
was  long  popular.  La  fausse  magie  was  re- 
produced in  1828  and  again  in  1863.  It 
has  been  reinstrumented  by  Eugene  Pre- 
vost. 

FAUST,  German  opera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  J.  C.  Bernhard,  music  by  Spohr,  first 
represented  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  in 
1818.  The  oi^era  was  written  at  Vienna,  in 
1813,  for  the  Theater  an  der  Wien,  but  for 
some  reason  was  not  produced.  The  li- 
bretto has  little  resemblance  to  Goethe's 
poem,  the  first  part  of  which  had  been  pub- 
lished in  1805,  but  follows  more  closely  the 
popular  legend.  It  was  successful,  and  was 
soon  produced  at  Cassel,  Berlin,  and  else- 
where. It  was  given  in  London  by  a  German 
company,  at  the  Prince's  Theatre,  May  21, 
1840.  in  1852,  Spohr  went  to  London  to 
adapt  the  work  for  the  Italian  stage.     He 


45 


FAUST 


composed  for  it  recitatives  in  place  of  tbe 
spoken  dialogue,  and  made  other  additions 
and  alterations.  In  this  new  form  it  was 
produced  with  great  success,  under  his  own 
direction,  at  Covent  Garden,  July  15,  1852, 
with  Castellan,  Eonconi,  Formes,  and  Tam- 
berlik  in  the  principal  parts.  The  first  mu- 
sical-dramatic representation  of  the  Faust 
legend  seems  to  have  been  the  English  -pcin- 
tomime,  The  Necromancer  ;  or,  Harlequin 
Dr.  Faustus,  bj'  John  Ernest  GalUard,  j)ro- 
duced  in  London,  1723.  Other  early  ones 
are :  Doktor  Fausts  Zaubergiirtel  (JNIagic 
Girdle),  by  Phanty,  Vienna,  1790  ;  Harle- 
quin and  Faustus,  Samuel  Arnold,  London, 
1793  ;  Doktor  Faust,  by  Ignaz  Walter,  Han- 
over, 1797  ;  Fausts  Leben  und  Thaten  (Life 
and  Acts),  Josef  Strauss,  1815  ;  Fausts 
Leben,  Thaten,  und  Hollenfalu-t  (Descent  to 
Hell),  by  Lickl,  Vienna,  1815  ;  Faust,  by 
Wenzel  MiiUer,  Vienna,  1818  ;  do.,  by  J. 
von  Seyfried,  Vienna,  1820  ;  do.,  by  Beau- 
coui't,  Paris,  1827  ;  do.,  by  Angelique  Ber- 
tin,  ib.,  1831  ;  do.,  by  Liudpaintner,  Stutt- 
gart, 1832  ;  do.,  ballet,  by  Adolph  Adam, 
Paris,  1832  ;  do.,  by  de  Pellaert,  Brussels, 
183i  ;  do.,  by  Eietz,  Diisseldorf,  1836  ; 
Fausto,  by  Gordigiani,  Florence,  1837  ; 
Faust  and  Marguerite,  by  "Wilhelm  Meyer- 
Lutz,  London,  1855  ;  Faust,  musical  drama 
iu  four  acts  and  prelude,  by  Hcini-ich  Zoll- 
ner,  given  with  success  in  Munich,  Oct.  19, 
1887.  There  have  been  many  burlesques  of 
the  legend,  and  it  has  also  been  a  prolific 
theme  for  a  great  deal  of  incidental  music, 
iu  the  form  of  overtures,  symjjhonies,  etc. 
— K.  Engel,  Bibhotheca  Faustiana  (Olden- 
burg, 1874)  ;  Edwards,  Lyrical  Drama,  i. 
149. 

FAUST,  grand  opera  in  five  acts,  test  by 
jMichel  Carre'  and  Jules  Barbier,  music  by 
Charles  Gounod,  first  represented  at  the 
Theatre  LjTique,  Paris,  March  19,  1859  ; 
and  at  the  Academie  Impuriale  de  Musique, 
March  3,  1869.  The  libretto,  an  adapta- 
tion of  Goethe's  jjoem,  follows  the  first  part 
jjretty  closely.  The  original  cast  in  Paris 
■was  as  follows  : 


Faust M.  Barbot. 

Mcphistoplielus M.  Balanque. 

Marguerite Mme  Miolan-Carvalho. 

Valentin M.  Ismael. 

Siebel JMlle  Faivre. 

Marthe Mme  Duclos. 

The  same  parts  were  sung  at  the  Academie, 
iu  1869,  by  Colin,  Faure,  Nilsson,  Devoyod, 
and  Mauduit.  This  work  at  once  placed 
Gounod  iu  the  front  rank  of  living  compos- 
ers. It  had  even  a  greater  success  on  the 
Continent  than  in  Paris,  and  it  has  been  per- 
formed on  all  the  principal  stages  of  the 
world.  It  was  first  given  in  London,  at 
Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  June  11,  1863,  and, 


Miolan-Carvalho.  as  Marguerite. 

in  an  Italian  version,  as  Faust  e  Margherita, 
at  Covent  Garden,  July  2,  1863.  An  Eng- 
lish version,  text  by  Chorley,  was  played  at 
Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  Jan.  23,  1864.  It 
was  first  performed  in  Germany  at  Darm- 
stadt, 1861,  as  Faust,  and  in  Berlin,  1863,  as 
Margarethe.  Its  fii'st  representation  in  New 
York  took  place  at  the  Academy  of  IMusic, 
Nov.  25,  1863.  The  first  act,  which  is  in  the 
nature  of  a  prelude,  introduces  Faust  iu  his 
study  with  Mt'phistopheles.  In  act  second  is 
the  Kermesse,  in  which  Marguerite  is  intro- 
duced. In  the  third  is  the  garden  scene, 
which  leads  to  Marguerite's  fall.  In  the 
fourth,  or  cathedral  act,  occurs  the  death 
of  Valentin  and  his  malediction  upon  his 


46 


FAUST 


sister.  Tlie  fiftb,  or  prison  act,  includes 
Marguerite's  deatli  in  j^rison  and  her  apo- 
theosis. Tlie  most  popular  of  the  numbers 
are  the  weird  drinking  song  of  Mophisto- 
plielos,  "  Veau  d'or  ;  "  the  phrase  of  the  old 
man  at  the  Ivermesse,  "Aux  jours  de  di- 
manche;"the  cavatiua  bj' Faust,  "Salut,  de- 
nieure  chaste  et  pure  ;  "  the  ballad  sung  by 
Marguerite  at  the  S2)inning-wheel,  "II  etait 
un  roi  de  Thule  ;"  the  love  scene,  "Lais- 
sez-moi  coutempler  ton  visage  ; "  the  pas- 
sionate duet  between  Faust  and  Marguerite, 
"O  unit  d'amour,  ciel  radieux  ;  "  and  the  sol- 
diers' chorus,  "  Gloire  immortelle  de  iios 
a'ieux."  The  role  of  Marguerite,  created  by 
Mme  Carvalho,  has  been  since  worthily 
filled  by  Patti,  Lucca,  Nilsson,  and  Valleria. 
• — Edwards,  Lyrical  Drama,  i.  iG,  1G.5. 

FAUST,  musical  portrait,  for  full  orches- 
tra, by  Anton  Eubinsteiu,  op.  GS.  Pub- 
lished by  Siegel. 

FAUST,  CARL,  born  at  Neisse,  Silesia, 
Feb.  18,  1825,  still  living,  1880.  Dance 
music  composer,  jjupil  of  Herrling  at  Anua- 
berg,  was  bandmaster  in  two  regiments 
from  18.53  to  18G5,  when  he  left  the  mili- 
tary service  to  conduct  a  concert-orchestra 
at  Breslau  ;  in  18G9  he  was  appointed  city 
music  director  at  Waldenburg.  His  com- 
positions, consisting  exclusively  of  dances 
and  marches,  number  more  than  200,  and 
are  popular  in  North  Germany,  but  will 
not  bear  comparison  with  those  of  the  Vien- 
nese comjiosers. — Fetis,  Suiipk'ment,  i.  321 ; 
Mendel. 

FAUST-OUVERTURE,  EINE  (A  Faust 
Overture),  for  orchestra,  by  Richard  Wag- 
ner, written  in  Paris,  1839-40  ;  first  per- 
formed in  Dresden,  July  22,  1814.  This 
work,  the  first  in  Wagner's  true  style,  was 
conceived  after  a  rehearsal  of  Beethoven's 
Ninth  Symphony  at  the  Conservatoire.  It 
was  intended  as  the  first  movement  of  a 
Faust  symphony,  but  was  finally  laid  aside 
until  1855,  when  it  was  revised,  given  at  a 
concert  in  Zurich,  and  published.  It  is  a 
masterpiece  of  instrumentation.  It  was 
given  in  New  York,  by  the  Philharmonic 


Society,  in  1S5C-7,  and  in  Boston,  by  the 
Philharmonic  Societ}',  Jan.  3,  1857. — Grove, 
iv.  35  L 

FAUST,  SCENEN  AUS  GOETHE'S 
(Scenes  from  Goethe's  Faust),  for  soli, 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Robert  Schu- 
mann, comjiosed  in  1844,  1847,  1849,  1850, 
1853,  published  in  1858  (Breitkopf  &  Hiir- 
tel).  In  musical  importance,  as  in  extent, 
this  is  to  be  regarded  as  the  greatest  work 
of  the  composer's  later  years.  It  is  divided 
as  follows :  Part  I.  No.  1.  Scene  im  Garten 
(Garden  Scene),  1849  ;  No.  2.  Gretchen  vor 
dem  Bild  der  Mater  dolorosa  (Margaret 
before  the  picture  of  the  Mater  dolorosa), 
1849;  No.  3.  Scene  in  Dom  (Cathedral 
Scene),  1849.  Part  11.  No.  4.  Ariel,  Sou- 
nenaufgang  (Sunrise),  1849  ;  No.  5.  Mitter- 
nacht  (Midnight),  1850;  No.  G.  Faust's 
Tod  (Faust's  Death),  1853.  Part  IH.  No. 
7.  Faust's  Verkliirung  (Faust's  Transfigura- 
tion), subdivided  into  seven  scenes  (April, 
1847).  The  third  part  contains  the  most 
valuable  numbers,  and  in  it  aU  Schumann's 
noblest  qualities  as  a  composer  are  seen  to 
the  best  advantage.  His  purity  of  emotion, 
his  keenness  of  spiritual  insight,  here  find 
their  j^roper  sphere.  The  airy,  incorjDoreal 
world  of  spirits  in  which  this  portion  takes 
place  is  most  faithfully  reproduced  in  the 
music.  This  third  part  includes  the  whole 
last  scene  of  the  second  part  of  Goethe's 
poem  ;  Schumann  wrote  two  versions  of  the 
concluding  Chorus  Mysticus,  one  to  be  used 
when  the  whole  work  was  given,  the  other 
when  the  third  part  was  performed  sepa- 
rately. Begun  at  the  height  of  his  maturity 
(1844),  various  portions  were  finished  at  dif- 
ferent times,  and  the  overture  was  written 
in  1853.  The  first  part  was  performed  in 
Leipsic,  Dresden,  and  Weimar,  Aug.  29, 
1849,  on  the  100th  anniversary  of  Goethe's 
birth.  The  first  performance  of  the  com- 
plete composition  took  place  in  Leipsic,  at 
the  Gewandhaus,  under  the  direction  of 
Carl  Reinecke,  Dec.  4,  18G2.— Maitland,  92, 
Reissmann,  198  ;  Ambros,  Bunte  Blatter, 
ii.  169  ;  Samml.  mus.  Vort.,  i.  121. 


FAUST 


FAUST-SYMPHONIE,  EINE  (A  Faust 
Hyrupboiiy),  iu  three  cbaracter-pictures,  af- 
ter Goethe,  and  a  chorus,  for  orchestra  and 
men's  voices,  by  Franz  Liszt,  dedicated  to 
Hector  Beriioz.  Part  I.  Faust;  II.  llar- 
garete  ;  III.  Mephistopheles.  Published  in 
score  and  parts  ;  also  for  pianoforte,  two 
hands  (Schuberth).  —  Tretbar,  Analytical 
Eeview  of  A  Faust  Symphon}'. 

FAUST,  ZWEI  EPISODEN  AUS  LE- 
NAU'S  (Two  Episodes  from  Lenau's  Faust, 
i.e.,  Nikolaus  Lenau's  drama  of  that  title), 
for  orchestra,  by  Fi-anz  Liszt.  I.  Der 
nachtliche  Zug  ;  II.  Der  Tanz  in  der  Dorf- 
schenke  (Mephisto-Walzer).  Published  in 
score  and  parts ;  also  for  pianoforte,  two 
and  four  hands  (Schuberth). 

FAUVEL,  ANDEfi  JOSEPH,  surnamed 
the  elder,  born  in  Bordeaux  iu  1756.  Vio- 
linist, studied  under  several  masters,  par- 
ticularly Gervais.  He  had  Rode  for  a  i)upil 
iu  1782,  and  went  with  him,  in  1787,  to  Paris, 
where  he  was  a  member  of  the  orchestra 
of  the  Opera  in  1814-34.  Published  violin 
music  and  a  Symphouie  Concertaute  which 
was  played  at  the  Lycee  des  Arts  iu  1800. 
— Fetis.' 

FAVAEGER,  REXfi,  born  iu  France 
about  1815,  died  at  l5tretat,  near  Havre, 
Aug.  3,  18G8.  Pianist,  lived  for  many  years 
in  London,  where  he  was  in  great  demand 
as  a  teacher.  He  composed  many  morceaux 
de  genre,  some  of  which  became  popular 
even  outside  of  France. — Fetis,  Suppk'meut, 
i.  321. 

FAVORITE,  LA,  grand  opera  in  four 
acts,  text  by  Alphonse  Royer  and  Gustave 
Wai'Z  (Van  Niewenhuysen),  music  by  Doni- 
zetti, represented  at  the  Academic  Royale 
de  Musique,  Paris,  Dec.  2,  1840.  The  work 
was  written  originally  in  three  acts,  under 
the  title  of  L'ange  de  Nisida,  Tlu'utre  de  la 
Renaissance,  and  on  the  closing  of  that  the- 
atre was  transferred  to  the  Academie,  where 
a  fourth  act  was  added  with  the  collabora- 
tion of  S(!ribe.  The  subject  is  an  adajstation 
of  Baculard-Darnaud's  tragedy,  Le  comte 
de  Commiuges.     Fernand,  a  novice  in  the 


Convent  of  St.  James  of  Compostella,  is 
about  to  take  monastic  vows  when  he  sees 
and  loves  at  sight  a  lady  worshipping  in  the 
cloisters.  He  confesses  his  love  to  Baltha- 
sar,  his  superior,  renounces  monastic  life, 
and  goes  out  into  the  world.  The  lady  who 
has  inspired  his  passion  is  Leonore  de  Gus- 
man,  the  favourite  of  Alphonse  XI.,  King 
of  Castile,  who  has  resolved,  though  threat- 
ened with  excommunication,  to  repudiate 


I  #-^  ,. 


M 


Rosine  Stolz,  as  L6onore. 

his  queen  anil  marry  her.  Fernand,  who 
does  not  know  her  relations  with  the  king, 
seeks  her  retreat,  declares  his  love,  and  begs 
her  to  fly  with  him.  She  reciprocates  his 
passion  but  refuses  to  follow  him,  and  urges 
him  to  go  to  the  wars  and  win  honours  for 
her  sake.  He  performs  signal  services 
against  the  Moors,  and  returns  to  demand 
as  a  recompense  the  hand  of  Li'onore.  The 
king,  who  has  discovered  that  his  mistress 
loves  Fernand,  gives  her  to  him,  and  hast- 


48 


\r 


FAWCETT 


ens  the  marriage,  meanwhile  intercepting 
a  message  sent  to  Fernaud  by  Lt'ouore  to 
inform  him  of  her  relations  with  the  king, 
and  begging  his  forgiveness.  Fernaud  dis- 
covers his  dishonour  when  too  late,  breaks 
his  sword,  and  returns  for  consolation  to 
his  convent.  Leonora  follows  him  thither, 
and  dies  at  his  feet  as  he  comes  from  the 
church  where  he  has  pronounced  eternal 
vows.  The  music  of  La  Favorite  is  dramatic, 
passionate,  and  full  of  melody.  Among  the 
best  numbers  are  the  cavatina,  "  Uu  ange, 
une  femme  iuconnue  ;  "  the  duo,  "  Idole  si 
douce  et  si  chere  ; "  the  aria,  "  O  mou  Fer- 
naud "  (Ital.,  O  mio  Fernando) ;  the  chorus, 
"  Freres,  creusons  I'asile  ; "  and  the  romanza, 
"Ange  si  pur"  (Spirto  gentil),  the  last  trans- 
ferred from  Donizetti's  opera,  Le  Due 
d'Albe.  lu  the  original  cast  Mme  Stolz 
sustained  the  part  of  Lconore  ;  Duprez,  Fer- 
naud ;  Baroilhet,  Alphouse  ;  and  Levasseur, 
Balthasar.  Up  to  1876  it  had  had  481  rep- 
resentations in  Paris.  The  opera  was  pro- 
duced in  Italian,  as  La  Favorita,  in  London, 
at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  Feb.  IG,  18i7. 
— Larousse,  viii.  1G7  ;  Liszt,  Ges.  Schr.,  iii. 
110. 

FAWCETT,  JOHN,  born  at  Bolton-le- 
Moors,  Lancashire,  in  1789,  died  there,  Oct. 
26,  1SG7.  Originally  a  shoemaker,  he  be- 
came a  musician  iu  his  native  town,  and 
composed  three  sets  of  psalm  and  hymn 
tunes,  popular  iu  Lancashire,  entitled,  The 
Voice  of  Harmony,  The  Harp  of  Zion,  and 
Miriam's  Timbrel.  He  also  arranged  the 
accompaniment  of  a  collection  of  psalm  and 
hymn  tunes,  selected  by  Jose^jh  Hart,  called 
"  Melodia  divina  "(1810),  and  wrote  an  ora- 
torio, Paradise,  which  was  published  in 
1853.— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FAWCETT,  JOHN,  boru  iu  Bolton-le- 
Moors  iu  1824,  died  in  Manchester,  July  1, 
1857.  Organist,  son  and  pupil  of  the  pre- 
ceding. He  became  organist  of  St.  John's, 
Farnworth,  in  1835,  and  of  the  parish 
church,  Bolton,  in  1842.  In  1845  he  en- 
tered the  Academy  of  Music,  London, 
studied  under  Sterudale  Bennett,  and  was 


organist  of  Curzou  Chapel  in  1845-46.  Mus. 
Bac,  Oxford,  1852.  Works  :  Supplication 
and  Thanksgiving,  cantata  (degree  exercise) ; 
Anthems  ;  Glees  ;  Songs,  etc. — Grove. 

FAY,  ETIENNE,  born  at  Tours  (ludre- 
et-Loire)  iu  1770,  died  at  Versailles,  Dec. 
6,  1845.  Dramatic  singer  and  composer, 
made  his  musical  studies  while  a  chorister 
in  the  MetroiJolitau  Church  of  his  native 
city.  He  made  his  debut  as  a  tenor  at  the 
Theatre  de  la  rue  de  Louvois,  Paris,  in 
1790,  entered  up)on  an  engagement  at  the 
Theatre  Favart  iu  1792,  aud  at  the  Feydeau 
about  1795  ;  upon  the  fusion  of  these  two 
enterprises  into  the  Opera  Comique,  in  1801, 
he  went  to  Brussels,  came  back  to  Paris  in 
1804,  to  bring  out  an  opera,  and  again,  in 
1819,  to  sing  at  the  Of)era  Comique,  having 
meanwhile  travelled  and  sung  for  a  long 
time  iu  the  provinces.  In  1820  he  went  to 
Holland,  aud  the  year  after  was  engaged 
at  the  Theatre  du  Gymnase  in  Paris,  but 
soon  returned  to  Belgium,  and  lived  there 
until  1856,  when  he  finally  settled  iu  Paris. 
Works — Ojoeras  :  Flora,  given  at  the  The- 
atre Louvois,  1791  ;  Le  projet  extravagant, 
Le  bon  pere,  ib.,  1793  ;  L'interieur  d'un  me- 
nage rejiublicaiu,  vaudeville,  Theatre  Favart, 
1794 ;  Les  rendez-vous  espaguols,  ib.,  1795  ; 
Emma,  ou  le  soupjon,  Clementine,  ou  la 
belle-mere.  Theatre  Feydeau,  1795  ;  La 
famille  savoyarde,  ib.,  1800 ;  La  bonne 
aventure.  Theatre  des  Jeunes  Eleves,  1802  ; 
Julie,  Opera  Comique,  1804. — Fetis  ;  do., 
Supplement,  i.  321. 

FAYRFAX  (Fairfax),  ROBERT,  born  at 
Bayford,  Herts,  in  the  latter  jxart  of  the 
15th  century,  died  at  St.  Alban's.  He  is 
supposed  to  have  been  organist,  or  chanter, 
at  St.  Alban's  Abbey,  early  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury. In  1504  he  was  given  the  degree  of 
Mus.  Doc.  at  Cambridge,  and  iu  1511  at 
Oxford.  In  the  British  Museum  is  a  vol- 
ume of  part-songs  for  two,  three,  and  four 
voices,  in  MS.,  once  belonging  to  Dr.  Fayr- 
fax,  which  contains  some  of  his  own  among 
other  compositions,  and  which  is  probably 
\  the  oldest  collection  of  English  secular  part- 


49 


FAZZKI 


songs  in  existence.  Four  tbree-part  songs 
by  him  are  preserved  in  Smitli's  "Musica 
Antiqua,"  and  others  in  Burney  and  Haw- 
kins. Several  of  his  sacred  compositions 
are  in  MS.  in  the  Music  School,  Oxford. 
— Grove  ;  Naumann  (Ouseley),  i.  668  ;  Am- 
bros,  iii.  Hi  ;  Fetis. 

FAZZINI,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA,  born 
in  Eome.  Singer  in  the  Pontifical  Chapel  in 
1760.  A  distinguished  composer  in  the  old 
Roman  style,  he  was  successively  maestro 
di  cappella  of  Sta.  Cecilia,  of  Sta.  Margarita, 
and  of  Sta.  ApoUonia  in  Trastevere.  His 
masses  were  in  the  Sautini  collection. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

FEBURE.     See  Lefibure. 

FEDE  EICONOSCIUTA,  LA,  Italian 
opera,  text  and  music  by  Benedetto  Mar- 
cello,  represented  at  Vicenza,  1702  and 
1729. 

FEDELE.     See  Treu. 

FEDELI,  RUGGIERO,  born  in  Italy  about 
1670,  died  in  Cassel  in  1722.  He  was  Ka- 
pellmeister of  the  Landgrave  of  Hesse-Cas- 
sel  in  1700,  and  was  afterwards  in  the  service 
of  the  Iving  of  Prussia.  He  ■wi-ote  operas, 
even  the  titles  of  which  are  forgotten.  His 
funeral  mass  for  the  death  of  the  queen 
was  considei'ed  his  best  work  (Berhn,  1755). 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FEDERICI,  FRANCESCO,  born  in 
Rome,  lived  there  in  the  second  half  of 
the  17th  century.  Priest  and  composer. 
Works  :  Santa  Christina,  oratorio  (1676)  ; 
Santa  Catarina  di  Siena,  oratorio  (1676). 
Burney  gives  airs  from  one  of  these.  He 
published  also  songs. — Fetis ;  Burney,  Hist., 
iv.  117  ;  Mendel. 

FEDERICI,  VINCENZO,  born  at  Pesaro 
in  1764,  died  in  Milan,  Sept.  26,  1826. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Angelo  Gadani 
at  Bologna ;  at  the  age  of  sixteen  he  went 
to  England,  and  thence  to  America  ;  re- 
turned to  London,  where  he  taught  music, 
and  derived  inspiration  from  the  works  of 
Handel  and  the  old  Italian  composers.  En- 
gaged as  pianist  at  the  Italian  opera,  he  be- 
came familiar  with  the  works  of  Cimarosa, 


Paisiello,  and  Sarti,  but  was  incited,  partic- 
ularly by  Haydn's  symphonies,  to  the  serious 
study  of  composition,  and  went  to  Italy  in 
1785  to  become  a  pupil  of  Francesco  Bian- 
chi.  After  another  sojourn  in  London,  1792 
-1802,  he  returned  to  Italy,  and  in  1809  was 
appointed  professor  of  counterpoint  at  the 
newly  erected  Conservatorio,  and  in  1826 
succeeded  IMinoja  as  its  censore  (director). 
In  1812  he  visited  Paris  to  bring  out  an 
opera.  Works — Operas  :  Olimpiade,  Turin, 
1790  ;  Demofoonte,  Zenobia,  London,  about 
1792  ;  Nitteti,  ib.,  about  1793  ;  Didone  ab- 
bandonata,  ib.,  about  179-4  ;  Castore  e  Pol- 
luce,  II  giudizio  di  Numa,  Milan,  1803  ; 
Oreste  in  Tauride,  ib.,  1804  ;  La  Sofonisba, 
Turin,  180.5  ;  Idoraeneo,  Zaira,  Milan,  1806  ; 
La  couquista  dell'  Indie,  Turin,  1808  ;  Ifi- 
genia  in  Aulide,  Milan,  1809  ;  Virginia, 
Eome,  1809  ;  La  locandiera  scaltra,  Paris, 
1812.  Teseo,  cantata ;  Other  cantatas ; 
Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  and  other  instru- 
mental pieces. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling  ; 
Wurzbach. 

FEEN,  DIE  (The  Fairies),  romantic 
opera  in  three  acts,  text  and  music  by 
Richard  Wagner,  written  in  1833,  first  rep- 
resented at  Munich,  June  29, 1888.  The 
overture  alone  was  played  at  Magdeburg  in 
1834.  The  original  score,  dedicated  to  liis 
patron,  King  Ludwig  H.  of  Bavaria,  was 
found  among  that  monarch's  effects  after  his 
death.  The  libretto  is  a  German  version  of 
an  Italian  tale  by  Gozzi,  which  deals  with 
the  difficulties  attending  the  love  of  Ai'indal, 
a  mythical  jsrince,  and  Ada,  a  fairy. — Mus. 
Wochenblatt  (1887),  325,  337  ;  Athena"um 
(1888),  ii.  41. 

FELDLAGER  IN  SCHLESIEN,  DAS 
(The  Camp  of  Silesia),  German  opera  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Rellstab,  music  by 
Meyerbeer,  represented  in  Berlin  at  the 
opening  of  the  new  opera-house,  Dec.  7, 
1844  (the  old  one  was  burned,  Aug.  18, 
1843).  In  this  opera,  the  subject  of  which 
is  an  episode  in  the  life  of  Frederick  the 
Great,  Jenny  Lind  made  a  wonderful  success 
in  the  character  of  Vielka,  which  was  writ- 


60 


FELICI 


ten  especially  for  her.  Mosclieles,  writing 
(Jan.  10,  1845)  of  her  performance,  says : 
"  Jenny  Lind  Las  fairly  enchanted  me  ;  she 
is  unique  in  her  way,  and  her  song  with  two 
concertante  flutes  is  perhaps  the  most  in- 
credible feat  in  the  way  of  bravura  singing 
that  can  possibly  be  heard."     She  achieved 


Jenny  Lind. 

a  still  more  extraordinary  success  in  Vienna, 
where  she  appeared  in  the  same  role,  Feb. 
17,  1817,  as  much  as  eighty  florins  being 
paid  for  seats.  The  oj^era  has  never  been 
given  out  of  Germany,  but  the  composer 
transferred  many  of  its  best  numbers  to 
h'^toile  du  Nord. 

FELICI,  BARTOLOMEO  (Alessandro  ?), 
born  in  Florence  about  1730,  died  ('?). 
Dramatic  composer.  His  operas,  L'  amante 
contrastato,  1768  ;  L'  amore  soldato,  1769  ; 
and  La  cameriera  astuta,  1769,  were  per- 
formed in  many  of  the  Italian  theatres.  He 
wrote  quartets  for  the  violin,  and  psalms 
with  orchestral  accompaniment.  His  school 
of  composition,  opened  in  Florence  in  1770, 
was  celebrated. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  i. 
322  ;  Mendel. 

FELIS,  STEFFANO,  born  at  Bari,  Italy, 
about  1550,  composer,  canon,  and  maestro 
of  the   cathedral   in    1583.      He   went   to 


Prague  with  his  patron  Philippe  Domi- 
nique de  Cro}',  and  jJublished  masses  there 
(1588).  He  published  also  motets,  mad- 
rigals, etc.— Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Walther,  212  ; 
Viotta,  i.  505. 

FELIX,  ou  I'enfant  trouve  (The  Found- 
ling), comedy  in  three  acts,  text  by  Sedaine, 
music  by  Monsigny,  represented  at  the 
Italiens,  Paris,  Nov.  24,  1777,  after  a  private 
performance  (Nov.  10th)  before  the  court 
at  Fontainebleau.  Although  Monsigny  was 
but  forty-eight  years  old,  this  was  his  last 
work.  He  said,  on  the  day  when  he  finished 
this  score,  that  music  was  dead  for  him. 
The  subject  of  the  opera,  Felix,  a  found- 
ling brought  up  by  an  honest  villager,  loves 
Therese,  the  daughter  of  his  foster-father, 
but  flies  from  his  house  on  account  of  the 
hatred  of  his  son.  He  saves  the  life  of  an 
unknown  seigneur,  who  turns  out  to  be  his 
father  and  the  owner  of  a  considerable  sum 
of  money  in  the  hands  of  the  villager.  The 
money  is  restored,  Felix  marries  Thuruse, 
and  all  ends  happily. 

FELL,  ANTONIO,  died  at  Palermo  in 
1867.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Eai- 
mondi ;  composed  several  operas,  among 
which  are  especially  commended  :  Eufemia, 
and  La  sposa  d'  Abido  ;  also  several  masses 
and  many  other  works  of  various  kinds. 
— Futis,  Supplement,  i.  322. 

FELL  RAGE  AND  BLACK  DESPAIR, 
soj^rano  air  in  A  major,  of  Michal,  in  Han- 
del's Saul,  Part  I 

FELTON,  WILLIAM,  born  in  1713,  died 
Dec.  6,  1769.  Organist,  vicar-choral  of 
Hereford  Cathedral  in  the  middle  of  the 
18th  century.  He  was  an  able  performer 
also  on  the  harpsichord.  Works  :  3  sets  of 
concertos  for  organ  in  imitation  of  those 
of  Handel ;  also  2  or  3  sets  of  lessons  for 
organ.  Felton's  Gavot  was  long  popular, 
and  his  Funeral  Chant  is  still  much  sung. 
— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney,  History,  iv.  664. 

FELTRE,  ALPHONSE  CLARKE,  Comte 
DE,  born  in  Paris,  June  27,  1806,  died  there, 
Dec.  3,  1850.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Reicha  in  1825  and  advised  by  Boieldieu. 


FEMME 


He  was  the  third  son  of  the  Mart-chal  due 
de  Feltre,  and  served  as  an  oiScer  in  the 
army  until  1829,  when  he  devoted  himself 
entirely  to  composition.  Works — Operas  : 
Une  aventure  de  Saiut-Fois  (1830)  ;  La 
garde  de  nuit,  given  at  the  Princesse  de 
Vaudemont's,  1831  (rewritten  in  part,  1844, 
and  called  Le  capitaine  Albert) ;  Le  fils  du 
prince,  Opt'ra  Comique,  1834  ;  L'  incendio 
di  Babilouia(1841) ;  Valorie  (unfinished) ;  Li- 
strumental  and  vocal  music. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FEJniE  SENSIBLE,  ENTENDSTU 
LE  R.\jMAGE  ?     See  Ariodanl. 

F£]MY,  FRANCOIS,  known  as  Femy 
I'ainc',  bom  in  Ghent,  Oct.  4,  1790.  Vio- 
linist and  dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Kreutzer  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  where 
he  took  the  prize  for  harmony  in  1806  and 
for  violin  in  1807.  For  several  years  he 
was  a  member  of  the  orchestra  of  the  The- 
atre des  Variett's,  then  travelled  in  France 
and  Germany,  and  in  1834  settled  at  Rot- 
terdam. Works  :  Les  trois  Hussards,  comic 
ofiera,  given  at  Antwerp,  1813  ;  Der  Rau- 
graf,  German  opera,  Frankfort,  1827  ;  4 
symphonies  ;  3  concertos  for  violin  and  or- 
chestra ;  Quartets,  duos,  romances,  varia- 
tions, etc.,  for  violin. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Sui:)pl(''- 
ment,  i.  323  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FENAROLI,  FEDELE,  born  at  Lanci- 
ano,  Abruzzi,  in  1752,  died  in  Naples,  Jan. 
1,  1818.  Contrapuntist,  ^nipil  of  Durante 
at  the  Conservatorio  of  Loreto,  Naples.  He 
became  maestro  of  the  Conservatorio  de' 
Turchini,  and  had  many  celebrated  pupils. 
Works  :  12  motets  ;  4  masses  with  orches- 
tra ;  a  Requiem  mass  ;  2  Miserere  for  four 
voices  ;  Ave  Maria  for  four  voices  ;  Hymns 
and  psalms  for  special  occasions.  He  pub- 
lished studies  in  counterpoint  and  techni- 
cal works. — Fetis ;  Larousse  ;  IMendel. 

FENZI,  MOTOR,  born  at  Naples,  died 
at  Moscow,  April,  1827.  Violoncellist,  and 
composer  for  his  instrument ;  went  in  1807 
to  Paris,  where  he  played  at  several  con- 
cei'ts,  and  after  visiting  Germany  settled  in 
Russia.  Works :  4  concertos  for  violon- 
cello ;    Several    pot-pourris  ;     2   books   of 


trios  ;  3  do.  of  airs  varies  (published  in 
Paris  and  Germany).  His  brother  Giu- 
seppe was  considered  the  best  violoncellist 
in  Naples,  made  concert  tours  in  Italj',  and 
composed  concertos  and  airs  varies  for  his 
instrument. — Fetis  ;  IMendel ;  Schilling. 

FEO,  FRANCESCO,  born  in  Naples 
about  the  end  of  the  17th  century.  Dra- 
matic composer,  jDupil  of  Domeiiico  Gizzi 
in  singing  and  composition,  and  in  Rome 
of  Pitoni  in  counterpoint.  He  succeeded 
Gizzi  in  1740  as  director  of  the  singing 
school  of  Naples,  and  had  many  famous  pu- 
pils. Gluck  is  said  to  have  taken  the  motif 
of  a  chorus  in  his  Telemaceo  from  a  Kyrie 
by  Feo,  which  he  afterwards  reproduced  in 
his  lijhigenie  en  Aulide.  Some  of  Fee's 
church  music  in  SIS.  is  jjreserved  in  the  li- 
brary of  the  Conservatoire,  Paris.  Works 
— Operas  :  L'  amor  tirannico,  ossia  Zenobia, 
three  acts,  given  in  Naples,  Jan.  18,  1713  ; 
Siface,  re  di  Numidia,  three  acts,  ib.,  1728  ; 
Ipermestra,  Rome,  1725  ;  Arianna,  ib., 
1728  ;  Andromacca,  ib.,  1730  ;  Ai\sace,  ib., 
1731.  Three  intermezzi :  Don  Chisciotte 
della  Maucia  ;  Coriando  lo  sjjeziale  ;  II  ve- 
dovo.  An  oratorio  :  La  distruzione  dell' 
esercito  de'  Cananei  con  la  morte  de  Sisera, 
given  in  Prague,  1739.  A  requiem  ;  Masses  ; 
Psalms ;  Litanies,  etc. — Fetis,  iii.  200  ; 
do..  Supplement,  i.  323 ;  Mendel,  iii.  489 ; 
do.,  Ergiinz.,  102  ;  SchiUiug  ;  Gerbei*. 

FERAMORS,  lyric  opera,  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Julius  Rodeuberg,  music  by  Anton 
Rubinstein,  given  in  Dresden,  18G3.  Sub- 
ject from  Thomas  Moore's  "Lalla  Rookh." 
Feramors  is  the  young  poet  who  entertains 
Lalla  Rookh  with  poetical  recitations  while 
on  her  journey  from  Delhi,  to  be  married  to 
the  sultan.  She  falls  in  love  with  the  poet 
and  finds,  to  her  joy,  on  her  wedding-morn, 
that  the  jjoet  and  the  sultan  are  one.  The 
opera  was  given  in  Vienna,  April  24,  1872. 
— Hanslick,  Moderne  Oper,  325. 

FERANDINI,  GIOVANNI,  born  in  Ven- 
ice, beginning  of  the  18th  century,  died  in 
Munich  in  1793.  Dramatic  composer,  pu- 
pil of  Antonio  Bitfi,  maestro  di  cappella  of 


FERNAND 


San  Marco.  He  went  to  Muuicli  as  court 
oboist,  and  became  director  of  chamber  mu- 
sic, and  subsequently  councillor  and  Ka- 
pellmeister. Works — Operas:  Berenice, 
given  at  the  Court  Theatre  iu  Munich,  1780  ; 
Adriano  in  Siria,  Demofoonte,  ib.,  1737  ; 
Artaserse,  ib.,  1739  ;  Catone  in  Utica,  ib., 
1753;  Diana  placata,  ib.,  1758;  Talestri, 
ib. ;  II  festiuo,  Parma,  175G  ;  Componi- 
nieuto  drammatico  per  1'  iucorouazione  di  Ca- 
rolo  VII,  etc.,  Munich,  1742.  Many  canta- 
tas, thirty  of  which  are  iu  the  Royal  Library 
at  Dresden  ;  Sonatas  for  the  flute  (Amstei'- 
dam,  1730)  ;  Comijositions  for  alto-viol  and 
lute. — Ft'tis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FERNAND  CORTEZ,  ou  la  conquC-te  du 
Mexiquo  (The  Conquest  of  Mexico),  opera 
in  three  acts,  text  by  Etienne  Jou}',  after 
Piron's  drama,  music  by  Spontini,  repre- 
sented at  the  Academie  Imperiale  de  j\Iu- 
sique,  Paris,  Nov.  28,  1809,  before  the  Em- 
peror Napoleon  and  the  Kings  of  Saxony 
and  "Westphalia.  The  original  text  was 
written  by  Jouy.  Napoleon  hoping  to  in- 
fluence public  opinion  in  favour  of  his 
plans  for  the  Sjiauish  war,  the  Minister  of 
the  Interior  desired  Jouy  to  introduce  into 
the  libretto  more  distinct  allusions  to  the 
topics  of  the  day.  Jouy  declining  to  alter 
the  text,  a  few  additions  and  alterations 
were  made  by  Esmenard,  the  part  of  Monte- 
zuma being  suppressed  altogether.  Though 
the  opera  was  a  success,  it  had  but  twenty- 
four  representations  in  seven  years.  On 
May  28,  1817,  it  was  revived,  with  consider- 
able changes  by  Jouy,  the  third  act  be- 
coming the  first,  the  first  act  the  second, 
and  a  part  of  the  second  the  third.  The 
part  of  Montezuma  was  reinstated  and  the 
character  of  Amazily  strengthened.  In  its 
second  form  Cortez  achieved  a  new  success. 
It  kept  the  Paris  stage  up  to  1839,  when 
248  representations  had  been  given.  It 
was  produced  in  Berlin,  April  20,  1818,  and 
elsewhere  soon  after.  In  1823,  when  Spon- 
tini was  Kajjellmeister  at  Berlin,  the  third 
act  was  remodelled  by  the  jsoet  Thi'auleon, 
and  in  this  form  the  pianoforte  score  was 


published  by  Hofmeister  of  Leipsic.  The 
full  score  was  published  in  Paris  in  1882. 
Cortez  was  produced  in  Stockholm  in  1826 
and  again  in  1838  ;  in  Vienna,  1854  ;  and 
in  New  York,  iu  German,  at  the  Metropol- 
itan Opera  House,  Jan.  6,  1888.  The  plot, 
in  its  present  form,  is  as  follows  :  Alvarez, 
brother  of  Cortez,  and  other  Spaniards, 
prisoners  to  the  Mexicans  and  about  to  be 
sacrificed,  are  preserved  by  Montezuma  as 
hostages  for  the  departure  of  the  invaders. 
Amazily,  sister  of  Tclasco,  the  Mexican 
commander,  has   become   a  Christian   and 


Alexandrine  Branchu. 

fled  to  Cortez,  whom  she  loves,  but  revisits 
the  city  to  endeavour  to  bring  about  peace. 
Montezuma  sends  her  back  to  the  Spanish 
camp  to  arrange  an  armistice,  and  Telasco, 
who  has  been  undermining  the  fidelity  of 
Cortez's  soldiers  by  presents,  follows  her 
under  a  flag  of  truce  to  second  her  efibrts. 
Cortez  quells  an  insurrection  which  breaks 
out,  and  holds  Telasco  as  a  hostage  for  the 
safety  of  Alvarez  and  his  companions  ;  but, 
the  release  of  the  Spaniards  being  promised 
by  the  Mexicans,  he  suffers  Tulasco  to  re- 
turn. Telasco  opposes  the  keeiaing  of  faith 
with  Cortez,  and  the  prisoners  are  about  to 
meet  their  doom,  when  Amazily  swims  the 
lake  and  offers  her  life  for  them.     But  the 


S3 


FERNANDO 


sacrifice  is  unnecessary,  for  Cortez  storms 
the  city,  saves  all,  and  peace  is  made. 

Oeigujal  Cast  at  the   Opera,  Paris,  1809. 

Amazily  (S.) Mme  Braucbu. 

Fernand  Cortez  (T.) M.  Laino. 

Telasco  (Bar.) M.  Lais. 

Alvar  (T.) M.  Laforet. 

Le  Grand  Pretre  (B.) M.  Derivis. 

c.ast   at   the   metropolitan   opera   house, 
New  York,  1888. 

Amazily  (S.) Frl.  Meisslinger. 

Feruaud  Cortez  (T.) Herr  Niemann. 

Montezuma  (Bar.) Herr  Elmblad. 

Tulasco  (Bar.) Herr  Robinson. 

Alvarez  (T.) Herr  Alvary. 

High  Priest  (B.) Herr  Fischer. 

— Le  Monestrel  (1874),  Sept.  G,  13,  20,  27, 
Oct.  i  ;  11.  Eocliette,  Notice  liistorique  .  .  . 
de  Spontiui  (Paris,  1852)  ;  Grove,  iii.  G68  ; 
Krehbiel,  Review  (1887-88) ;  N.  Y.  Evening 
Post,  Jan.  7,  1888. 

FERNANDO,  German  operetta  in  one 
act,  text  by  Albert  Stadler,  music  by  Franz 
Schubert,  written  in  Vienna,  1815,  but  nev- 
er represented.  It  was  composed  in  six 
days.  The  original  score  is  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Dr.  Eduard  Schneider,  Vienna. 

FERR.\BOSCO  (Ferabosco),  ALFONSO, 
Italian  musician,  settled  in  England  in  the 
middle  of  the  16th  century.  He  composed 
motets,  madrigals,  and  pieces  for  the  virgin- 
als, and  ranked  as  one  of  the  first  musicians 
of  the  Elizabethan  era.  His  Madrigali  a  4 
voci  were  published  iu  Venice  in  1542,  and 
his  Madrigali  a  5  voci  in  1587.  Many  of 
his  madrigals  were  printed  in  the  two 
books  of  Musica  Transaljnua  (1588,  1597)  ; 
and  several  are  extant  in  MS. — Fctis  ; 
Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FERRABOSCO,  ALFONSO,  born  at 
Greenwich,  England,  about  1580,  died  in 
1652.  Sou  of  the  preceding  ;  one  of  the 
grooms  of  the  privy  chamber  of  James  I. 
and  instructor  in  music  of  Prince  Henry. 
Works  :  Volume  of  "  Ayres,"  which  contains 
many  of  the  songs  in  Ben  Jonson's  plays 


(London,  1G09) ;  Lessons  for  1,  2,  and  3 
viols  (London,  1609)  ;  Fancies  for  viols, 
etc.  A  song  by  him,  "  Shall  I  seek  to  ease 
my  grief  ?,"  from  the  "  Ayres,"  is  published 
by  Dr.  Rimbault  (Novello). — Fc'tis  ;  Grove. 
"  FERRABOSCO  (Ferrabosehi),  DOMENI- 
CO  :M.YRIA,  born  in  Rome,  first  half  of  the 
16th  century.  He  was  maestro  of  the  chor- 
isters in  the  Vatican  Chapel  from  1547  to 
1548,  when  he  became  maestro  di  cappella 
of  S.  Petronio,  Bologna.  Called  to  Rome  to 
become  a  member  of  the  Pontifical  Choir,  in 
1550,  he  was  obliged  to  resign  in  155G,  in 
accordance  with  the  Pope's  decree  that  none 
but  priests  could  belong  to  the  college,  he 
having  meanwhile  married.  His  motets  are 
published  in  Gardane's  collection  (Venice, 
1554).  His  celebrated  chanson,  lo  mi  son 
giovinetta,  is  in  Vincenzo  Galilei's  Fronimo, 
and  in  Eler's  collection  in  the  Conservatoii-e, 
Paris.  His  MSS.  are  preserved  in  the  Vati- 
can Library. — Futis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FERR.\i30SC0,  JOHN,  English  com- 
poser of  the  17th  century,  died  in  1682. 
Probably  a  son  of  Alfonso  Ferrabosco  the 
younger.  He  was  organist  of  Ely  Cathedral 
from  1G62  until  his  decease,  and  was 
awarded  the  degree  of  JIus.  Bac.  at  Cam- 
bridge in  1671,  per  literas  regias.  A  hymn 
of  his  is  still  sung  at  Canterbury  and  in 
other  English  cathedrals.  Eight  comjjlete 
services  and  eleven  anthems  by  him  are  pre- 
served iu  MS.  in  Ely  Cathedral. — Grove  ; 
Fc'tis  ;  Mendel. 

FERRADINI  (Ferrandini),  ANTONIO, 
born  in  Naples  in  1718,  died  in  Prague  in 
1779.  Church  composer,  studied  in  Naples, 
lived  in  Prague  about  thirty  years,  and  died 
in  great  poverty  and  unknb wn.  A  Stabat  Ma- 
ter, performed  there  after  his  death,  1780, 
was  considered  a  masterjjiece.  In  the  court 
library  at  Vienna  is  a  Credo  in  four  parts, 
and  in  the  royal  library  at  Dresden  are  five 
arias  and  four  duets,  of  his  composition. 
— Fetis  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FERRANTI,  ]\IARCO  AURELIO  Z.\- 
NI  DE,  born  in  Bologna  in  1802.  Virtuoso 
on  the  guitar  ;  pupil  on  the  violin  of  Gerli 


64 


FERRARI 


in  Lucca,  and  became  an  accomplished 
player  when  only  sixteen,  but  soon  aban- 
doned that  instrument  for  the  guitar,  on 
which  he  became  equallj'  skilful.  In  1820 
he  went  to  St.  Petersburg  as  secretary  to 
Prince  Narischkin,  and  perfected  there  his 
guitar  playing,  and  in  1824  went  to  Ham- 
burg. He  gave  concerts  there,  and  in  Brus- 
sels, Paris,  and  London  from  1825  to  1832, 
visited  America  with  Sivori,  and  finally  set- 
tling in  Brussels  as  professor  of  Italian  at 
the  Conservatoire  from  181G  to  1855  ;  he 
returned  afterwards  to  Italy.  He  has  pub- 
lished fantaisies,  airs  varies,  etc.,  for  the  gui- 
tar.—Fctis,  iii.  240  ;  Mendel,  iii.  495. 

FEERAEI,  BENEDETTO,  born  at  Reg- 
gio,  Italy,  1597,  died  at  Modena,  Oct.  22, 
1681.  Dramatic  composer,  called  Delia 
Tiorba,  from  his  skiU  on  the  theorbo  or 
lute  ;  studied  in  Rome.  He  was  a  poet  as 
well  as  a  musician,  and  his  opera  Andro- 
meda, music  by  Manelli  da  Tivoli,  repre- 
sented at  the  Teatro  S.  Cassiano,  Venice,  in 
1637,  was  the  first  performed  in  public  in 
that  city.  It  was  largely  owing  to  him  that 
the  dramma  musicale  took  such  deep  root 
in  Italy  and  in  Germany.  In  1639  was  pro- 
duced his  Armida,  of  which  he  wrote  both 
text  and  music.  In  1644  he  left  Venice  for 
Vienna  at  the  invitation  of  the  Emperor 
Ferdinand.  In  1653-62  he  was  maestro  di 
cappella  to  Alfonso  I.,  Duke  of  Modena, 
and  in  1674-81  to  his  successor,  Alfonso  H. 
Works :  Armida,  given  at  Venice,  Teatro 
SS.  Giovanni  e  Paolo,  1639  ;  II  pastor  re- 
gio,  ib.,  S.  Mose,  1640  ;  La  ninfa  avara,  ib., 
1641 ;  Proserpina  rapita,  intermezzo,  ib., 
1641  ;  H  principe  giardiniero,  ib.,  SS.  Gio- 
vanni e  Paolo,  1644  ;  Vittoria  d'  Himeneo, 
ballet,  Modena,  1648  ;  Dafne  in  alloro,  do., 
Vienna,  1651 ;  L'  ingauno  d'  amore,  Ratis- 
bon,  1653  ;  Amori  d'  Alessandro  Magno  e  di 
Rossaue, Venice,  1656  ;  Licasta,  Parma,  1664 ; 
Garadegli  elementi,  Ferrara,  1666  ;  Musiche 
varie  a  voce  sola,  collection  of  songs  (Venice, 
1638). — Fctis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann  ;  Schilling. 

FERRARI,  CARLO,  born  at  Piaceuza  in 
1730,  died  at  Parma  in  1789.     Virtuoso  on 


the  violoncello,  acquired  great  reputation 
in  1758,  in  Paris,  where  he  appeared  with 
brilliant  success  in  the  Concerts  Spirituels  ; 
in  1765  he  entered  the  service  of  the  court 
of  Parma.  He  composed  solos  for  his  in- 
strument.— Mendel. 

FERRARI,  CARLOTTA,  born  at  Lodi, 
Italy,  Jan.  27,  1837,  still  Hviug,  1889.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  of  Strepponi  and 
Panziui ;  and  at  the  Conservatorio,  Milan, 
in  1844-50,  of  Mazzucato  in  comijosition. 
She  is  a  poet  as  well  as  musician,  and  writes 
her  own  librettos.  Works  :  Ugo,  opera, 
represented  in  Milan,  July  24,  1857  ;  Sofia, 
opera  in  three  acts,  Lodi,  Milan,  Turin, 
1866  ;  Eleonora  d'  Ai-borea,  opera,  Cagliari, 
Jlarch,  1871  ;  Grand  mass  for  Cathedral  of 
Lodi,  1868 ;  Requiem  for  anniversary  of 
death  of  Charles  Albert,  Turin  Cathedral, 
1868  ;  Songs,  etc. — Fetis,  Sujaj^lement,  i. 
325  ;  Mendel,  iii.  496  ;  do.,  Ergiiuz.,  xii.  102  ; 
Riemann. 

FERRARI,  DOMENICO,  bornatPiacenza 
in  the  early  part  of  the  18th  century,  died 
in  Paris  in  1780.  Violinist,  jiupil  of  Tartini  ; 
after  living  several  years  in  Cremona,  he 
began  to  travel  in  1749,  and  met  with  much 
success  in  Vienna,  where  he  was  considered 
the  greatest  living  violinist.  In  1754  he 
visited  Paris,  and  was  afterwards  a  mem- 
ber of  the  band  of  the  Duke  of  Wiirtem- 
berg  in  Stuttgart.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
murdered  on  a  second  visit  to  Paris. 
Works :  6  violin  sonatas  (London,  Paris, 
1758).  His  brother.  Carlo  Ferrari  (1730- 
1789),  was  a  noted  violoncellist  at  Parma. 
— Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Buruey,  Hist.,  iii.  562, 
573  ;  Mendel. 

FERRARI,  GIACOMO  GOTIFREDO, 
born  at  Roveredo,  Tyrol,  in  1759,  died  in 
London,  December,  1842.  Dramatic  com- 
l^oser,  pupil  at  Verona  of  the  Abbate  Cubri, 
Marcola,  and  Borsaro  ;  subsequently  learned 
the  flute,  violin,  oboe,  and  double-bass  at 
Roveredo,  theory  under  Pater  Marianus 
Stecher,  at  the  Convent  of  Mariaberg,  near 
Chur,  and  later  studied  two  years  under  La- 
tilla  at  Naples.     In  1791  he  became  accom- 


FERRAEI 


paiiist  at  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  Paris.  After 
the  breaking  out  of  the  Eevohition  he  \Yeut 
to  Brussels,  and  finally  settled  in  London  as 
a  singing  teacher.  Works — Operas :  Les 
evenements  imprevus,  Paris,  about  1794 ; 
La  villanella  rapita,  London,  1797  ;  I  dui 
Suizzeri,  ib.,  1798  ;  L'  eroiua  di  Eaab,  ib., 
1799.  Ballets :  Borea  e  Zeffiro  ;  La  daina 
di  sjsirito.  Sonatas  ;  Concertos  for  various 
instruments  ;  Six  English  canzonets  ;  Solos ; 
Songs.  He  published,  also :  "  Studio  di 
musica  pratica  e  teorica "  ;  "  .i\jieddoti," 
etc.  (London,  1830) ;  and  other  treatises. 
— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FEEPtARI,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA,  born 
in  Venice,  died  there  young,  Aug.  li,  1845.  ' 
Dramatic  composei'.  Works  :  Maria  d'  In- 
ghilterra,  given  at  La  Scala,  Milan,  1840  ; 
Saffo,  Venice,  Teatro  Fenice,  1841  ;  Candi-  j 
ano  IV'.,  Florence  and  Milan,  1842  ;  Gli 
ultimi  giorne  di  Suli,  Venice,  1843. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

FERR.ARI,  SERAFINO  DE',  born  in 
Genoa  in  1824,  died  there,  March  31,  1885. 
Pianist,  organist,  and  dramatic  composer  ; 
jjupil  of  Bevilacqua,  Scrra,  and  Sciorati  in 
Genoa,  and  later  of  Mandanici  in  I\Iilan. 
Engaged  as  maestro  concertatore  in  Am- 
sterdam, he  wrote  the  music  of  au  opera,  I 
Catilina,  which  has  never  been  produced. 
On  his  return  to  Italy  he  became  director 
of  singing  in  several  of  the  theatres,  and 
produced  an  opera,  Don  Carlo,  at  the  Carlo-  [ 
Felice  Theatre,  Genoa,  in  1853  ;  he  rewrote 
this  opera  later,  and  produced  it  as  Filippo 
n.,  but  it  was  not  so  successful  as  at  first. 
Works  :  Pipele,  opera  bufifa ;  H  matrimonio 
per  concorso,  do.,  Venice,  1858  ;  II  menes- 
trello,  do.,  Genoa,  Teatro  Paganiui,  18G1  ;  H 
cadetto  di  Guascogna,  do.,  ib.,  Teatro  Carlo- 
Felice,  1864  ;  Several  masses  ;  Some  songs, 
among  which  are.  La  croce  della  Mamma, 
and  a  mazurka,  Fiori  d'  Aprile  ;  Delia, 
ballet,  abovit  the  same  time. — Fi'tis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  246  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  79. 

FERRARO,  Padre  ANTONIO,  born  at 
Polizzi,  Sicily,  in  the  second  half  of  the 
16th  century.     Church  composer,  Carmelite 


I  monk,  and  organist  of  his  monastery  at  Ca- 
tania. Works :  Sacnic  cantiones,  collection 
of  32  motets  for  1—4  voices  (Rome,  1617)  ; 
Ghirlauda  di  sacri  fiori  (Palermo,  1623). 
—Fetis;  Mendel. 

FERRER,  MATEO,  known  as  Matenet, 
born  at  Barcelona,  Feb.  25,  1788,  died 
there,  Jan.  4,  1864.  Organist  of  great  re- 
nown, pupil  of  Fi-ancisco  Queralt  ;  having 
studied  several  instruments  from  his  earli- 
est youth,  he  became  organist  of  the  cathe- 
dral at  Barcelona  when  quite  young,  and 
soon  after  assumed  also  the  functions  of 
maestro  de  capilla.  At  the  same  time  he 
played  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Teatro  de 
Santa  Cruz,  and  in  1827  was  appointed  its 
conductor.  By  one  of  his  biographers  he 
is  jjraised  as  one  of  the  greatest  contrai^unt- 
ists  of  the  century. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
326. 

FERRETTI,  GIOVANNI,  born  iu  Venice 
about  1540,  died  ('?).  He  was  a  jjrolific 
composer  of  madrigals  and  of  canzoni  alia 
napolitana,  which,  says  Fetis,  are  full  of 
originahty  and  worthy  of  more  repute. 
Works :  5  books  of  five-part  canzoni  (Ven- 
ice, 1567-91) ;  2  books  of  six-part  canzoni 
(ib.,  1576-86) ;  1  book  of  five-part  madri- 
gals (ib.,  1588).  His  madrigal,  Siat'  avvertiti, 
for  five  voices,  is  in  Webb's  madrigals.— Fe- 
tis ;  Grove  ;  Mendel. 

FERROUD,  J.  DENIS,  born  in  France 
about  1810,  still  living,  1889  (?).  Pupil  at 
the  Conservatoire,  Paris,  of  Reieha  and  Fe- 
tis ;  in  1846  he  was  settled  at  Bordeaux,  as 
professor  of  harmony  and  composition,  and 
left  that  city  in  1856,  since  when  nothing 
has  been  heard  of  him.  Works  :  L'Ecos- 
sais,  comic  opera ;  Several  ballets  ;  Clovis, 
ode  symphony,  Bordeaux,  Grand  Theatre, 
1853  ;  Jerusalem,  ode-symphony  ;  Cantata  ; 
Stabat  Mater  ;  Le  papillon,  chorus  ;  Le 
retour  aux  montagnes,  do.;  Choruses  for  the 
synagogue  of  Bordeaux. — Fetis,  Sujjple- 
ment,  i.  327. 

FESCA,  ALEXANDER  ERNST,  born  at 
Carisruhe,  May  22,  1820,  died  at  Bruns- 
wick, Feb.  22,  1849.     Dramatic  comjjoser 


S6 


FESCA 


and  pianist,  son  of  Friedricli  Ernst  Fesca ; 
pupil  of  Marx  on  the  pianoforte,  then  at 
Brunswick  of  Kapellmeister  Wiedebein  in 
theory,  and  from  1834  in  Berlin  of  Rungen- 
hagen,  August  Wilhelm  Bach,  and  Johann 
Julius  Schneider  in  harmony  and  composi- 
tion, and  of  Taubert  on  the  pianoforte.  He 
returned  to  Carlsruhe  in  1838,  made  con- 
cert tours  through  Germany,  Austria,  and 
Hungary  in  1839-40,  was  made  chamber 
virtuoso  to  Prince  Furstenberg  in  1841,  and 
settled  at  Brunswick  in  1842.  His  songs 
were,  and  still  are,  popular  in  Germany. 
Works — Operas  :  Marietta,  given  at  Carls- 
ruhe, 1839  ;  Die  Franzosen  in  Spanieu,  ib., 
1841  ;  Der  Troubadour,  Brunswick,  1847  ; 
Ulrich  von  Hutteu,  five  acts,  Brunswick, 
1849  ;  2  septets  for  pianoforte  and  string 
instraments,  op.  2  and  28  ;  Sextet  for  do., 
op.  8  ;  6  trios  for  do. ;  3  quartets  for  strings  ; 
Duos  for  i^ianoforte  and  viohn  ;  Grand  so- 
nata for  do.,  op.  40 ;  Fantasias,  rondos, 
etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  Songs  (collection  of 
48,  Brunswick,  Litolff,  1872).— Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  vi.  722  ;  Fetis ;  Ledebur,  Ton- 
kunstler  Lexikon  Berlins,  151  ;  Mendel  ; 
Weech,  Badische  Biogr.,  i.  243. 

FESCA,  FRIEDRICH  ERNST,  born  at 
Magdeburg,  Feb.  15, 
1789,  died  at  Carls- 
ruhe, May  24,  1826. 
Violinist,  pujiil  in 
Magdeburg  of  Lohse 
on  the  violin,  and  of 
Zachariii  and  Pitterlin 
in  theory  ;  went  to 
Leipsic  in  1805  to 
study  under  August 
Eberhardt  Midler  and 
Matthiii,  and  also  entered  the  Gewandhaus 
and  Theater  orchestras.  In  1806  he  became 
a  member  of  the  ducal  orchestra  at  Olden- 
burg, in  1808  solo  violinist  at  Cassel,  in 
1814  visited  Vienna,  and  in  1815  was  called 
to  Carlsruhe  as  first  violin  and  later  as 
Conzertmeister.  Though  ill  several  j'ears 
before  his  death,  some  of  his  last  works 
were  among  his  best.     Opinions  differ  as  to 


the  merit  of  his  compositions ;  while  they 
show  no  peculiarly  original  style,  they  are 
evidently  the  work  of  an  earnest  student  of 
classic  models  and  of  a  master  of  technique. 
Works :  Cantemira,  opera,  1819  ;  Omar  und 
Leila,  romantic  opera  in  three  acts,  Carlsruhe, 
1823  ;  20  quartets  ;  5  quintets  ;  3  symphonies ; 
4  overtures  ;  4  violin  pot-pourris  ;  Vater  Un- 
ser  for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra ;  and  sev- 
eral psalms  and  songs.  A  complete  edition 
of  his  25  quartets  and  quintets  has  been 
published  in  Paris  (Rimbault). — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  vi.  722  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxviii. 
545,  701  ;  xxxii.  215  ;  xxxix.  Ill ;  vii.-xlvii.; 
Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Rochlitz,  Fiir  Freunde  der 
Tonkunst,  iii.  73  ;  Schilling  ;  Weech,  Ba- 
dische Biogr.,  i.  240. 

FESCH.      See  Defesch. 

FESSY,  ALEXANDRE  CHARLES,  born 
in  Paris,  Oct.  18,  1804,  died  there,  Nov.  30, 
1856.  Pianist  and  organist,  pupil  in  1813 
at  the  Conservatoire  ;  studied  the  organ 
under  Benoist,  taking  1st  prize  in  1834. 
He  was  organist  of  I'Assomption,  Paris,  and 
chef-d'orchestre  successively  of  the  concerts 
of  the  rue  Vivienue,  of  the  Theatre  Lyrique, 
and  of  the  Theatre  du  Cirque.  Works  :  Or- 
gan music  ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  and  L'Or- 
ganiste  fran9ais. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FESTA,  COSTANZO,  born,  probably  in 
Rome,  near  the  close  of  the  15th  century, 
died  there,  April  10,  1545.  He  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Pontifical  Choir  in  1517, 
and  afterwards  appointed  maestro  at  the 
Vatican.  It  is  more  than  probable  that  he 
studied  under  a  Netherlandish  master.  He 
ushered  in  the  great  epoch  of  Italian  music 
which  culminated  in  Palestriua,  and  may  be 
called  the  first  great  composer  of  the  Ro- 
man school.  His  compositions  consisted 
of  church  music  a  cappella,  and  madrigals. 
Most  of  his  published  pieces  are  in  the  col- 
lections published  in  Venice  by  Gardane 
and  Scotto  about  the  middle  of  the  16th 
century.  His  madrigal,  "  Quando  ritrovo 
la  mia  pastorella  "  (Down  in  a  flowery  vale), 
is  very  popular  in  England.  Works :  1. 
Madrigali  a  tre  voci,  libro  primo  (Venice, 


57 


FESTA 


Ant.  Gardaue,  2d  ed.,  1556  ;  3d,  1559)  ;  2. 
Motetti  a  3  voci  (Venice,  1543)  ;  3.  Litaniae 
Deiparse  Virgiuis  Marise  (Munich,  Adam 
Berg,  1583).  Seijarate  pieces  are  found  in 
collections  published  in  Venice  and  else- 
where during  the  16th  century. — Ambros, 
iii.  565  ;  Sehelle,  Die  sixtinische  Capelle 
(Vienna,  1872),  259  ;  Eituer,  550. 

FESTA,  GIUSEPPE  MARIA,  born  at 
Trani,  Naples,  in  1771,  died  at  Naples,  April 
7,  1830.  Violin  virtuoso,  pupil  of  Giardini 
and  LoUi  on  his  instrument,  and  of  Gar- 
gano  and  Fenaroli  in  counterpoint ;  accom- 
panied Loi"d  Hamilton,  the  English  ambas- 
sador, to  Constantinople  about  1799,  and 
after  his  return  lived  for  a  time  at  Milan. 
In  1802  he  became  maestro  di  cappella  at 
Lodi,  but  returned  to  Naples  in  1805  and 
entered  the  orchestra  of  the  Teatro  Sau 
Carlo  as  first  violinist ;  in  1812  he  visited 
Paris  for  about  eight  months,  and  after  his 
return  to  Naples  was  appointed  maestro  di 
cappella  at  the  Teatro  San  Carlo,  in  1816, 
and  soon  after  also  of  the  royal  ehaijel  and 
of  the  king's  private  orchestra.  Among  his 
compositions  for  the  violin  are  3  works  of 
duos  and  2  works  of  quartets,  published  by 
Girard  at  Naples. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FESTGESANG  (Festival  Song),  Schil- 
ler's poem,  "An  die  Kiinstler,"  for  male 
voices  and  brass,  by  Mendelssohn,  op.  68, 
written  for  the  opening  of  the  first  German- 
Flemish  Vocal  Festival  at  Cologne. 

FESTGESANG,  for  male  chorus  and 
orchestra,  by  Mendelssohn  (no  opus  No.), 
written  for  the  festival  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tennial celebration  of  the  art  of  printing, 
Leipsic,  June  24  and  25,  1840.  The  words 
of  the  hymn,  which  was  sung  at  the  un- 
veiling of  the  statue  of  Guttenberg  in  the 
public  square,  on  the  morning  of  the  24th, 
were  written  by  Adolphus  Prolss,  a  teacher 
in  the  Freiberg  Gymnasium.  The  work  is 
sometimes  called  the  Guttenberg  Fest-Can- 
tate. — Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  263. 

FESTING,  MICHAEL  CHRISTIAN, 
born  in  London  (?)  about  1680,  died  there, 
July  24,  1752.     Violinist,  puj^il  of  Richard 


Jones  and  of  Geminiani.  He  became  a 
member  of  the  King  of  England's  private 
orchestra  and  first  violinist  of  the  Philhar- 
monic Society  of  London  ;  and  was  made 
musical  director  of  Ranelagh  Gardens  at 
their  opening  in  1742.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Loudon  Society  of  Musicians 
and  its  secretary  for  many  years.  Works  : 
Violin  solos ;  Symphonies,  concertos,  and 
}  sonatas  ;  Ode  on  the  return  of  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland  in  1745  ;  Addison's  Ode  for 
St.  Cecilia's  Day  ;  Milton's  Song  on  May 
morning  ;  Cantatas  and  songs. — Grove  ; 
Fotis  ;   Gerber  ;  Schilling. 

FESTIvLANGE  (Festival  Sounds),  No.  7 
of  Liszt's  Symjjhonischr  Dichtungen,  written 
at  Weimar,  1856.  Published,  score  and 
parts  ;  also,  two  pianofortes,  and  pianoforte 
four  hands,  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel. 

FEST-:HARSCH  (Festival  March),  for  or- 
chestra, by  Franz  Liszt,  written  for  Goethe's 
birthday.  Published,  score  and  parts  ;  also, 
pianoforte,  two  and  four  hands  (Schu- 
berth). 

FESTilARSCH,  GROSSER,  zur  Erofi'- 
nung  der  hundertjiihrigen  Gedenkfeier  der 
Unabhiingigkeits-Erklarung  der  vereinig- 
ten  Staaten  von  Nordamerika,  for  grand  or- 
chestra, by  Richard  Wagner.  Written  for, 
and  first  played  at  the  National  Centennial 
Exhibition,  Philadeljjhia,  May  10,  1876, 
whence  called  also  Centennial  March.  The 
stipulated  price  for  this  work  was  $5,000, 
but  Wagner  received,  through  the  efforts  of 
American  admirers,  double  that  sum,  when 
he  needed  the  money  for  the  first  Baireuth 
festival. 

FEST-OUVERTURE  (Festival  Overture), 
for  orchestra,  by  Otto  Nicolai,  written  for 
the  jubilee  of  the  University  of  Kouigsberg, 
1844.  Its  theme  is  Luther's  "  Ein'  feste 
Burg  ist  unser  Gott." 

FEST-OITV'ERTURE,  for  orchestra,  in  A, 
by  Joachim  Raff,  op.  117.  In  it,  also,  "  Ein' 
feste  Burg  "  is  used  as  a  theme.  Published 
by  Kistner. 

"  FEST-VORSPIEL  (Festival  Prelude),  for 
orchestra,  by  Franz  Liszt,  written  for  the 


es 


f£te 


Schiller  and  Goethe  Festival,  Weimar,  1857. 
Published  in  score  (Hallberger). 

FETE  DU  VILLAGE,  LA,  opera  in  one 
act,  text  by  Desfontaines,  music  by  Gossec, 
represented  at  the  Academic  Koyale  de 
Musique,  Paris,  May  26,  1778.  An  opera- 
comique  in  one  act,  of  the  same  title,  text 
by  Etieune,  music  by  Nicolo  Isouard,  was 
given  at  the  Oj^era  Comique,  March  31, 
1811.  La  fete  du  village  voisiu,  opura- 
comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Sewriu, 
music  by  Boieldieu,  was  produced  at  the 
Theatre  Feydeau,  March  5,  181G. 

FilTES  DE  L' AMOUR  ET  DE  BAC- 
CHUS, LES,  pastorale  in  three  acts,  with 
prologue,  text  by  Molicre,  Beuserade, 
Quinault,  etc.,  music  by  Lulli,  represented 
by  the  Academie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  at  the 
Theatre  du  Bel-Air,  Paris,  Nov.  15,  1672. 
This  work,  reproduced  six  times  between 
1672  and  1738,  was  the  beginning  of  the 
comijoser's  successful  career.  It  was  first 
published  by  J.  B.  Christophe  Ballard 
(Paris,  1727),  Fetis  being  incorrect  in  speak- 
ing of  an  edition  of  1679. 

FfiTIS,  ADOLPHE  LOUIS  EUGENE, 
born  in  Paris,  Aug.  20,  1820,  died  there, 
March  20,  1873.  Dramatic  composer,  son 
of  Frau9ois  Joseph  Fetis,  pujsil  at  the  Con- 
servatoire at  Brussels,  then  in  Paris  of 
Henri  Herz  on  the  pianoforte,  and  of  Halevy 
in  composition.  After  his  return  to  Brus- 
sels he  was  put  in  charge  of  a  course  in  har- 
mony for  young  ladies  at  the  Conserva- 
toire ;  for  several  years  he  taught  harmony 
and  the  pianoforte  at  Brussels  and  Ant- 
werp, and  in  1856  settled  in  Paris.  Works  : 
Le  major  Schlagmann,  operetta  given  at 
the  Bouffes  Parisiens,  1859  ;  several  comic 
operas  ;  Les  legendes  des  siecles,  morceaux 
de  salon,  for  pianoforte ;  Romances  sans 
paroles,  for  do.  ;  2  caprices  d'etude,  do.  ; 
Grand  polka  et  redowa,  do.  ;  Morceaux, 
for  harmonium  and  violoncello ;  Album  de 
1861,  melodies  for  1  and  2  voices,  with  pi- 
anoforte.— Fetis. 

FFTIS,  FRANgOIS  JOSEPH,  born  at 
Mons,  Belgium,   March  25,   1784,   died   in 


Brussels,  March  25,  1871.  The  son  of  an 
organist  at  Mons,  he  learned  to  play  at  an 
early  age  the  violin, 
pianoforte,  and  or- 
gan. He  finished 
his  studies  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire, 
where  he  was  the 
pupil  on  the  piano- 
forte of  Pradher 
and  Boieldieu,  tak- 
ing the  prize  for  har- 
mony in  1803,  and, 
for  the  second  time,  the  second  prize  in  com- 
position in  1807.  In  1806  he  married  ;  on  the 
loss  of  his  wife's  fortune,  in  1811,  he  retired 
to  the  Ardennes.  In  1813  he  was  appointed 
organist  and  professor  of  music  at  Douai. 
In  1821,  on  Eler's  vacating  the  post,  he  was 
made  professor  of  counterpoint  and  fugue 
at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  and  librarian  in 
1827.  In  1833  he  was  appointed  director  of 
the  Brussels  Conservatoire  and  maitre  de 
chapelle  to  the  King  of  the  Belgians.  He 
wrote  several  memou-es  for  the  Belgian 
Academic  Royale.  Fetis  was  a  learned 
harmonist  and  contrapuntist,  and  was  a 
noted  champion  of  the  old  Italian,  pure  con- 
trapuntal style.  His  operas,  and  chamber 
and  orchestral  music,  have  now  passed  into 
oblivion,  and  most  of  his  church  music  is 
unpublished.  His  most  noteworthy  com- 
position is  his  Requiem  (1850),  written  for 
the  funeral  of  the  Queen  of  Belgium.  But 
he  won  his  greatest  fame  as  a  musical  the- 
orist, historian,  and  teacher.  His  Treatise 
on  Counterpoint  and  Fugue  is  unquestion- 
ably the  best  and  most  exhaustive  text- 
book on  the  subject  in  existence  ;  his  Trea- 
tise on  Harmony,  in  sjjite  of  some  incon- 
sequences and  now  obsolete  views,  is  still 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  theoretical 
works  in  musical  literature.  As  an  histo- 
rian he  was  voluminous,  but  not  always 
trustworthy  ;  his  historical  works  are, 
moreover,  stained  with  an  uncompromising 
dogmatism.  His  Biographic  universelle 
des  Musicieus  (continued  after  his  death  by 


FEUER-SYMPHONIE 


Ai-thur  Pougin)  is  still  a  standard  book 
of  reference.  Works — Operas  :  L'amant  et 
le  ruari,  given  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
1820  ;  Les  sceurs  jumelles,  ib.,  1823  ;  Marie 
Stuart  en  Ecosse,  ib.,  1823 ;  Le  bour- 
geois de  Reims,  ib.,  1824  ;  La  vieille,  ib., 
182G  ;  Le  mannequin  de  Bergame,  ib., 
1832 ;  Phidias,  not  represented.  Instru- 
mental music :  Overtures  for  orchestra ; 
Sonatas  ;  Sextets  ;  Quintets  ;  Duos  for  piano- 
forte and  violin.  Vocal  music  :  Canzonette  ; 
Masses  ;  Vespers,  and  much  other  church 
music  still  in  MS.  Historical  and  didactic 
works :  Mi'thode  elumeutaire  d'harmonie 
et  d'accompaguement  (1824,  1836,  1S41, 
translated  into  English  and  Italian) ;  Traite 
de  la  fugue  et  du  contrapoint  (1825,  184G) ; 
Traite  de  I'accompagnement  de  la  partition 
(1829)  ;  Solfeges  progressifs  precedes  de 
I'exposition  raisonne  des  principes  de  la 
musique  (1827)  ;  La  musique  mise  a  la 
portee  de  tout  le  moude  (1830)  ;  Curiosites 
historiques  de  la  musique  (1830)  ;  Bio- 
graphie  universelle  des  musiciens  et  biblio- 
graphie  generale  de  la  musique,  8  vols. 
(1835-44;  2d  ed.,  1860-G5  ;  Supplement, 
Pougin,  1878-80)  ;  Manuel  des  principes  de 
musique,  etc.  (1837)  ;  Traite  du  chant  en 
choeur,  etc.  (1838) ;  Manuel  des  jeunes  com- 
positeurs, des  chefs  de  musique  militaire  et 
des  directeurs  d'orchestre  (1837)  ;  Methode 
des  methodes  de  piano  (1837)  ;  Methode 
des  methodes  de  chant ;  Esquisse  de  I'his- 
toire  de  I'harmonie,  etc.  (1840)  ;  Methode 
elementairc  du  plain-chant  (1843)  ;  Traite 
complet  de  la  theorie  et  de  la  pratique  de 
I'harmonie  (1844,  6th  ed.,  1857);  Notice 
biographique  de  Nicolo  Paganini,  etc. 
(1851)  ;  Traite  elementaire  de  musique,  etc. 
(1851-1852) ;  Antoine  Stradivari,  etc.  (1856); 


Histoii'e  generale  de  la  musique  depuis  les 
temps  les  plus  anciens  jusqua  uos  jours 
(1869-76  ;   finished  only  as  far  as  the  15th 


century).  He  left  other  works  and  treatises 
unpublished.  His  eldest  son,  Edward  Louis 
Fran(;ois  (born  at  Bouvignes,  May  16,  1812), 
is  a  professor  in  Brussels.  He  succeeded 
his  father  as  editor  of  the  Revue  musicale 
in  1833-35,  edited  the  fifth  volume  of 
"Histoire  generale  de  la  musique,"  and  has 
published  "  Les  musiciens  beiges  "  (Brus- 
sels, 1848),  and  other  works. — Louis  Alvin, 
Notice  sur  F.  J.  Fetis  (Brussels,  1874) ;  Am- 
bros,  Buute  Blatter,  i.  141. 

FEUER-SYMPHONIE  (Fire  Symphony), 
by  Joseph  Haydn,  written  in  1770.  It  is 
probably  the  overture  to  the  opera  Die 
Feuersbrunst,  an  unrepresented  work  by 
the  composer. 

FEUILLETS  D'.YLBUM  (Album  Leaves), 
3  songs  with  pianoforte  accompaniment,  by 
Hector  Berlioz,  op.  19. — Jullien,  Hector 
Berlioz  (1888),  378. 

FEVIN,  ANTOINE,  born,  probably  at 
Orleans,  France,  about  1490,  died  cer- 
tainly before  1516.  Little  or  nothing  is 
known  of  his  life,  but  his  compositions  (in 
spite  of  his  early  death)  point  to  his  having 
been  one  of  the  gi-eatest  geniuses  between 
Josquin  Despres  and  Orlando  Lasso.  His 
reputation,  during  and  after  his  life,  was  im- 
mense. The  opinion  that  be  was  a  Span- 
iard is  rejected  by  the  best  authorities. 
Works  :  3  Masses,  Sancta  Trinitas,  ]\[ente 
tota,  and  Ave  Maria,  from  a  book  of  Masses 
(Petrucci,  Fossombrone,  1515  ;  only  known 
copy  in  British  Museum)  ;  3  Masses ;  Ave 
Maria,  Mente  tota,  and  De  feria  (-'Liber 
quindecim  Missarum,"  Rome,  1516  ;  copy 
in  llazarin  Library,  Paris)  ;  6  motets  from 
"Motetti  della  coi-ona "  (Petrucci,  1514); 
Motet,  Descende  in  hortum  meum,  and  a 
fugue,  Qu;e  es  ista  ("Cautiones  selects  ul- 
tra centum,"  Augsburg,  1540)  ;  2  Lamenta- 
tions, Migravit  Juda,  and  Recordare  est, 
("  Recueil  de  Lamentations  de  Jereraie," 
Paris,  1558)  ;  Detached  movements  from 
masses  in  Eslava's  Lira  sacro-hispana  ;  Mag- 
nificat in  Attaignant's  5th  book  for  four 
voices,  and  2  motets  in  his  11th  book  (Paris, 
1534) ;  Chansons  franyaisea  in  "Bicinia  gal- 


Ffivm 


lica,  latiiia  et  germanica "  (Wittenberg, 
1545)  ;  3  masses  in  the  Ambraser  Messen, 
Vieuua,  and  3  motets  in  MS.  in  the  same 
hbrary.  A  mass  in  MS.,  Salve  sancta  pa- 
rens, the  only  copy,  is  in  the  Munich  Li- 
brary. A  song  of  his,  "  Je  le  I'airray,"  is  in 
the  Harleian  MSS.,  and  fragments  of  two 
masses  are  in  Burney's  Musical  Extracts  ; 
both  in  the  British  Museum. — Ambros,  iii. 
274  ;  Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney,  Hist,  of  Mas., 
ii.  530 ;  Mendel. 

FEVIN,  ROBERTUS,  born  at  Cambrai, 
latter  part  of  the  15th  century,  died  after 
1515.  A  contemporary  of  Antoine  Fevin,  but 
of  another  family.  He  was  maitre  de  chapelle 
to  the  Duke  of  Savoy.  According  to  Fetis 
his  only  known  composition  is  a  Mass  for 
four  voices  on  the  French  chanson,  Le  vi- 
lain  jaloux,  printed  in  "  Misste  Antonii  de 
Fevin"  (Petrucci,  Fossombrone,  1515)  ;  but 
Van  der  Straeten  mentions  a  Mass  and  an- 
other church  composition  in  the  catalogue 
of  the  Sixtine  Chapel  music  (1868),  in  which 
he  is  called  Robiuet  Fevin. — Fotis  ;  Van  der 
Straeten,  vi.  4G3,  471,  474  ;  Gerber  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

FfiVRE.     See  Le  Fibre. 

FIALA,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Lobkowitz, 
Bohemia,  in  1749,  died  at  Douaueschingen 
in  1816.  Oboist  and  violoncellist.  Origi- 
nally a  serf,  he  taught  himself  the  oboe,  and 
became  a  member,  in  Vienna,  of  Prince  Wal- 
lenstein's  band.  In  1777  he  went  to  Mu- 
nich, and  was  engaged  by  the  Elector  Max 
Joseph  for  the  Electoral  Chapel,  and  subse- 
quently served  in  that  of  the  Prince  Bishop 
of  Salzburg,  where  he  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Mozart,  and  through  his  influence 
went  to  Vienna  in  1786.  After  residing  sev- 
eral years  in  Russia,  in  the  service  of  Count 
Alexis  Orloff,  he  returned  to  Germany, 
and  in  1792  became  Kapellmeister  to 
Prince  Fiirstenberg  at  Douaueschingen. 
Works  :  2  sets  of  quartets  for  violin  (Frank- 
fort and  Vienna,  1780,  1786) ;  6  duos  for  vio- 
lin and  violoncello  (Augsburg,  1799) ;  2  sets 
of  trios  for  flute,  oboe,  and  bassoon  (Ratisbon, 
1806).— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Wurzbach. 


FL\.NCISe,  LA,  opera-comique  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Scribe,  music  by  Auber,  first 
represented  in  Paris,  Jan.  10,  1829  ;  in  Ber- 
lin, as  Die  Braut,  Aug.  26,  1829.  It  treats 
of  bourgeois  life.  It  was  revived  in  Paris, 
Feb.  10,  1858.  Published  by  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1829),  with  pianoforte 
accompaniment  ;  Schott's  SOhnen  (Mainz, 
1829). 

FIANCEE  DU  ROI  DE  GARBE,  LA, 
opera-comique  in  three  acts  and  six  tab- 
leaux, text  by  Scribe  and  Saint-Georges, 
music  by  Auber,  re^jreseuted  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  Jan.  11,  1864.  The  sub- 
ject is  from  a  tale  by  Boccaccio,  put  into 
verse  by  La  Fontaine.  An  opera-comique 
of  the  same  title,  in  three  acts  and  four  ta- 
bleaux, text  by  Dennery  and  Chabrillat,  mu- 
sic by  Henri  Litolff,  was  given  at  the  Folies 
Dramatiques,  Paris,  Oct.  29,  1874.  Subject 
also  fi'om  Boccaccio. 

FIANCfiE  DES  VERTS-POTEAUX,  LA, 
oj^eretta,  music  by  Edmond  Audran,  repre- 
sented at  the  Menus  Plaisirs,  Paris,  Nov. 
8,  1887. 

FIBICH,  ZDENKO,  born  at  Seborschitz, 
Bohemia,  Dec.  21,  1850,  still  living,  1889. 
Dramatic  composer,  studied  music  first  at 
Prague,  then  at  the  Leipsic  Conservatorium 
(1865),  and  under  Vincenz  Lachner.  In 
1876  he  became  second  Kapellmeister  at 
the  National  Theatre  in  Prague,  and  in  1878 
choir-director  of  the  Russian  church.  He 
is  one  of  the  most  prominent  among  the 
young  Czech  composers.  Works :  Buko- 
wiu,  Czech  opera,  given  at  Prague  about 
1875  ;  Blanik,  do.,  ib.,  Nov.  26,  1881  ;  The 
Bride  of  Messina,  do.,  1883  ;  Othello,  Zaboj 
and  Slavoj,  Toman  and  the  Nymph,  Vesna, 
symphonic  poems  ;  Two  symphonies  ;  Sev- 
eral overtures  ;  Two  string  quartets  ;  Melo- 
dramas, choruses,  songs,  and  pianoforte 
pieces. — Riemann. 

FIBY,  HEINRICH,  born  in  Vienna,  May 
15,  1834,  still  living,  1889.  Vocal  composer 
and  violinist,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoi-ium, 
Vienna ;  became  in  1853  solo  violin  and 
conductor  of  the  orchestra  at  the  theatre  in 


61 


FIDELIO 


Laybaeb,  Carniola,  and  in  1857  city  music 
director  at  Znaim,  Moravia,  where  be  has 
done  miicb  towards  tbe  regeneration  of  mu- 
sical life  and  tbe  reorganization  of  cburcb 
music.  He  is  most  favourably  known  by 
bis  choruses  for  male  voices  ;  and  has  com- 
posed also  three  operettas. — Mendel,  Er- 
giinz.,  104. 

FIDELIO,  Oder  die  ebeliche  Liebe  (Con- 
jugal Love),  German  opera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Joseph  Sonuleithner,  music  by  Beethoven, 
first  represented  at  the  Theater  an  der  Wieu, 
Vienna,  Nov.  20,  1805.  The  libretto  is  an 
adaptation  from  the  French  of  Jean  Nico- 
las BouUly's  "  Lconore,  ou  I'amour  conju- 
gal," which  had  twice  before  been  set  to 
music  :  by  Gaveaux,  as  Leonore,  ou  I'a- 
mour conjugal,  given  at  the  Oi^era  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Feb.  19,  1798  ;  and  by  Paer, 
as  Leonora,  ossia  1'  amore  conjugale,  given 
at  Dresden,  Oct.  3,  1804.  Beethoven  re- 
ceived the  text  in  the  winter  of  1801-5,  and 
composed  his  score  at  Hetzeudorf  during 
the  following  summer.  The  opera,  originally 
in  three  acts,  was  produced  under  discour- 
aging cu-cumstances,  the  French  having  just 
taken  jjossession  of  the  city,  which  was  de- 
serted by  the  court  and  nobility,  and  after 
three  representations  (Nov.  20,  21,  22)  it 
was  withdrawn.  The  work  proving  too 
long,  three  numbers  were  di-opped  from  it 
and  the  libretto  was  reduced  to  two  acts  by 
Stephen  Breuning.  In  this  form  it  was 
given  at  the  Imperial  private  theatre,  Mai'ch 
29  and  April  10,1806,  and  again  withdrawn. 
In  1811  the  libretto  was  again  revised  by 
Friedrich  Treitschke,  and  Beethoven  re- 
wrote and  rearranged  a  considerable  part  of 
the  music.  In  this  last  form  it  was  pro- 
duced at  the  Kiiruthnerthor  Theater,  May 
23,  1811.  Beethoven  wished  the  opera 
called  Leonore,  but  he  was  overruled  by  the 
management  of  the  theatre,  and  it  was  al- 
ways announced  under  its  present  name. 
Four  overtures  were  written  for  it :  1.  Leo- 
nore No.  2,  in  C,  1805  ;  2.  Leonore  No.  3, 
in  C,  180G  ;  3.  Leonore  No.  1,  in  C  (op. 
138),   1807  ;   4.  Fidelio,  in  E,  181G.     The 


action  of  the  opera  takes  place  in  a  prison 
near  Seville,  Spain,  of  which  Don  Pizarro 
is  governor,  and  Kocco  chief  jailer.  Flo- 
restau  is  a  state  prisoner,  whose  wife,  Leo- 
nore, has  introduced  herself  into  the  prison 
in  male  attii'e,  under  the  name  of  Fidelio, 
in  hope  of  etlecting  his  deliverance.  Ja- 
quino,  the  turnkey,  is  in  love  withMarzelline, 
daughter  of  Rocco,  and  she  is  in  love  with 
Fidelio.  Don  Pizarro,  hearing  that  Don 
Fernando  is  coming  to  inspect  the  prison, 
determines  to  kill  Florestan,  but  is  pre- 
vented by  Leonore.  In  the  last  scene  Don 
Fernando  frees  Florestan,  who  is  reunited 


Schroder-Devrient. 

to  Leonore,  Don  Pizarro  is  led  away  to  pun- 
ishment, and  Marzelline  consents  to  make 
Jaquino  happy.  Among  the  most  notewor- 
thy of  the  numbers  are  :  In  the  first  act, 
Marzelline's  aria,  "O  wiir'  ich  schon  mit  dir 
vereint,"  called  the  Hope  aria  ;  the  quartet, 
"  Mir  ist  so  wunderbar  ; "  Rocco's  song, 
"  Hat  man  nicht  audi  Gold,  beineben," 
called  the  Gold  song  ;  Don  Pizarro's  aria, 
"  Ha  !  welch  ein  Augenblick  !  "  Fidelio's 
aria,  "  Abscheulicher  !,"  full  of  dramatic  in- 
tensity expressive  of  her  horror  of  Don  Fer- 
nando's  proposed  crime,  and  leading  into 
an  adagio,  "Komm,  Hoffnung,"in  which  she 
describes  the  power  of  love.  In  the  second 
act  Florestan  in  his  dungeon  sings  an  aria, 


ez 


FIEDLER 


"  In  des  Lebens  Friihlingstagen,"  which 
closes  rapturously  with,  "  Und  spiir'  Ich 
uiclit  liude,"  as  he  sees  Leonora  in  a  vision. 
After  a  furious  scene  between  Don  Pizarro 
and  Leonore,  interrupted  by  the  arrival  of 
Don  Fernando,  Florestan  and  Leonore  join 
in  the  rajiturous  duet,  "  O  Namenlose 
Freude."  The  original  cast  in  1805  was  as 
follows  : 

Don  Fernando Herr  Weinkopf. 

Don  Pizarro Herr  Meier. 

Florestan Herr  Demmer. 

Leonore  (Fidelio) Frilulein  Milder. 

Eocco Herr  Rothe. 

Marzelline Friiulein  Midler. 

Jaquino Herr  Cache. 

In  1822  \\'ilhelmina  Schroder,  afterwards 
Schroder-Devrient  (1805-1860),  sang  at  Vi- 
enna the  part  of  Leonore,  and  achieved  such 
extraordinary  success  as  to  become  al- 
most identified  with  the  character.  Fidelio 
was  produced  in  Paris,  at  the  Salle  Favart, 
1829  and  1830  ;  at  the  Italiens,  1852  ;  and 
in  three  acts,  French  translation  by  Jules 
Barbier  and  Michel  Carre,  at  the  Theatre 
Lyrique,  May  5,  18G0.  It  was  performed  in 
London  at  the  King's  Theatre,  May  18, 
1832,  and  in  English  at  Covent  Garden, 
June  12,  1835.  Its  first  production  in 
America  was  at  the  National  Theatre,  New 
York,  Sept.  9,  1839,  when  it  was  given  in 
English.  The  German  version  was  sung  at 
the  Metropolitan  Ojjera  House,  New  York, 
in  the  season  of  1885-86. — Marx,  L.  van 
B.,  200  ;  Nohl,  B.'s  Leben,  ii.  205  ;  Thayer, 
Life  of  B.  ;  do.,  Verzeichniss,  61 ;  Hanslick, 
Moderne  Oper,  61  ;  Liszt,  Gesamml.  Schr., 
iii.  10  ;  Berlioz,  A  travers  Chants,  68  ;  Schu- 
mann, Music  and  Musicians,  i.  25. 

FIEDLER,  AUGUST  MAX,  born  at 
Zittau,  Dec.  31,  1859,  still  living,  1889. 
Pianist  and  instrumental  and  vocal  com- 
poser, pupil  of  his  father  on  the  pianoforte 
and  of  G.  Albrecht  in  theory  and  on  the 
organ,  then  at  the  Conservatorium  in  Leip- 
sic  (1877-80).  Since  1882  professor  at 
the  Conservatorium  in  Hamburg.     He  ap- 


peared  with  success  as  a  concert  player,  and 
has  composed  a  sj'mphony,  performed  in 
Hamburg,  1886,  a  quintet  and  a  quartet  for 
strings,  songs,  and  pianoforte  i^ieces.— Eie- 
mann. 

FIELD,  JOHN  (called  in  England  "Rus- 
sian Field  "),  born 
in  Dublin,  Ireland, 
July  26,  1782,  died 
in  Moscow,  Russia, 
Jan.  11,  1837.  His 
father  was  a  violin- 
ist in  a  theatre  or- 
chestra in  Dublin  ; 
his  grandfather  an 
organist,  who  taught 
him  the  rudiments 
of  music  and  the  pi- 
anoforte. His  father  apprenticed  him  in 
London  to  Clementi,  with  whom  he  studied 
the  pianoforte  until  1801,  acting  also  as 
salesman  and  exhibitor  of  pianofortes  in 
the  warerooms  of  Clementi  &  Co.  In  1802 
Clementi  took  him  to  Paris,  where  he  won 
great  distinction  by  his  playing  of  Bach  and 
Handel,  and  thence  to  St.  Petersburg,  where 
he  continued  to  serve  in  his  master's  ware- 
rooms  until  1801,  when  Clementi  left  Rus- 
sia. He  then  settled  in  St.  Petersburg  as  a 
teacher,  receiving  extraordinary  j)rices  for 
his  lessons.  In  1823  he  removed  to  Mos- 
cow, where  he  won  even  greater  success  as 
a  pianist.  After  a  professional  trip  through 
Russia  he  returned  to  London  in  1832,  and 
in  1833  to  Paris,  passing  through  Belgium 
and  Switzerland  to  Italy,  where  he  lost 
money  at  his  concerts  in  Milan,  Venice,  and 
Naples.  Intemperate  habits  had  worn  out 
his  originally  feeble  constitution,  and  he  was 
nine  months  in  a  wretched  state  in  a  NeajDO- 
litan  hospital.  A  Russian  family  by  the 
name  of  Raemanow  saved  him  from  this 
plight,  on  condition  that  he  should  return 
to  Russia.  Passing  through  Vienna  he  elic- 
ited the  most  enthusiastic  praise  by  his 
playing,  but  died  almost  immediately  after 
reaching  Moscow.  As  a  composer,  Field 
is  to  be  credited  with  originating  that  form 


FIEN^'ES 


of  pianoforte  piece  known  as  the  nocturne  ; 
his  nocturnes  were  the  models  for  Chopin 
and  all  later  composers,  and,  among  all  his 
works,  they  alone  have  survived.  His  con- 
certos, sonatas,  pianoforte  quintet,  and 
other  works,  much  admired  in  his  day, 
have  all  died.  His  style  was  marked  by 
infinite  grace,  charm,  and  an  intimate 
knowledge  of  the  most  characteristic  re- 
sources of  the  pianoforte.  Both  as  a  pian- 
ist and  composer  he  was  the  connecting  link 
between  Clementi  and  Chopin.  Works  :  7 
concertos  for  pianoforte  and  orchestra,  in 
E-flat  (Nos.  1,  3,  and  -4),  A-flat,  C  (L'  incen- 
die  par  I'orage),  C,  and  C  minor  ;  2  diver- 
tissements for  do.,  with  accompaniment  for 
2  violins,  flute,  viola,  and  bass  ;  Quintet  for 
pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Rondo  for  do.  ; 
Variations  on  a  Russian  air  for  four  hands ; 
Grand  valse  for  do.;  3  sonatas,  in  A,  E-flat, 
and  C  minor  ;  3  do.  in  A,  B,  and  C  ;  Sonata 
in  B  ;  20  nocturnes  (only  12  of  these  were 
designated  as  such  by  the  composer) ;  2  airs 

. •  en  rondeau  ;  Ron- 

^/e_j^j  deau  ccossais; 
_-_,.7    -  Fantasias  on   dif- 

y  ferent  airs  ;  Polo- 

V  naises,   romances, 

rondos,  and  miscellaneous  pieces  for  piano- 
forte ;  Two  songs,  with  pianoforte. — Grove  ; 
Fetis,  iii.  244  ;  do.,  Supph'ment,  i.  331  ; 
Mendel  ;  Spohr,  Selbtsbiographie,  i.  43 ; 
Weitzmann,  Geschichte  des  Clanerspiels, 
92.  ;  Liszt,  Gesamml.  Schr.,  iv.  261. 

FIENXES,  HENRI  DU  BOIS  DE,  born 
at  Auderlecht,  near  Brussels,  Dec.  15,  1809, 
died  there,  Feb.  15,  1863.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Landwyck,  an  organist  at  Brussels,  then  went 
to  Paris,  where  for  two  years  he  profited 
much  by  the  advice  of  Henri  Herz.  After 
his  return  to  Belgium  he  gave  concerts 
with  Bender,  Hauman,  and  D('sargus,  and 
in  1834  studied  composition  under  Fetis ; 
then  perfected  himself  on  the  pianoforte  in 
Paris  under  Kalkbrenner.  Settled  in  Brus- 
sels, where  he  devoted  himself  to  teaching, 
he  made  a  concert  tour  through  Holland 
and  on  the  Rhine  in  1837,  and  visited  Lon- 


/ 


don  to  hear  and  be  advised  by  Thalberg, 
then  at  the  zenith  of  his  fame.  Works  : 
Two  concertos  for  pianoforte  and  orchestra ; 
Fantaisie  romantique  ;  Morceau  de  concert ; 
Thume  varie  ;  Fantaisies,  mt'langes,  caprices, 
etc.,  on  operatic  themes. — Fetis. 

FIERO  SANGUE  D'  ARAGONA.  See 
Ernani. 

FIERRABRAS,  romantic  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Josef  Kujjelwieser,  music  by 
Franz  Schubert,  written  in  1823,  but  never 
performed,  though  Riemann  says  it  was 
produced  in  Vienna  in  1861.  The  work, 
in  MS.  (1,000  pages  of  written  score),  in 
twenty-three  numbers,  including  the  over- 
ture, is  preserved  in  the  library  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 
Fragments  of  it  have  been  played  in  Vienna 
(1858,  1862),  and  the  overture,  which  is 
owned  by  Herr  Spina,  Vienna  (it  has  been 
published,  arranged  for  j)ianoforte,  by  Di- 
abelli),  is  frequently  played  at  concerts.  It 
is  decidedly  the  greatest  of  Schubert's  over- 
tures. The  subject  is  from  the  romances  of 
chivalry  and  deals  with  the  wars  between 
Charlemagne  and  the  Moors.  The  scene  is 
laid  in  Spain.  Fierrabras,  son  of  the  Moor- 
ish prince,  is  in  love  with  Emma,  daughter 
of  King  Charles  (Charlemagne),  who  is  also 
beloved  by  Eginhardt,  a  Christian  knight ; 
and  Florinda,  sister  of  Fierrabras,  is  loved 
by  Roland,  another  Christian  knight.  Af- 
ter many  vicissitudes,  Eginhardt  wins 
Emma,  and  Roland  Florinda  ;  and  Fierra- 
bras, renouncing  his  religion,  becomes  a 
follower  of  King  Charles  amid  a  chorus  of 
joy  and  exultation. — Hellborn  (Coleridge), 
Life  of  Schubert,  i.  293  ;  Grove,  iii.  338. 

FIESCO,  GIULIO,  born  in  Ferrara  in 
1519,  died  in  1586.  Lutist,  musician  of 
the  chapel  of  Ercole  H.,  and  Alfonso  H.,  of 
Este.  His  madrigals  were  published  in 
Venice  (1554-1569).— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FifiVRE  BROLANTE,  UNE.  See  Ei- 
chard  Cceur  de  Lion. 

FIGARO.     See  Nozze  di  Figaro. 

FIGHERA,  SALVATORE,  born  at  Gra- 
vina,  Naples,    in   1771,  died  at  Naples  in 


64 


FIGLIUOL 


1836.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Insan- 
guine  and  Fenaroli  at  the  Conservatorio 
Santa  Maria  di  Loreto,  Naples  ;  then  lived 
for  a  time  iu  Milan,  and  after  his  return 
was  maestro  di  cappella  of  several  convents, 
for  which  he  wrote  numerous  compositions. 
"Works  :  La  iinta  istoria,  cantata  ;  Lo 
sdegno  e  la  pace,  do.  ;  2  masses  for  double 
chorus  with  orchestra  ;  Several  masses  alia 
Palestrina  ;  Miserere  for  4  voices  with  or- 
chestra ;  Credo  for  8  voices  in  madrigal 
style ;  La  sorpresa,  opera  buflta,  given  in 
Milan. — Fotis,  Sui^plemeut,  i.  331  ;  Mendel, 
Ergiinz.,  104 

FIGLIUOL  PKODIGO,  IL  (The  Prodi- 
gal Son),  melodrama  in  four  acts,  test  by 
A.  Zanardini,  music  by  Amilcare  Ponchielli, 
represented  at  La  Scala,  Milan,  Dec.  26, 
1880.  This  work,  sung  by  Tamagno, 
de  Reszke,  Salvati,  and  Mmes  Angeri  and 
Prasini,  had  a  great  success. 

FILBY,  WILLIA^M  CHARLES,  born  at 
Hammersmith,  England,  1836,  still  living, 
1889.  Organist,  and  composer  of  church, 
dramatic,  and  instrumental  music,  studied 
in  France,  and  was  organist  successively  in 
London,  at  Walworth,  Bayswater,  West- 
bourne  Park,  Margate,  and  Stepney. 
Works  :  Your  money  or  your  life,  operetta, 
op.  99  ;  Alabama  Claims,  do.,  op.  100 ;  Mass 
in  E-flat,  op.  24  ;  do.,  in  E,  op.  28  ;  The 
twenty-third  psalm,  op.  36  ;  The  thirteenth 
psalm,  op.  71  ;  Ouverture  fantastique  for  or- 
chestra, op.  101 ;  Motets  ;  Anthems  ;  So- 
nata for  pianoforte,  op.  G6  ;  Fantasias  and 
other  pieces  for  do.  ;  Organ  music,  songs, 
duets,  etc. 

FILIPPINI,  STEFANO  (surnamed  1'  Ar- 
gentino),  Augustine  monk,  maestro  di  cajj- 
pella  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist  at  Ravenna, 
in  the  second  part  of  the  17th  century. 
His  motets,  j)salms,  masses,  etc.,  were  pub- 
lished in  Ancona  and  Bologna  (1522-1685). 
— Ft'tis  ;  Mendel,  iii.  517  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
xii.  105. 

FILIPUZZI,  AGOSTINO,  born  in  Bo- 
logna about  1635,  died  (?).  Organist  of  the 
church  of  the  Madonna  di  Galiera,  and  iu 


1665  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  church  of 
the  regular  canons  of  S.  Giovanni  iu  Monte. 
On  the  foundation  of  the  Accademia  Filar- 
mouica,  Bologna,  1666,  he  was  made  a  mem- 
ber, antl  he  was  principe  in  1669  and  1675. 
He  composed  masses,  psalms,  etc.,  Bologna 
(1666-1671).— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FILLE  DE  MADAME  ANGOT,  LA 
(Madame  Angot's  Daughter),  opera-bouffe, 
text  by  Clairville,  Siraudin,  and  Koning, 
music  by  Charles  Lecocq,  represented  at 
the  Fautaisies  Parisienues,  Brussels,  No- 
vember, 1872.  Madame  Angot's  daughter, 
Clairette,  a  pretty  flower-girl,  whom  her 
friends  wish  to  marry  the  hair-dresser  Pom- 
ponnet,  prefers  to  give  her  love  to  Ange 
Pitou,  a  singer.  The  latter,  inconstant,  sac- 
rifices his  love  to  the  beautiful  eyes  of  Mile 
Lange,  the  famous  comedienne.  Clairette, 
after  all  sorts  of  trouble,  at  last  consoles 
herself  for  his  infidelity  and  gives  her  hand 
to  Pomponnet.  The  work  had  a  great  suc- 
cess in  Paris,  where  it  was  presented,  Feb. 
23,  1873,  at  the  Folies  Dramatiques. 

FILLE  DES  EOIS,  A  TOI  L'HOM- 
MAGE.     See  Africaine. 

FILLE  DU  REGLAIENT,  LA  (Ital.,  La 
figiia  del  reggimento,  The  Daughter  of  the 
Regiment),  oi)era-comique  iu  two  acts,  text 
by  Bayard  and  Saint-Georges,  music  by 
Donizetti,  represented  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Feb.  11,  1840.  Scene,  iu  the 
Tyrol,  during  its  occupation  by  the  French 
in  Napoleon's  time.  Marie,  picked  up 
when  an  infant  on  the  battle-field  by  Ser- 
geant Sulpice,  has  grown  up  to  be  a  vivan- 
diere  and  the  adopted  daughter  of  the  21st 
Regiment.  Tony,  a  Tyrolese  peasant,  who 
once  saved  her  from  falling  over  a  precijiice, 
loves  her,  and  joins  the  regiment  to  obtain 
her  hand.  But  the  mystery  of  her  birth  is 
cleared  up  by  the  appearance  of  her  mother, 
a  marquise,  who  claims  Marie  as  her  niece, 
and  rejects  Tony.  In  the  second  act  the 
daughter  of  the  regiment  appears  in  her 
mother's  chateau,  surrounded  by  everything 
belonging  to  her  rank,  but  regretting  Tony 
and   longing   for  the  freedom  of   her  old 


65 


FILS 


life.  She  is  suddenly  cheered  up  by  the 
return  of  the  regiment,  and  Tony,  become 
an  officer,  demands  her  hand.  The  mar- 
quise reveals  to  Marie  that  she  is  her  mother 
and  bids  her  give  up  her  lover,  but  at 
last,  overcome  by  her  daughter's  grief,  con- 
sents to  the  union.  The  opera  was  given 
in  Italian  in  London,  at  Her  Majesty's  The- 
atre, May  27,  18-17,  with  Jenny  Liud  in  the 
title-role  ;  and  in  English,  at  the  Surrey 
Theatre,  Dec.  21,  1847.  The  French  ver- 
sion was  produced  in  New  York,  at  Niblo's 
Garden,  July  19,  1843,  by  a  company  from 
New  Orleans,  with  Mile  Calve  as  Marie  and 
Bles  as  Sulpice.  Among  the  best  of  the 
numbers  are  :  the  tyrolienne,  "  Suppliant, 
a  genoux  ; "  the  duet  between  Marie  and 
Sulpice,  commonly  called  "Le  Rataplan;" 
the  spirited,  "  Salut  a  la  France  ;  "  and  the 
song  of  the  regiment,  "  Chacun  le  sait, 
chacuu  le  dit." — Edwards,  Lyrical  Drama, 
ii.  37  ;  Larousse,  viii.  376. 

FILS  DU  BRIGADIER  (The  Corporal's 
Son),  LE,  opcra-comique  in  three  acts,  text 
by  Eugene  Labiche  and  Delacour,  music  by 
Victor  Masse,  represented  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  Feb.  25,  1867.  Sung  by 
Crosti,  Montaubry,  Sainte-Foy,  Prilleux, 
and  Allies  Girard,  Ruze,  and  Revilly. 

FILTZ,  ANTON,  died  at  an  early  age  at 
Mannheim  in  1768.  Violoncellist  in  the 
service  of  the  Elector-Palatine  at  Mann- 
heim about  1763,  and  enjoyed  great  reputa- 
tion as  a  composer.  Works  :  6  symjihonies 
for  8  instruments  ;  6  trios  for  pianoforte, 
violin  and  bass  ;  6  trios  for  violins  ;  6  quar- 
tets for  2  violins,  viola,  and  bass.  Concertos 
for  violoncello,  flute,  oboe,  and  clarinet, 
and  duos  and  solos  for  violoncello,  in  MS. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FINAZZI,  FELIPPO,  born  in  Bergamo 
in  1710,  died  at  Jersbeck,  near  Hamburg, 
April  21,  1776.  Singer  and  compose!-,  sang 
in  Italian  opera  at  Breslau  in  1728  ;  was 
subsequently  in  the  ser\'ice  of  the  Duke  of 
Modena,  returned  to  Germany  in  1737,  and 
settled  at  Jersbeck  in  1748.  He  published 
six  four-part   symphonies  (1754),   and  left 


the  opera  Temistocle,  the  intermezzo  La 
jsace  campestre,  a  cantata,  and  other  music 
in  MS.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

rmCH'  HAN  DAL  VINO.  See  Don 
Giovanni. 

FINCK,  HEINRICH,  German  composer 
of  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century,  date 
of  birth  and  death  unknown.  He  finished 
his  studies  in  Cracow,  Poland,  where  he 
was  in  the  service  of  Kings  John  Albert  in 
1492,  of  Alexander  in  1501,  and  of  Sigis- 
mund  I.  in  1506.  He  retired  later  to  Wit- 
tenberg. He  is  sometimes  confounded  with 
his  grand-nephew,  Hermann  Finck.  Works  : 
SchiJne  auserlesene  Lieder  (Nuremberg, 
1536)  ;  music  to  22  Latin  hymns  in  Rhau's 
Sacrorum  hymnorum,  lib.  i.  (Wittenberg, 
1542)  ;  and  compositions  in  other  16th  cen- 
tury collections. — AUgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vii.  12  ; 
Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  333  ;  Mendel ; 
Sowinski,  191  ;  Schilling  ;  Winterfeld,  Der 
evang.  Kirchengesang,  i.  186. 

FINCK,  HERMANN,  born  in  Pirna,  Sax- 
ony, March  21,  1527,  died  in  Wittenberg, 
Doc.  28,  1558.  A  grand-nephew  of  Hein- 
rich  Finck,  and  a  warm  supporter  of  the 
Reformed  religion.  He  studied  in  Witten- 
berg, where  he  became  an  organist,  and 
composed  chorals,  one  of  which,  "  O  let  thy 
grace  remain,"  is  still  sung  in  German 
Protestant  churches.  He  was  the  author 
of  a  theoretical  work,  "  Practica  musica  " 
(1556). — Riemann  ;  Naumann  (Ouseley),  i. 
440. 

FIN  DU  MONDE,  LA.  See  Hercu- 
lannm. 

FINETTI,  GIACOMO,  Italian  composer 
of  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century,  born 
at  Ancona.  A  Franciscan  monk,  he  was 
maestro  di  cappella  of  his  native  town  in 
1611,  and  subsequently  of  San  Marco,  Ven- 
ice. He  composed  psalms,  etc.,  with  Petrus 
Lappius,  and  Jul.  Bellus  (Frankfort,  1621  ; 
Venice,  1611-1622).— Fetis;  Mendel. 

FINGALS  HOHLE.     See  Die  Hehriden. 

FINGER,  GOTTFRIED,  born  at  Olmiitz, 
Moravia,  about  1660,  died  after  1717.  He 
went  to  England  in  1685  and  became  musi- 


FINI 


cian  to  James  II.  On  obtaining  the  fourth 
prize  for  his  music  to  Congi'eve's  masque, 
The  Judgment  of  Paris,  in  1701,  he  was  so 
displeased  that  he  returned  to  Germany. 
He  became  chamber  musician  to  Queen 
Sophie  Charlotte  in  Berlin  in  1702,  and 
Kapellmeister  at  Gotha  in  1717.  Works  : 
SonatsB  xii.  p>ro  diversis  instrumentis 
(1688)  ;  Six  sonatas  or  solos,  three  for  a 
vioHn  and  three  for  a  flute  (1690)  ;  Ayres, 
Chacones,  Divisions,  and  Sonatas,  for  Vio- 
lins and  Flutes,  with  John  Banister  (1691)  ; 
A  set  of  sonatas  in  five  parts  for  flutes 
and  hautboys  (with  Godfrey  Keller)  ;  So- 
natas for  violins  and  flutes  ;  Music  for  Theo- 
philus  Parson's  Ode  for  St.  Cecilia's  Day  ; 
Music  for  Motteux's  masque.  The  Loves  of 
Mars  and  Venus  (with  John  Eccles),  Lon- 
don, 1696  ;  Music  for  Ravenscroft's  comedy, 
The  Anatomist,  ib.,  1697;  Music  for  Elkanah 
Settle's  opera,  the  Virgin  Prophetess,  ib., 
1701  ;  Music  for  Congreve's  masque,  The 
Judgment  of  Paris,  ib.,  1701  ;  Sieg  der 
Schunheit  fiber  die  Helden,  opera,  Berlin, 
1706  ;  Eoxane,  opera,  ib.,  1706  (with  Strieker 
and  Volumier). — Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel  ; 
Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vii.  16. 

FINI,  mCHELE,  born  in  Naples  in 
the  first  years  of  the  18th  century.  Dra- 
matic composer.  Works — Operas:  Pericca 
et  Varrone,  Venice,  1731  ;  Gli  sponsali  d' 
Enea,  ib.,  1831 ;  I  dei  birbi,  ib.,  1732. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FINK,  CHRISTIAN,  born  at  Dettiugen, 
Wiu-temberg,  Aug.  9,  1831,  still  living,  1889. 
Organist,  pupil  at  the  Conservatorium  in 
Leipsic  (1853-55),  and  of  Johann  Schneider 
in  Dresden,  then  lived  in  Leipsic  until 
1860,  when  he  was  called  to  Esslingen  as 
principal  instructor  of  music  at  the  seminary, 
and  as  music  director  and  organist  at  the 
Metropolitan  Church.  In  1862  the  title  of 
professor  was  conferred  on  him.  He  has 
published  a  considerable  number  of  sonatas, 
fugues,  preludes,  trios,  etc.,  for  the  organ  ; 
Psalms,  motets,  and  other  church  music  ; 
also  pianoforte  pieces,  and  songs. — Eie- 
mann. 


FINK,  GOTTFRIED  WILHELM,  born 

at  Suiza,  Thuringia,  March  7,  1783,  died  at 
Halle,  Aug.  27,  1846.  Instrumental  and 
vocal  composer  and  writer  on  music,  pupil 
of  the  cantor  Gressler  on  the  jjianoforte  and 
organ.  First  wrote  for  the  Allgemeine  mu- 
sikalische  Zeitung  in  1808,  and  was  editor  of 
the  paper  in  1827—41.  Became  professor  of 
music  at  Leipsic  University  in  1842,  and  re- 
ceived the  doctor's  degree.  Works :  Pieces 
for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Songs  and  bal- 
lads ;  Terzettos  for  soprano,  contralto,  and 
bass ;  Many  part-songs  for  male  voices  ; 
Hiiusliche  Andachten,  3  books  (Leipsic, 
1810)  ;  He  also  published  Musikalischer 
Hausschatz  der  Deutschen,  a  collection  of 
1,000  songs  (Leipsic,  1843)  ;  Deutsche  Lie- 
dertafel,  a  collection  of  four-part  songs 
for  male  voices. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vii. 
17  ;  Fetis ;  Mendel ;  Riemann,  263  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

FINTA  GIAEDINIERA,  LA,  Italian 
opera  buffa  in  three  acts,  text  by  Calzabigi 
adapted  by  Coltellini,  music  by  Mozart, 
first  represented  at  Munich,  Jan.  13,  1775. 
—Holmes,  Life  of  M.,  89. 

FINTA  SEMPLICE,  LA,  Italian  opera 
buffa  in  three  acts,  text  by  Coltellini,  mu- 
sic by  Mozart,  written  at  Vienna  in  1768, 
but  never  represented. 

FIOCCHI,  VINCENZO,  born  in  Rome  in 
1707,  died  in  Paris  in  1845.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  Conservatorio  della 
Pieta  de'  Turchini,  Naples,  under  Fenaroli. 
Choron  says  he  was  organist  of  St.  Peter's, 
Rome,  but  left  there  at  the  time  of  politi- 
cal troubles,  and  went  to  Paris  in  1802  ; 
he  had  then  written  about  16  operas,  which 
are  now  forgotten.  He  published,  with 
Choron,  Priucipes  d'accompagnement  des 
ecoles  d'ltalie  (1807).  In  Paris  he  brought 
out  the  operas :  Le  valet  de  deux  maitres. 
Theatre  Feydeau,  1802  ;  Sophocle,  Acade- 
mie  Imperiale  de  Musique,  1811.  He  after- 
wards wrote  several  comic  operas,  which 
were  not  performed.  Other  works :  L' 
Addio  d'  Ettore,  cantata,  1797  ;  Piramo  e 
Tisbe,  do. ;  Francesca  d'  Aiimiuo,  do. ;  Aci, 


67 


FIOCCO 


cantatille. — Fi'tis  ;  do.,  Suppk'ment,  i.  333  ; 
Mendel ;  do.,  Ergilnz.,  lOG. 

FIOCCO,  JEAN  JOSEPH,  born  at  Brus- 
sels, died  there  about  1772.  Composer  of 
oratorios,  son  and  probably  pupil  of  Pietro 
Antonio  Fiocco,  whom  he  succeeded  as 
maitre  de  chaijelle  to  the  royal  chapel,  and  at 
Notre  Dame  du  Sablon,  Brussels ;  held  these 
offices  still  in  1749.  His  oratorios  were  cele- 
brated, and  were  a  new  feature  in  the  his- 
tory of  Netherland  music.  Works — Ora- 
torios :  La  tempesta  de'  dolori,  performed 
1728  ;  II  Pentimento  d'  Accabo  ;  La  morte 
vinta  sul  Calvario,  1730  ;  Giesh  flagellato, 
1734  ;  II  trausito  di  S.  Giuseppe,  1737  ; 
Le  profezie  evangeliche  di  Isaia,  1738.  His 
church  compositions  are  numerous. — Biog. 
nat.  de  Belgique,  vii.  72  ;  Van  der  Straeten, 
ii.  132-137  ;  v.  149-153  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
107. 

FIOCCO,  JOSEPH  HECTOR,  born  in 
Brussels  about  1(590,  died  after  1752. 
Harpsichord  player,  son  antl  pupil  of  Pietro 
Antonio  Fiocco.  He  was  vice-maitre  of  the 
royal  chapel  in  1729,  and  became  maitre  de 
chapclle  of  the  cathedral,  Antwerp,  in  1731, 
but  resigned  in  1737,  to  assume  the  same 
function  at  Saiute-Gudule,  Brussels.  Both 
Joseph  Fiocco  and  his  celebrated  father 
mark  a  special  epoch  in  the  musical  his- 
tory of  the  Netherlands.  Joseph  Hector's 
book  of  harpsichord  pieces  entitled  Pieces 
de  claveyin  dediees  i  son  Altesse  Mon- 
seigneur  le  due  d'Areuberg,  etc.  (Brussels, 
between  1730-1737),  is  the  oldest  collection 
of  the  kind  in  existence.  Van  der  Straeten 
gives  an  interesting  account  of  this  work 
and  of  the  progress  of  music  at  the  coui't  of 
Brussels,  then  one  of  the  most  brilliant 
courts  of  Europe.  Among  this  composer's 
church  music  is  a  Mass  to  St.  Cecilia 
(1752),  and  many  other  masses  (Amsterdam, 
Antwerp,  1730).  His  music  was  long  in  use 
in  the  Cathedral  of  Antwerp,  and  was  played 
at  the  Concerts  Spirituels  in  Paris  ;  some  of 
his  MSS.  are  in  the  National  Library,  Paris. 
• — Biog.  nat.  de  Belgique,  vii.  73  ;  Futis  ; 
Van  der  Straeten,  ii.  95  ;  iv.  293. 


FIOCCO,  PIETRO  ANTONIO,  born  in 
Venice  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century, 
died  at  Brussels,  Nov.  3,  1714.  Church 
composer,  settled  at  Brussels  about  1690, 
and  was  maitre  de  chapelle  at  Notre  Dame  du 
Sablon  ;  then  from  1G9G  vice-niaitre,  and  in 
170G-14  maitre  de  la  musique,  to  the  court 
of  Brussels.  Composed  motets,  masses,  etc., 
for  the  royal  chapel,  and  under  his  direc- 
tion several  very  efl'ective  performances  were 
given  at  the  court,  which  consisted  of  relig- 
ious dramas.  His  prologues  set  to  music  for 
Lulli's  operas,  jserformed  at  the  court,  ai-e 
also  specially  mentioned  in  the  chronicles 
of  the  time  ;  none  of  these  pieces  have  sur- 
vived. The  most  important  were  the  pro- 
logues to  Amadis  (1G95),  Acis  et  Galatue 
(1G95),  Belk'rophou  (1G9G),  Tlu'sOe  (1697). 
He  was  made  director  of  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  Brussels,  founded  by  the 
Electoral  Duke  of  Bavaria,  in  1704.  His 
clun-ch  music  was  played  at  Sainte-Gudule 
until  the  last  part  of  the  18th  century.  Pub- 
lished flute  sonatas. — Biog.  nat.  de  Belgi- 
que, vii.  71 ;  Van  der  Straeten,  ii.  127-132, 
176  ;  iv.  293  ;  v.  148  ;  Fetis  ;  Becker,  Die 
Tonwerke  des  xvi.  und  xvii.  Jahrh. 

FIODO,  VINCENZO,  born  at  Taranto, 
Naples,  Sept.  2,  1782,  died  at  Naples  in 
1863.  Dramatic,  and  church  comi^oser, 
pupil  of  Sala  and  I'aisiello  at  the  Conserva- 
torio  de'  Turchini,  Naples.  In  1812  he 
settled  at  Pisa  to  teach  vocal  music,  but 
afterwards  is  said  to  have  given  uj)  his  pro- 
fession for  a  mercantile  career  until  1820, 
about  which  time  he  returned  to  Naples, 
and  to  music,  becoming  maestro  di  cappella 
in  difl'crent  convents  and  churches.  In 
1846  he  was  apj)ointed  inspector  of  the  ex- 
tei'nal  schools  of  the  Conservatorio,  and  in 
1858  professor  at  that  institution.  Works 
— Operas  :  H  disertore,  Rome,  1808  ;  II 
trioufo  di  Quinto  Fabio,  Parma,  1809  ;  Gi- 
ro, Florence,  1810  ;  Giuseppe  riconosciuto, 
oratorio  ;  Requiem  mass  for  2  choruses  and 
2  orchestras  ;  2  do.  for  3  choruses  and  3  or- 
chestras ;  Many  other  religious  composi- 
tions.— Fetis  ;  do.,  Suj)2>l'^'iiient,  i.  333. 


FIORAVANTI 


FIORAVANTI,    VALENTINO,    born   in 

Rome,  November,  1770,  died  at  Capua, 
June  IG,  1837.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at 
the  Couservatorio  della  Pieta  de'  Turcbini, 
Naples,  uuder  Sala.  His  first  ojjera  was 
represented  at  the  Pergola,  Florence,  in 
1791,  and  was  followed  by  about  fifty  others, 
all  comic.  In  180G  he  was  invited  to  Paris, 
and  produced  there,  Sept.  2G,  1807,  an 
opera  buffa  in  two  acts.  In  181G  he  suc- 
ceeded Jannaconi  as  maestro  di  cappella  at 
St.  Peter's,  Rome,  but  his  church  music  was 
inferior  to  his  operas.  Like  other  Italian 
composers  Fioravanti,  though  jjojiular  in 
his  day,  was  eclipsed  by  Rossini.  Works — 
Operas :  Con  i  matti  il  savio  la  perde,  rep- 
resented at  La  Pergola,  Florence,  1791 ; 
Amor  aguzza  1'  ingegno,  about  1792  ;  L' 
amore  immaginario,  1793  ;  L'  astuta,  1793  ; 
La  cantatrice  bizzarra,  about  1793  ;  II  furbo 
contra  il  furbo,  Turin,  1795  ;  Lo  cantatrici 
viilane,  Turin,  1795— Paris,  1806,  1842; 
Lisetta  e  Giannino,  Naples,  1795  ;  II  fabro 
parigino,  Milan,  179G  ;  Gli  amanti  comici, 
Milan,  1796  ;  La  capricciosa  pentita,  Turin, 
1797  ;  L'  iunocente  ambizione,  Venice, 
1797  ;   H   matrimouio   i^er  magia,    Naples, 

1797  ;  La   fortunata    combinazione,    about 

1798  ;  L'  inganno  cade  sojira  1'  inganuatore, 
about  1799  ;  II  bello  place  a  tutti,  about 
1800  ;  I  viaggiatori  ridicoli,  Naples,  1800  ; 
La  schiava  fortunata,  about  1800 ;  H  vil- 
lauo  in  angustie,  Naples,  1801  ;  Amor  e  dis- 
pgtto,  Milan,  1802  ;  I  raggiri  ciarlatanescbi, 
Naples,  1802  ;  L'  orgoglio  avvilito,  Milan, 
1803  ;  La  schiava  di  due  padroni,  Milan, 
1803  ;  II  giudizio  di  Paride,  about  1803  ; 
Le  avventure  di  Bertoldino,  Rome,  1803  ; 
I  puntigli  per  equivoco,  Naples,  1804  ;  La 
bella  Carbonara,  about  1804  ;  L'  Africano 
generoso,  1804  ;  Adelson  e  Salvina,  1804  ;  L' 
avaro,  1804 ;  L'  amor  per  interezza,  about 
1805 ;  L'  ambizione  pentita,  about  1805 ; 
Semplicitii  ed  astuzia,  Naples,  1806  ;  Vir- 
tuosi ambulanti,  Paris,  1807  ;  Lo  sposo  che  ' 
piti  accommoda,  Naples,  about  1808  ;  Ca- 
milla, 1810  ;  Adelaide  e  Comingio,  Milan, 
ISIO;   Raoul  di  Crequi,  Naples,  1811  ;   La 


foresta  d'  Hermannstadt,  ib.,  1812  ;  II  cia- 
battino,  ib.,  1813  ;  Inganni  ed  amore,  ib., 
1814  ;  Enrico  IV.  al  passo  della  Mania, 
Rome,  1818 ;  Paolina  e  Suzetta,  Naples, 
1819  ;  La  moglie  di  due  mariti,  ib.,  1820; 
Ogni  eccesso  e  vizioso,  ib.,  1823. — Fetis  ; 
Grove  ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel  ;  Biog.  gt'n., 
xviii.  723. 

FIOR.WANTI,  VINCENZO,  born  in 
Rome,  April  5,  1799,  died  in  Naples,  March 
28,  1877.  Dramatic  composer,  son  of  Va- 
lentino Fioravanti  and  pupil  of  Jannaconi 
and  of  Donizetti.  In  1833  he  was  maestro 
di  cappella  of  a  church  in  Naples,  and  later 
music  director  at  the  Albergo  de'  Poveri 
there.  Like  his  father,  he  wrote  many 
buffo  operas,  in  the  first  of  which,  given  in 
Naples  in  1819,  the  great  basso  Lablache 
made  his  debut.  Works — Operas  :  La  pul- 
cinella  molinara,  Naples,  1819  ;  La  pasto- 
rella  rapita,  ib.,  1820  ;  II  sarcofago  scozzese, 
ib.,  1820  ;  Robinson  Crusoe,  ib.,  about 
1825  ;  Colombo  alia  scoperta  delle  Indie, 
ib.,  about  1830  ;  II  folletto  innamorato, 
about  1830  ;  and  many  others,  a  full  list  of 
which  is  given  in  Pougin's  supplement  to 
Fetis.  He  wrote  also  two  oratorios  :  Seilla, 
and  II  sacrifizio  di  Jefte. — Fetis,  iii.  25G  ; 
do..  Supplement,  i.  333  ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel, 
iii.  534;  Erganz.,  xii.  831. 

FIOR  D'  ALIZA,  oj)era-comiquc  in  four 
acts  and  seven  tableaux,  text  by  Hippolyte 
Lucas  and  Michel  Carre,  music  by  Victor 
Masse,  represented  at  the  Opera  Comique, 
Paris,  Feb.  5,  1866.  The  subject  of  the 
libretto  is  from  Lamartine's  romance, 
"  Graziella."     The  cast  was  as  follows  : 

Fior  d'  Aliza  . .  Mme  Vandenheuvel-Duprez. 

Picciniua Mme  Galli-Marie. 

Gerouimo M.  Achard. 

Le  moiue M.  Crosti. 

FIORE,  STEFANO  ANDREA,  born  in 

Milan,  close  of  the  17th  century.  Compos- 
er, maestro  di  cajjjjella  to  the  King  of  Sar- 
dinia ;  member  of  the  Accademia  Filarmo- 
nica,  Bologna.  Quantz  knew  him  in  Tu- 
rin, in  1726,  where  he  enjoyed  a  brilliant 


69 


FIOrJLLO 


reputation.  His  XII  Sonate  da  cliiesa  a 
due  violini,  and  bis  opera  II  pentimeuto 
generoso  (1719),  are  bis  best  compositions. 
—  Fetis;  Mendel. 

FIORILLO,  FEDERIGO,  born  in  Bruns- 
wick in  1753,  died 
after  1823.  Vio- 
linist, son  of  Igna- 
zio  Fiorillo.  He 
went  to  Poland  in 
1780,  conducted  a 
band  at  Riga, 
1783-85,  went  to 
Paris  and  was 
beard  at  tbe  Con- 
certs Spirituals  in  1785,  and  in  1788  went  to 
London,  wbere  be  played  tbe  viola  in  Salo- 
mon's quartet-party.  His  last  ajipearance 
in  London  was  in  1791  ;  be  went  tbence  to 
Amsterdam  and  was  in  Paris  in  1823,  after 
wbicb  nothing  is  known  of  him.  Of  all  his 
works,  that  entitled  Etudes  de  violon  has 
survived  as  a  classical  work,  of  great  service 
to  students.  It  is  composed  of  36  caprices, 
wbicb  are  equal  to  tbe  classical  studies  of 
Rode  and  Kreutzer.  They  have  been  pub- 
lished lately  bj*  Ferdinand  David  (Leipsic), 
after  many  previous  editions.  His  other 
music  consists  of  duos  for  violins,  for  pi- 
anoforte and  violin  ;  Quartets,  quintets, 
concertos,  etc.,  of  wbicb  Fetis  gives  a  list. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Larousse. 

FIORILLO,  IGNAZIO,  born  in  Naples, 
May  11,  1715,  died  at  Fritzlai-,  Hesse,  June, 
1787.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  tbe 
Couservaton'o,  Naples,  under  Leo  and  Du- 
rante. He  brought  out  his  first  opera,  at 
Venice  in  1736,  became  Hofkapellmeister  in 
Brunswick  in  1751,  and  Kapellmeister  in 
Cassel  in  1762.  In  1780  he  retired  to  Fritz- 
lar.  Works — Of)eras  :  Mundane,  opera  seria, 
given  at  Venice,  1736  ;  Ai-tamene,  Milan, 
1738  ;  n  vincitor  di  se  stesso,  ib.,  1711  ; 
Diana  ed  Endimione,  Cassel,  1763  ;  Arta- 
serse,  ib.,  1765  ;  Nitteti,  ib.,  1770  ;  Andro- 
meda, ib.,  1771  ;  Isacco,  oratorio ;  3  Te 
Deum  ;  Requiem. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  La- 
rousse ;  Riemann. 


I  FIOEINI,  IPPOLITO,  born  in  Ferrara 
about  1510,  died  about  1612.  Madrigal 
and  church  composer,  surnamed  1'  Angio- 
letto  ;  composer  and  maestro  di  cappella  to 
Alfonso  II.,  Duke  of  Ferrara.  He  pub- 
lished church  music  and  collections  of  son- 
nets and  madrigals.  His  madrigals  are  in 
Lauro  Verde  (1586).— Fetis ;  Schilhng ;  Men- 
del. 

FIORONI,  GIOVANNI  ANDREA,  born 
in  Pavia,  1701,  died  in  Milan,  1779.  Church 
composer,  pupil  in  Naples  of  Leo  for  fifteen 
years ;  maestro  di  cappella  at  Como,  and 
subsequently  of  the  Cathedral  of  Milan, 
wbere  his  compositions  are  preserved.  He 
had  many  celebrated  pupils,  Zucchinetti, 
Bonesi,  and  others. — Fetis ;  Mendel ;  Wurz- 
bach. 

FISCHER,  ADOLPH,  born  at  Ucker- 
miinde,  Pomerania,  Juno  23,  1827,  still 
living,  1889.  Organist,  first  instructed  in 
Berlin  by  Elssler  in  singing,  then  at  the 
Royal  Institute  for  Church  Music  pupil  of 
A.  W.  Bach  on  the  organ,  of  Killitscbgy  on 
the  pianoforte,  and  of  GreU  in  counterpoint; 
finally  (1850-51),  of  Rungenhageu  and  GreU 
in  composition,  for  which  he  received  tbe 
grand  medal.  Meanwhile  he  had  already 
acted  as  organist  for  several  years,  and  in 
1853  went  as  chief  organist  and  conductor 
of  the  Siugakademie  at  Frank f or t-on-the 
Oder.  In  1865  be  received  the  title  of 
royal  director  of  music,  and  in  1870  was 
called  to  Breslau  as  first  organist  of  the 
Elizabetbkirche.  In  1880  be  established 
there  tbe  Silesian  Conservatorium,  which  is 
steadily  growing.  At  the  exposition  in 
Pai-is,  1867,  he  won  the  applause  of  Auber 
and  Rossini  as  a  virtuoso  on  the  organ. 
Three  symphonies  of  his  composition  have 
been  performed  several  times  with  success  ; 
he  has  published  motets,  songs,  and  organ 
music. — Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  188. 

FISCHER,  ANTON,  born  at  Ried,  Sua- 
bia,  in  1777,  died  in  Vienna,  Dec.  1,  1808. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  an  elder  brother 
in  Augsburg ;  went  to  Vienna,  wbere  he  be- 
came Kapellmeister  in   the  Jose^jhstadter 


70 


FISCHER 


Theater,  and  from  1800  in  the  Schikaneder 
Theater.  His  works  are  in  the  style  popu- 
lar in  Vienna  in  his  time,  and  show  little 
originality.  Works — Operas  and  operettas  : 
Lunara,  KOnigin  des  Pahnenhaius,  Vienna, 

1802  ;  Die  arme  Familie,  about  1800  ;  Die 
Eutlarvten,  ib.,  180-4  ;  Die  Scheidewand,  ib., 

1803  ;  Die  Verwandlungen,  1804  ;  Der  tra- 
vestirte  Aeneas ;  Das  Hausgesinde,  1805  ; 
Swetard's  Zauberthal  ;  Das  Singspiel  auf 
dem  Dache  ;  Die  Festung  an  der  Elbe  ;  Das 
Milchmiidchen  von  Bercy  ;  Theseus  und  Ari- 
adne, a  pantomime  ;  Der  wohlthiitige  Ge- 
nius ;  A  children's  operetta  ;  Two  cantatas. 
— Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

FISCHER,  FERDINAND,  born  at  Bruns- 
wick in  1723,  died  there  in  1805  (?).  Vio- 
linist, travelled  in  Germany  and  Holland, 
and  became  court  and  city  musician  at 
Brunswick,  whither  he  returned  in  1761. 
Works :  G  trios  for  violins  (Brunswick, 
1763)  ;  6  symphonies  for  nine  instruments 
(ib.,  1765)  ;  6  quartets  for  two  violins,  viola, 
and  bass ;  Cantata  for  wind  instruments 
(1800);  Concerto  for  do.  (1803).— Futis  ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FISCHER,  GOTTFRIED  EMIL,  born  in 
Berlin,  Nov.  28,  1791,  died  there,  Feb.  U, 
1841.  Vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Zelter  in 
1810-13,  was  jn-ofessor  of  mathematics  at 
the  Royal  School  of  War  in  1817-25,  and 
from  1818  instructor  of  vocal  music  at 
the  Grey  Convent.  He  composed  motets, 
chorals,  songs,  and  melodies  to  von  der 
Hagen's  Minnesiinger,  was  a  contributor  to 
the  AUgemeine  musikalische  Zeitung,  and 
wrote  a  treatise  on  singing. — Mendel. 

FISCHER,  JOHANN,  born  in  Suabia 
about  1650,  died  at  Schwedt,  Pomerania, 
about  1720.  Virtuoso  on  the  violin  and 
instrumental  composer,  pupil  in  composi- 
tion of  Kapellmeister  Capricornus  at  Stutt- 
gart, then  in  Paris  much  influenced  by 
Lulli,  for  whom  he  copied  music.  He 
seems  afterwards  to  have  travelled  ;  was 
employed  in  the  Church  of  the  Barefooted 
Friars  at  Augsburg  in  1681,  and,  after  long 
wanderings  through  Germany  and  Courland, 


became  Kapellmeister  at  Schwerin  in  1701 ; 
having  filled  this  position  for  a  few  years, 
he  went  north  and,  after  sojourns  at  Copen- 
hagen and  Stockholm,  entered  the  service 
of  the  Margrave  of  Schwedt  in  Pomerania. 
He  composed  overtures,  dances,  madrigals, 
solos,  and  variations  for  violin  and  viola, 
songs,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FISCHER,  JOHANN  CHRISTIAN,  born 
at  Freiburg  in  the  Breisgau  in  1733,  died 
in  London,  April  29,  1800.  Virtuoso  on 
the  oboe,  was  a  member  of  the  Dresden 
court  orchestra  in  1760  ;  visited  Italy  in 
1765  ;  went  to  England  in  1768,  and  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Queen's  band.  In 
1786  he  made  a  concert  tour  in  Germany, 
and  in  1790  settled  in  London.  He  was 
one  of  the  best  performers  on  his  instru- 
ment of  the  last  century,  and  a  minuet  by 
him  has  been  made  famous  by  Mozart's  va- 
riations on  it.  There  is  a  fine  portrait  of 
him  at  Hampton  Court,  by  Gainsborough, 
whose  daughter  ]\Iary  he  married.  Works  : 
10  hautboy  concertos  ;  Quartets  for  flute, 
violin,  viola,  and  violoncello  ;  6  duets  for 
two  flutes ;  10  flute  solos ;  a  concerto  and 
a  rondo  for  pianoforte — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ; 
Grove. 

FISCHER,  JOHANN  GOTTFRIED,  born 
at  Naundorf,  near  Freiberg,  Saxony,  Sept. 
13,  1751,  died  at  Freiberg,  Sept.  7,  1821. 
Church  composer,  studied  at  Leipsic,  be- 
came organist  of  St.  Andrew's  at  Eisleben 
in  1777,  and  director  of  music  at  Freiberg 
in  1799.  Works  :  Andante  with  variations 
for  pianoforte  ;  Capi^ice  for  do.;  6  fugues  for 
organ  and  pianoforte  ;  Pater  noster  for  sev- 
eral voices ;  Two  oratorios  for  Good  Friday ; 
Psalms,  and  many  other  pieces  of  church 
music— FL'tis;  Gerber,  N.  Lex.;  Mendel; 
Schilling. 

FISCHER,  JOHANN  KASPAR  FERDI- 
NAND, born  about  1672,  died  (?).  One  of 
the  best  pianists  of  his  time,  Kapellmeister 
to  the  Margrave  of  Baden  about  1720. 
Works  :  Le  journal  du  printemps,  airs  and 
ballets  for  five  parts,  and  trumpets,  op.  1 
(Augsburg,    1696)  ;  Das  musikahsche  Blu- 


FISCHER 


menbiischlein  bestebend  in  8  Partien  unci 
eiuer  variiiteu  Arie,  op.  2  ;  Psalmi  vespertini 
pro  toto  anno,  etc.,  op.  3  (ib.,  1701) ;  Ariadne 
rausica,  etc.  (ib.,  1710) ;  Der  musikaliscbe 
Parnassus  (ib.,  1738)  ;  Preludia  et  f ugie  pro 
organo  per  8  tonos  ecclesiasticos  (ib.). — Fe- 
tis  ;  Gerber,  N.  Lex.  ;  Mendel. 

FISCHER,  JOSEPH,  born  in  Vienna  in 
1780,  died  at  Mauubeim  in  October,  1862. 
Basso  and  vocal  composer,  sou  and  j'upil  of 
tbe  famous  basso  Ludwig  Fiscber  (1715- 
1825)  and  of  Barbara  Fiscber,  bom  Strasser. 
Having  first  appeared  in  concerts  in  Berlin, 
be  obtained  an  engagement  at  tbe  tbeatre 
in  Manubeim  in  1801,  tben  at  Cassel  in 
1803,  and  two  years  after  started  on  a 
concert  tour  for  Paris,  tben  tbrougb  Ger- 
many to  Italy,  wbere  be  spent  tbe  greater 
part  of  bis  life  as  singer  and  impresario  ;  in 
the  latter  capacity  be  was  last  in  Palermo, 
whence  be  retired  to  Mannheim.  He  jmb- 
lisbed  ten  or  twelve  books  of  songs. — Fotis  ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FISCHER,  KARL  AUGUST,  born  at 
Ebersdorf,  near  Chemnitz,  Saxony,  in  1829, 
still  living,  1889.  Dramatic  and  instru- 
mental composer,  and  one  of  tbe  most  emi- 
nent organists  of  the  present  time  ;  jjupil  of 
Anacker  at  Freiberg,  made  extensive  con- 
cert tours  in  1852-55,  and  became  organist 
of  the  orphanage  and  English  churches  at 
Dresden.  Works  :  Loreley,  opera  ;  Festi- 
val mass  ;  Four  symphonies  for  organ  with 
orchestra  ;  Three  concertos  for  organ  ;  Two 
suites  for  orchestra  ;  Compositions  for  vio- 
lin and  organ,  and  for  violoncello  and  or- 
gan.— Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

FISCHER,  KARL  LUD^^^G,  born  at 
Kaiserslauteru,  Bavaria,  in  181(3,  died  at 
Hanover,  Aug.  15,  1877.  Violinist,  pupil 
of  Eichborn  at  Mannheim  in  composition, 
having  appeared  successfully  in  public  at 
the  age  of  eight.  He  was  musical  director 
at  tbe  theatres  in  Treves,  Cologne,  Ais-la- 
Chapelle,  Nuremberg,  and  Wiirzburg,  Ka- 
pellmeister at  Mainz  in  1847-52,  then  at 
the  royal  theatre  in  Hanover  assistant  Ka- 
pellmeister with  Mai-schner,  whom  he  suc- 


ceeded in  1859.  His  songs  and  choral 
works,  but  esj)ecially  his  male  choruses, 
have  won  him  great  reputation  in  Germany. 
— Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

FISCHER,  MICHAEL  GOTTHARDT, 
born  at  Alach,  near  Erfurt,  June  3,  1773, 
died  there,  Jan.  12,  1829.  Organist,  pupil 
at  Erfurt  of  Johauu  Christian  Kittel,  the 
last  discijjle  of  Sebastian  Bach.  Having 
lived  for  a  short  time  at  Jena,  be  was  re- 
called to  Erfurt  by  Baron  Dalberg  in  1790 
as  Conzertmeister,  organist  at  the  Church  of 
the  Barefooted  Friars,  and  conductor  of  the 
winter  concerts.  Afterwards  he  became 
organist  at  the  Predigerkirche,  and  in  1816 
professor  of  thorough  bass  and  the  organ 
at  the  seminary.  Works  :  Two  quartets 
for  violins,  viola,  and  rioloncello,  op.  1 
(Offenbach,    1799)  ;    Symphony   in    C,   for 

11  parts  (Hamburg,  Lau) ;  Grand  sonata 
for  pianoforte,   op.  3    (Erfurt,  Rudoljshi)  ; 

12  organ  pieces,  dedicated  to  Kittel,  op. 
4  (ib.,  1802)  ;  4  symphonies  for  11  and 
14  imrts,  op.  5,  9,  13,  19  ;  Quartet  for  pi- 
anoforte, viola,  and  bass,  ojj.  6  (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel) ;  Quintet  for  two  violins, 
two  violas,  and  bass,  op.  7  (ib. ) ;  Concerto  for 
bassoon  and  orchestra,  op.  8  (ib.) ;  Concerto 
for  clarinet,  or  oboe,  and  bassoon,  op.  11 ; 
Caprices,  rondos,  and  exercises  for  piano- 
forte ;  Five  motets  ;  Four  arias  for  chorus  in 
four  parts  ;  Evangelisches  Choral-Melodien- 
buch  ;  Eight  chorals  with  accompanying 
canons,  for  organ  ;  Twelve  songs  with  jjiano- 
forte  ;  About  fifty  works  for  the  organ,  many 
of  which  are  still  in  use. — Fctis  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

FISCHETTI,  MATTEO  LU^GI,  born  at 
Martina-Franca,  Italy,  Feb.  28,  1830,  died  at 
Naj)les,  December,  1887.  Pianist  and  dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  of  Michele  Cerimele 
on  the  pianoforte,  of  Raejntropb,  Petrella, 
Moretli,  Lillo,  and  Pappalardo,  in  harmony 
and  composition  ;  taught  the  pianoforte  and 
published  about  200  pieces  for  that  instru- 
ment. Other  works — Operas  :  Aida  di  Sca- 
fati,  Naples,  1873  ;  La  Sorrentina,  ib.,  1873  ; 
Uu'  altra  figlia  di  Madama  Angot,  ib.,  Teatro 


la 


FISCHHOF 


Mercadante,  1874  ;  Vocal  melodies. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  335  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  105. 

FISCHHOF,  JOSEF,  bom  at  Butscbo- 
witz,  Moravia,  Ajiril  4,  1804,  died  in  Vi- 
enna, June  28,  1857.  Pianist,  pupil  in  Vi- 
enna of  Anton  Halm,  on  tbe  pianoforte,  and 
of  Iguaz  vou  Seyfried  in  composition  ;  soon 
became  one  of  the  favorite  pianoforte 
teachers  in  Vienna,  and  in  1833  was  ap- 
pointed professor  at  tbe  Conservatorium. 
He  published  also  several  literary  works  on 
music.  His  compositions  consist  of  rondos, 
fantasias,  variations,  dances,  and  marches 
for  pianoforte ;  Variations  for  flute  with 
pianoforte,  guitar,  and  quartet ;  String 
quartet ;  Songs,  etc. — FOtis  ;  Mendel ;  Mo- 
iiatschrift  fiir  Theater  und  Musik  (Vienna, 
1857),  iii.  460. 

FISCHIETTI,  D03IENIC0,  born  in  Na- 
jiles  in  1729  (1725?),  died  at  Salzburg  after 
1810.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  the 
Conservatorio  di  San  Onofrio.  He  went  to 
Dresden  in  1766,  and  his  first  mass  was 
given  there  in  that  year.  Subsequently 
the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg  appoiuted  him 
his  Kapellmeister.  Works — Operas  :  L'  Ab- 
bate  Collarone,  given  at  Najjles,  1749  ;  H 
fiuto  fratello  ;  Solimano,  Naples,  1753  ;  Lo 
speziale  (with  Pallavicini),  Venice,  1755  ;  11  j 
ritorno  di  Londra,  Naples,  1756  ;  H  Signer  j 
Dottore,  ib.,  1758;  II  Siface,  ib.,  1761  ;  H 
mercato  di  Malmantile,  Dresden,  about 
1766 ;  La  molinara,  Naples,  1768  ;  Ariana 
6  Teseo,  Dresden,  1769  ;  Nitteti,  Naples, 
1770  ;  Les  metamorphoses  d'  amour,  inter- 
mezzo.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FISH,  WILLIAM,  born  in  Norwich,  Eng- 
land, in  1775,  died  about  1863  or  1864. 
Violinist  in  the  theatre  at  Norwich,  then 
principal  oboist  in  the  theatre,  and  leader 
of  the  band  at  concerts.  Composed  songs, 
glees,  and  concertos  for  various  instruments. 
— Grove. 

FISHER,  JOHN  ABRAHAil,  born  at 
Dunstable,  England,  1744,  died  (?).  Violin- 
ist and  dramatic  compose!',  pupil  on  the  vio- 
lin of  Pinto  ;  made  his  first  appearance  in 
1765  in  a  concert  at  the  King's  Theatre. 


Becoming  interested  in  Covent  Garden  The- 
atre through  his  marriage  with  a  daughter 
of  Powell  the  actor,  he  turned  his  attention 
to  dramatic  composition.  He  was  given 
the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  at  Oxford  in  1777, 
on  the  performance  there  of  his  oratorio, 
Providence.  On  the  death  of  his  wife  he 
made  a  professional  tour  through  Russia 
and  Germany,  and  in  Vienna  in  1784  mar- 
ried the  singer  Anna  Selina  Storace,  but  he 
so  ill-treated  her  that  she  left  him,  and  the 
Emperor  ordered  Fisher  to  quit  his  domin- 
ions. Works — Operas  :  The  Monster  of 
the  Wood,  London,  1772  ;  The  Sylphs,  ib., 
1774  ;  Prometheus,  1776  ;  The  Norwood 
Gj'psies,  1777  ;  Music  for  the  opening  of 
Macbeth  ;  Symphonies  ;  Concertos  for  pi- 
anoforte and  oboe  ;  Canzonets  ;  Violin  and 
flute  music. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FISSOT,  ALEXIS  HENRY,  born  at  Ai- 
raines  (Somme),  Oct.  24,  1843,  still  living, 
1889.  Pianist  and  organist,  jjupil  at  the 
Conservatoire,  Paris,  of  Marmontel  for  pi- 
anoforte, Benoist  for  organ,  Bazin  for  har- 
mony, and  of  Ambroise  Thomas  for  counter- 
point and  fugue.  He  won  the  1st  pianoforte 
prize  in  1855,  1st  iwize  for  fugue  and  organ 
in  1859,  and  many  other  prizes.  He  be- 
came one  of  the  best  organists  and  pianists 
in  Paris  ;  is  organist  of  Saint-Vincent-de- 
Paul.  His  pianoforte  compositions  are  nu- 
merous and  popular. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
i.  336. 

fitzwillia:\i,  edward  francis, 

born  at  Deal,  England,  in  1824,  died  in 
Loudon,  Jan.  20,  1857.  He  became  in  1853 
director  of  music  at  the  Haymarket  Thea- 
tre, London,  where  he  produced  an  oper- 
etta, Love's  Alarms,  and  the  music  of  sev- 
eral minor  pieces.  He  published  a  Te 
Deum,  four  four-part  songs  (1855),  hymns, 
etc. — Grove. 

FIX'D  IN  HIS  EVERLASTING  SEAT, 
double  chorus  in  D  major  in  Handel's  Sam- 
son, Part  II. 

FLACCOmO,  GIOVANNI  PIETRO, 
born  at  Milazzo  in  Sicily,  died  in  Turin  in 
1617.     Priest  and  church  composer,  maes- 


73 


FLADT 


tro  de  cappella  to  Philip  in.,  of  Spain.  He 
IJublished  a  collection  of  sacred  music. — Fc- 
tis  ;  Gerber  ;  Meudel ;  Walther  ;  Viotta. 

FL.iDT  (Flad),  ANTON,  born  in  Mann- 
heim in  177.5,  died  in  Munich,  June  14, 
1850.  Oboist,  pupil  of  Friedricb  Ramm 
in  Munich,  where  he  succeeded  Lebrun  in 
the  court  orchestra  iu  1790.  After  many 
concert  tours  iu  Germany,  Ital^',  France,  and 
England,  he  returned  to  his  Munich  posi- 
tion, from  which  he  did  not  retire  until 
1842.  Works  :  3  concertinos  for  oboe  and 
orchestra  ;  8  allemandes  and  4  waltzes  for 
two  flageolets  ;  24  minor  pieces  for  do. 
— Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Grove. 

FLATTEING  TONGUE,  soprano  air,  in 
B-flat,  of  Esther  in  Handel's  Egther,  Part  HI. 

FLAVIO  (Flavius),  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Nicolo  Francesco  Haym,  music 
by  Handel,  first  represented  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  London,  May  14,  1723.  This 
work,  noted  for  the  beauty  of  its  melodies, 
was  sung  with  great  success  by  Senesiuo, 
Cuzzoui,  Durastauti,  and  Mrs.  Anastasia 
Kobinsou.  It  contains  a  quintet,  said  to  be 
the  first  scenic  quintet  ever  composed. 
Characters  represented :  Flavio,  Guido, 
Emilia,  Teodata,  Vitige,  XJgone,  Lotario. 
The  opera  was  i-evived  in  1732,  but  without 
success.  The  ]MS,,  in  Buckingham  Palace, 
is  dated  at  the  end.  May  7,  1723.  Published 
first  by  Walsh  ;  full  score  by  HiindelgeseU- 
schaft  (Leipsic,  1875). — Rockstro,  Handel, 
139  ;  SchcBlcher,  Handel,  70,  90  ;  Chry- 
sander,  ii.  96. 

FLECHA  (Fleccia),  MATTHAEUS,  born 
iu  Prades,  Spain,  died  at  the  Benedictine 
Abbey  of  Solsoua,  Feb.  20,  1604.  A  Car- 
melite monk,  he  became  maestro  de  capilla 
to  the  Emperor  Charles  V.,  and,  after  the 
abdication  of  that  monarch,  lived  in  monas- 
teries in  Hungary  and  Bohemia.  He  re- 
turned to  Spain  in  1559,  and  retired  to  the 
Convent  of  Solsona.  Works :  Motets, 
psalms,  and  other  church  music.  He  was 
the  author  of  a  treatise,  "  Libro  de  Musica 
de  Punto  "  (Prague,  1581).— Fetis,  iii.  270  ; 
Supplement,  i.  336  ;  Mendel ;  Viotta. 


FLtCUt,  JEAN  ANDRI^:,  born  at  Mar- 
seilles, April  23,  1779,  died  (?).  Dramatic 
composer  ;  was  jjrivate  secretary  to  Jerome 
Bonaparte,  and  his  chamberlain  when  King 
of  Westphalia.  He  went  with  him  to  Cas- 
sel,  and  produced  there  in  1811  an  opera, 
Le  troubadour.  He  wrote  also  music  for 
the  pianoforte  and  violin,  and  romances  for 
the  viola. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

FLEDERMAUS,  DIE  (The  Bat),  German 
operetta  in  three  acts,  text  by  HafTuer  and 
Richard  Genee,  music  by  Johann  Strauss, 
first  represented  in  Vienna,  and  at  the 
Friedrich-Wilhelmstiidtisches  Theater,  Ber- 
lin, July,  1874.  The  libretto  is  an  adaptation 
of  Meilhac  and  Halevy's  Le  Ri'veillon.  A 
French  version,  text  by  Delacour  and 
Wilder,  music  partly  from  Die  Fledermaus 
and  partly  from  Strauss's  Cagliostro,  with 
some  additions,  was  given  in  Paris,  at  the 
Thc'atre  de  la  Renaissance,  Oct.  30,  1877, 
under  the  title.  La  tzigane. — Hanslick, 
Moderne  Oper,  338. 

FLfiGIER,  ANGE,  born  in  MarseiUes, 
Feb.  22,  184G,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  Marseilles,  and  in 
1866  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  where  he 
studied  under  Bazin  and  Ambroise  Thomas. 
In  1870  he  settled  in  Marseilles.  Works: 
Fatma,  opi'racomique  in  one  act,  text  by 
Devoisin,  given  at  the  Grand  Theatre  at 
Marseilles,  April,  1875  ;  Franjoise  de  Ri- 
mini, cantata  ;  Overtures  ;  Choruses ;  Songs, 
etc. — Fetis  ;  Supplement,  i.  336  ;  Mendel, 
Ergiinz.,  xii.  109. 

FLEISCHER,  FRIEDRICH  GOTTLOB, 
born  at  Cothen,  Anlialt,  Germany,  Jan.  14, 
1722,  died  at  Brunswick,  April  4,  1806. 
Pianist,  organist,  and  dramatic  and  instru- 
mental composer,  was  appointed  chamber 
musician  at  Brunswick  in  1747,  and  after- 
wards became  there  also  organist  at  the 
Church  of  Sts.  Martin  and  Egidius,  and 
court  pianist.  He  had  the  reputation  of 
being  one  of  the  greatest  pianists  of  Bach's 
school.  Works  :  Das  Orakel,  opera,  1771  ; 
Music  to  the  drama  Comala ;  Cantatas 
(Brunswick,  1760) ;  Minuets  and  polonaises 


FLEISCHMANN 


for  pianoforte  (ib.)  ;  Sonatas  for  do.  ;  Odes 
for  solo  voice  with  jiianoforte  (ib.,  1756). 
^Fotis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FLEISCHMANN,  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Heidenfeld,  near  Wurzburg,  Bavaria,  July 
18,  17G6,  died  at  Meiuiugen,  Nov.  30,  1798. 
Instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  self- 
taught  ;  became  secretary  to  the  Duke  of 
Meiningen  in  1789,  and  director  of  the 
court  orchestra  in  1790.  Works  :  Die  Geis- 
terinsel,  opera,  179G  ;  Several  symphonies ; 
Pieces  for  military  band  ;  Concertos  for  pi- 
anoforte ;  Symphonie  concertante  for  do. 
and  violin  ;  Variations,  songs,  etc. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FLEUR  DE  THE,  opt'ra-bouffe  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Chivot  and  Duru,  music  by 
Charles  Lecocq,  represented  at  the  Athenue, 
Paris,  April  11,  1868.  Sung  by  Desire, 
Lconce,  Sylter,  and  Miles  Irma  Marie  and 
Lucie  Cabel. 

FLEURS  DES  LANDES  (Moorland 
Flowers),  5  melodies  for  one  or  two  voices 
and  chorus  with  pianoforte  accompaniment,  i 
on  words  by  A.  de  Bouclon,  Emile  Des- 
champs,  and  Briseux,  by  Hector  Berlioz,  op. 
13.  I.  Le  matin  (Morning) ;  H.  Petit  oi- 
seau  (Little  Bird)  ;  IH.  Le  trebuchet  (The 
Trap)  ;  IV.  Le  jeune  jjatre  breton  (The 
Young  Breton  Shepherd)  ;  V.  Le  chant  des 
bretons  (Breton  Song).  Published  in  1850 
by  Richault,  Paris.  The  following  are  jJub- 
lished  separately,  with  French  and  German 
text :  Le  matin,  Le  trebuchet,  by  Mechetti, 
Vienna  ;  Le  patre  broton,  full  score  by  Ri- 
chault.—Jullien,  Hector  Berlioz  (1888),  378. 

FLIEGENDE  HOLLANDER,  DER(The 
Flying  Dutchman),  romantic  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  and  music  by  Richard  Wagner, 
first  represented  in  Dresden,  Jan.  2,  18'13. 
The  subject  is  from  Heinrich  Heine's 
"  Memoiren  des  Herrn  von  Schnabelewop- 
ski,"  in  which  the  imaginary  hero  witnesses 
a  play  about  the  "  Ahasuerus  of  the  Ocean" 
in  an  Amsterdam  theatre,  though  Heine 
got  the  outlines  of  the  story  from  an  Eng- 
lish play  by  Fitzball,  which  he  witnessed  in 
1827  at  the  Adelphi  Theatre   in  London. 


Fitzball  in  turn  probably  derived  the  ground- 
work of  his  plot  from  a  stoiy  in  Blackwood's 
Magazine  of  May,  1821,  entitled  "  Vander- 
decken's  Message  Home  ;  or,  The  Tenacity 
of  Natural  Affection."  The  touching  denoue- 
ment, however,  which  Wagner  adopted,  is 
Heine's  own.  In  1810  Wagner  submitted 
sketches  for  a  libretto  on  this  theme  to 
Leon  Pillet,  director  of  the  Paris  Opera, 
with  the  proposal  that  a  French  text  should 
be  prepared  for  him  to  set  to  music.    Wag- 


Max  Stagemann,  as  Der  Fliegende  Hollander. 

ner  subsequently  sold  his  rights  for  500 
francs  to  Pillet,  who  had  a  libretto  pre- 
pared by  Feucher  and  Revoil,  with  music  by 
Pierre  Louis  Philippe  Dietsch,  then  chorus- 
master  at  the  Opera.  The  result  was  Le 
vaisseau  fantume  (The  Phantom  Ship),  in 
two  acts,  which  was  produced  at  the  Aca- 
demie  Royale  de  Musique,  Nov.  9, 1842.  lu 
the  meantime,  Wagner  made  of  the  story  a 
German  libretto  and  set  it  to  music.  It 
was  originally  intended  for  one  act  only, 
but  was  subsequently  cut  into  three.  Wag- 
ner himself  conducted  the  first  perform- 
ance, which,  though  not  a  failure,  was  not 
very  satisfactory.     The  work  was  produced 


76 


FLIXTOFT 


at  Cassel,  June  5,  1843,  by  Si^oLr,  who  rec- 
ognized its  merits,  but  it  failed  in  Berlin 
and  in  Munich,  where  it  was  given  in  1865. 
It  was  represented  in  London  at  Drury 
Lane,  1870,  in  an  Italian  version,  L'  ollan- 
dese  dannato ;  at  the  Lyceum,  1876,  in 
English,  as  the  Flying  Dutchman  ;  and  at 
Covent  Garden,  1877,  in  Italian,  as  II  va- 
scello  fautasma.  It  was  given  in  English  in 
New  York  in  1886  and  again  in  1887.  The 
Flying  Dutchman  is  the  commander  of  a 
mysterious  vessel  doomed  to  sail  the  seas 
until  he  is  loved  by  a  maiden  who  will  be 
faithful  unto  death.  He  puts  into  a  port 
at  the  same  time  with  a  Norwegian  vessel, 
whose  captain,  Daland,  invites  him  to  his 
house.  There  he  meets  Senta,  Dalaud's 
daughter,  who,  though  affianced  to  Erik,  is 
fascinated  with  the  stranger  and  believes 
that  it  is  her  lot  to  rescue  him  from  perdi- 
tion. He,  however,  discovers  her  in  an  in- 
terview with  Erik,  concludes  that  she  is  not 
true  to  him,  and  decides  to  leave  her.  But 
as  his  vessel  sails  away  Senta  throws  herself 
from  a  cliff  into  the  sea,  thus  proving  con- 
stant even  in  death.  The  curse  is  removed, 
the  phantom  shij)  sinks,  while  the  sea  grows 
calm,  and  the  lovers  are  seen  in  the  distance 
rising  to  happiness  together.  In  the  first 
act,  after  the  introductory  sailors'  chorus,  the 
chief  numbers  are  :  The  helmsman's  soncr, 
"  ilit  Gewitter  imd  Sturm,"  and  the  scena  of 
the  Dutchman,  "Die  Frist  ist  um."  The 
second  act  contains  the  sjjinniug-song  of  the 
girls,  "  Summ'  uud  bruram',  du  gutes  Riid- 
chen,"  and  Senta's  ballad,  "  Johohoe  !  traft 
ihr  das  Schiff  im  Meere  an,"  in  which  she 
tells  the  storj'  of  the  Dutchman  ;  and  closes 
with  a  superb  duet  between  Senta  and  the 
Dutchman,  "  Wie  aus  der  Feme,"  and  a  ter- 
zetto with  Daland.  The  third  act  opens 
with  a  sailors'  chorus,  "  Steuermann,  lass' 
die  Wacht."  It  contains  also  a  dramatic 
duet  between  Senta  and  Erik,  "  Wass  muss 
ich  horen  ?  "  and  closes  with  chorus  and  a 
trio  between  Senta,  Daland,  and  the  Dutch- 
man.— Hueffer,  Richard  Wagner  and  the 
Music   of    the   Future ;    Edwards,   Lyrical 


Drama,  i.  189  ;  Liszt,  Gesamml.  Schr.,  iii.  b, 
147  ;  Wagner,  Gesamml.  Schr.,  v.  205,  228. 
FLINTOFT,  LUKE,  born  in  latter  half 
of  17th  century,  died  in  London  (?),  Nov. 
3,  1727.  He  was  priest-vicar  of  Lincoln 
Cathedral  in  1704-14,  gentleman  of  the 
Chapel  Royal  in  1715,  and  reader  in  W'hite- 
hall  Chapel  in  1719.  His  double  chant  iu 
G  minor  being  the  earliest  known,  he  has 
the  credit  of  inventing  that  form  of  compo- 
sition.— Grove. 

FLITNER  (Flittner),  JOHANN,  born  at 
Suhla,  Henneberg,  Nov.  1, 1618,  died  in  Stral- 
sund,  Jan.  7,  1678.  He  studied  theology 
and  music,  became  a  chorister  at  Grimmen, 
near  Greifswald,  iu  1644,  preacher  there  iu 
1646,  and  deacon  iu  Stralsund.  Some  of 
his  chorals  are  still  iu  use.  Works  :  Himm- 
lisches  Lustgiirtlein  (Greifswald,  1601),  the 
sixth  part  being  entitled  Suscitabulum  mu- 
sicum,  aud  containing,  Ach,  was  soil  ich 
SCiuder  machen,  and  other  chorals  and 
songs. — ]Meudel  ;  Futis  ;  Winterfeld,  Der 
evang.  Kirchengesang,  ii.  467. 

FL0ERSHEI:M,  otto,  bom  in  Aix-la- 
Chajielle,  Germany, 
March  2, 1853,  still  liv- 
ing, 1889.  He  stud- 
ied the  pianoforte  at 
Aix-la-Chapelle  under 
Wungmanu  and  Laut- 
maun,  the  organ  under 
Winkelhaus,  harmony 
uuder  Breunuug,  and 
composition  at  Co- 
logne under  Ferdi- 
nand Hiller.  About  1875  he  went  to  Amer- 
ica, aud  since  1880  has  been  editor  of  The 
Musical  Courier,  New  York.  He  visits  Eu- 
rope frequently  to  attend  important  musi- 
cal performances,  and  to  get  information  as 
to  the  general  condition  of  musical  affairs. 
Works — Orchestral :  Prelude  and  fugue, 
1883  ;  Alia  Marcia,  1884  ;  Consolation, 
1884 ;  Scherzo,  1887  ;  Elevation,  for  or- 
chestra and  organ,  produced  at  the  Milwau- 
kee Music  Festival,  1886.  Pianoforte  : 
Thi-ee  Romances  ;  Fina  ;  Elegy  ;  Wedding 


78 


FLOQUET 


Marcli ;  German  Marcli  ;  Three  Poetic 
Thoughts  ;  Lullaby  ;  Valse  gracieuse,  and 
other  pianoforte  music  ;  Songs. 

FLOQUET,  fiTIENNE  JOSEPH,  born 
at  Aix,  Provence,  Nov.  25,  1750,  died  in 
Paris,  May  10,  1785.  Dramatic  corajjoser, 
educated  at  the  maitrise  de  Saint-Sauveur 
of  his  native  town,  where  he  wrote  a  motet 
at  the  age  of  eleven  ;  went  to  Paris  in  1769, 
obtained  great  success  with  his  first  dra- 
matic work,  a  ballet,  in  1773,  and  soon  after 
started  for  Italy,  to  study  counterpoint  un- 
der Sala  at  Naples,  and  under  Padre  Mar- 
tini at  Bologna,  whei'e  he  was  made  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica.  After 
his  return  to  Paris  he  was  fairly  successful 
with  his  operas,  until  vain  enough  to  attempt 
the  composition  of  Alceste,  which  was  re- 
jected after  one  rehearsal,  the  grief  over  it 
impairing  his  health.  "Works  :  L'union  de 
I'amour  et  des  arts,  ballet,  given  at  the 
Acadt'mie  Royale  de  Musique,  1773  ;  Azolan, 
ou  le  serment  iudiscret,  opera-ballet,  ib., 
177-1 ;  Helle,  opera,  ib.,  1779  ;  Le  seigneur 
bieufaisant,  ib.,  1780;  La  nouvelle  Omphale, 
lyrical  comedy.  Theatre  de  la  Comedie  Ita- 
lienue,  1782  ;  Alceste  ;  Te  Deum  for  two 
choruses  and  two  orchestras. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

FLOR,  CHRISTIAN,  born  in  1626,  died 
at  Neuenkirchen,  Holstein,  in  1697.  Or- 
ganist, of  great  reputation,  at  the  Church  of 
St.  John  and  St.  Lambertus,  Liineburg. 
Of  his  compositions  have  been  preserved  : 
Several  wedding-songs,  with  accompaniment 
of  two  violins  and  basso  continuo,  and  the 
choral,  Auf  meinen  lieben  Gott. — Fttis  ; 
Mendel ;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  109. 

FLORENTINISCHE-SINFONIE  (Flor- 
entine Symphony),  for  orchestra,  by  Josejih 
Rheinberger,  written  in  1876. 

FLORIDANTE,  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Paolo  Rolli,  music  by  Handel, 
first  represented  at  the  King's  Theatre, 
London,  Dee.  9,  1721.  It  was  sung  by 
Senesino,  Baldassari,  Boschi,  and  Mrs. 
Anastasia  Robinson.  Characters  repre- 
sented :   Floridante,    Oronte,  Timante,  Co- 


ralbo,  Roseane,  Elmira.  The  MS.  score,  in 
the  Buckingham  Palace  collection,  wants 
the  last  chorus  and  the  date.  The  opera 
was  given  in  Hamburg  in  1723,  and  revived 
in  London,  March  3,  1733.  It  was  pub- 
lished first  by  Walsh  ;  full  score  by  Hiin- 
delgesellschaft  (Leipsic,  1876). — Roekstro, 
Handel,  137  ;  Schoelcher,  69,  90  ;  Chrysan- 
der,  ii.  73. 

FLORIMO,  FRANCESCO,  born  at  San 
Giorgio  Morgeto,  Calabria,  Oct.  12,  1800, 
still  living,  1889.  Church,  instrumental,  and 
vocal  composer,  and  distinguished  writer  on 
music,  pupil  of  Furno  in  harmony,  of  Elia 
ou  the  pianoforte,  and  of  Zingarelli  and 
Tritto  in  counterpoint  and  composition,  at 
the  Real  Collegio  di  Musica,  Naples,  of 
which  he  became  librarian  in  1826.  Works  : 
Two  cantatas  ;  Two  Masses ;  Dixit ;  Credo  ; 
Te  Deum  ;  Overtures  ;  Funeral  symphony  ; 
Several  collections  of  songs  (Milan  and  Na- 
ples) ;  Vocal  method  (Metodo  di  canto,  in 
use  at  the  Conservatorio,  Naples).  He  is 
author  also  of  :  Cenno  storico  sulla  Scuola 
musicale  di  Napoli  (Naples,  1869-71)  ;  and 
Riccardo  Wagner  ed  i  Wagneristi  (ib.,  1876). 
— Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  337  ;  Mendel. 

FLORINDO  UND  DAPHNE.    See  Dafae. 

FLORIO,  CARYL,  born  (William  James 
Robjohn)  of  English  parentage,  in  Tavis- 
tock, Devonshire,  England,  Nov.  3,  1843, 
still  living,  1889.  Organist  and  pianist, 
self-taught.  In  1857  he  went  to  America, 
and  in  1858-60  (under  the  name  of  Rob- 
john) was  princijjal  boy-soprano  in  Trinity 
Church,  New  York  ;  after  his  voice  broke 
he  remained  as  assistant  organist  to  Dr. 
Henry  S.  Cutler  ;  later  he  became  organist 
in  Trinity  Church,  Newport,  R.  I.,  and  then 
of  a  church  in  Morristown,  N.  J.  At  the 
close  of  this  engagement  he  went  on  the 
stage,  appearing  in  the  Western  States.  In 
1869  he  returned  to  New  York  as  solo  bari- 
tone in  Zion  Church.  Since  then  he  has 
been  organist  successively  of  St.  Luke's, 
New  York  ;  Mount  Calvary,  Baltimore ; 
Brick  Church,  New  York  ;  Zion  Church, 
New   York ;    then  returned   to   the   Brick 


77 


FLORSCIIUTZ 


CliurcL,  where  he  is  at  present  (1889). 
He  has  appeared  as  pianist  quite  often  in 
New  York,  and  has  conducted  orchestras 
and  choruses  both  in  New  York  and  in 
Havana,  Cuba.  Works  :  Inferno,  operetta, 
1871 ;  Les  Tours  deMercure,  operetta,  1872  ; 
Suzanne,  operetta,  187G  ;  Gulda,  opera, 
1879  ;  Uncle  Tom,  opera,  1882,  produced  in 
Philadelphia  ;  2  symphonies.  No.  1  in  G, 
1887,  No.  2  in  C  minor,  1887  (both  per- 
formed by  Theodore  Thomas  in  New  York, 
March  27,  1888) ;  2  overtures,  occasional, 
187'4,  triumphal,  1877  ;  2  string  quartets. 
No.  1  in  C,  1873,  No.  2  in  F,  1874  ;  i  so- 
natas for  pianoforte  and  violin,  No.  1  in  A, 
1871,  No.  2  in  F  minor,  1872,  No.  3  in  C, 
1884,  No.  4  in  G,  188.5  ;  Pianoforte  concerto 
in  A-flat,  1875-8G  (performed  in  New  York, 
March  27,1888)  ;  2  quartets  for  saxojDhones, 
1879  (performed  in  New  York,  April,  1880). 
Two  cantatas :  Song  of  the  Elements,  1872 
(performed  in  Brooklyn,  1872) ;  Bridal  of 
Triermain,  1886. 

FLORSCHUTZ,  EUCHAEIUS,  born  at 
Lauter,  near  Coburg,  in  1757,  died  at  Ros- 
tock, Mecklenburg,  1820.  Organist,  num- 
bered among  the  most  favourite  instru- 
mental composers  of  the  time,  about  1780, 
and  became  organist  of  St.  James's,  Rostock, 
after  1792.  Works  :  Der  Richter  und  die 
Giirtnerin,  operetta,  given  at  Liibeck,  1792  ; 
Sonatas  for  pianoforte  (4  hands)  ;  Fugues 
for  do.  ;  Duets  and  trios  for  violin  and  flute  ; 
Church  music. — Futis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FLOTOW,  FRIEDRICH,  Freihcrr  VON, 
born  at  Rentendorf,  ]\Iecklenburg,  April  27, 
1812,  died  at  Darmstadt,  Jan.  24,  1883. 
Dramatic  comfDoser,  pupil  of  Reicha  at  the 
Conservatoire,  Paris,  returned  to  Mecklen- 
burg at  the  outbreak  of  the  July  revolution, 
but  a  few  j'ears  later  went  again  to  Paris, 
where  his  first  dramatic  efforts  were  brought 
out  at  some  of  the  smaller  theatres  in  183G. 
His  first  noteworthy  success  was  Le  nau- 
frage  de  la  Meduse,  in  1839,  but  his  fame 
rests  chiefly  on  Alessandro  Stradella  and 
Martha.  The  March  revolution  of  1848 
drove  him  once  more  from  Paris,  whither  he 


returned  in  1863,  having  meanwhile  held 
the  oflice  of  intendaut  of  court  music  at 
__  Schwerin,  to  which  the 

Grand  Duke  of  Meck- 
lenburg appointed  him 
in  1856.  In  1868  he 
settled  on  an  estate  near 
Vienna,  spending  his 
winters  alternately  in 
that  city,  in  Paris,  and 
in  Italy.  His  operas  are 
distinguished  for  melo- 
^  dious  invention,  grace- 

ful forms,  and  pleasing  instrumentation : 
on  the  whole,  iDre-emineutly  Italian  in  char- 
acter, more  effective  than  deep ;  he  must 
be  esteemed  the  most  popular  represen- 
tative of  the  lyric  and  comic  opera  in  Ger- 
many since  Kreutzer  and  Lortzing.  He 
composed  also  some  overtures,  chamber 
music,  and  songs.  Works  :  Pien-e  et  Ca- 
therine, given  at  the  Theatre  de  I'Hotel  de 
Castellane,  1836 ;  Seraphina,  Chateau  de 
Royaumont,  1836  ;  Die  Bergknappen  (The 
Miners) ;  Rob  Roy,  given  at  a  chateau  near 
Paris  ;  Le  naufrage  de  la  Meduse  (with 
Pilati),  Theatre  de  la  Renaissance,  1839  (54 
times),  and  at  Hamburg  (under  the  title 
Die  Matrosen,  rewritten  entirely  by  Flo- 
tow),  1845  ;  La  duchesse  de  Guise,  Theatre 
Ventadour,  1840,  and  at  Schwerin,  1841  ; 
Le  forestier.  Opera  Comique,  1840,  Vienna 
(under  the  title  Der  Forster),  1847,  London 
(as  Leoline),  1848  ;  L'esclave  de  Camoiins, 
Opera  Comique,  1843  ;  Lady  Harriet,  ballet 
(with  Burgmiiller  and  Deldevez),  Opera, 
1843  ;  Alessandro  Stradella,  Hamburg,  Dec. 
30,  ,1844  ;  h'dme  en  peine.  Opera,  1846  ; 
Martha,  Vienna,  Nov.  25,  1847 ;  Die  Gross- 
fUrstin,  Berlin,  1850  ;  ludra,  Berlin  and 
Frankfort,  1853,  Riga,  1855;  Riibezahl, 
Frankfort,  1854 ;  Hilda,  1855  ;  Albin,  Vi- 
enna, 1856 ;  Veuve  Grapin,  operetta, 
Bouffes  Parisiens,  1859  ;  Pianella,  do., 
Theatre  Dejazet,  1860 ;  Wintermiirchen, 
Vienna,  1862  ;  Die  Libelle,  ballet,  ib., 
1866  ;  Zilda,  Paris,  Opera  Comique,  1866  ; 
Tannkonig,  ballet,  Dai-mstadt,   1867  ;  Am 


78 


FLUCHT 


Runenstein  (with  Genee),  Prague,  1868  ; 
liombre,  Paris,  Opi'ra  Comique,  1870  ; 
Nakla,  Milan,  Teatro  Manzoni,  1873  ;  II  fior 
(T  Harlem,  Turin,  Teatro  Vittorio  Emauuele, 
1876;  L'Encliaute- 
resse  (Indra  rewrit- 
ten), Paris  and  Lon- 
don, 1878,  given  in 
Italian  as  Rosellaua 
(posthumous).  Alma 
r  Incantatrice,  and  in 
German  as  Die  Hese ; 


/^ 


^ 


Der  Graf  Saint-Megrin  (posthumous),  given 
at  Cologne,  Januarj-,  1884  ;  Die  Musikanten 
(discovered  at  Mannheim,  1887,  given  at 
Magdeburg,  1888). — Clement,  Mus.celebres, 
575  ;  Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  338  ;  Illustr. 
Zeitg.  (1883),  i.  117  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

FLUCHT  DER  HEILIGEN  FAMILIE, 
DIE  (The  Flight  of  the  Holy  Family),  can- 
tata, for  chorus  aud  orchestra,  by  l\Iax 
Bruch,  op.  20,  1863. 

FLUGEL,  ERNST  PAUL,  born  at  Stet- 
tin, Aug.  31,  1844,  still  living,  1889.  In- 
strumental and  vocal  composer,  sou  and  -^w- 
pil  of  Giistav  Fliigel,  and  iu  1862-63  pupil 
in  Berlin  at  the  Royal  Institute  for  Church 
Music  and  at  the  Academy,  then  of  Billow, 
Flodoard  Geyer,  and  Kiel  ;  lived  as  music 
teacher  at  Treptow  and  Greifswald,  became 
organist  and  vocal  instructor  at  Preuzlau  in 
1867,  and  cantor  at  the  Bernhardinkirche  in 
Breslau  in  1879.  Works  :  The  121st  psalm, 
op.  22  ;  Mahomet's  Gesang,  op.  24  ;  Trio 
for  pianoforte,  op.  25  ;  Organ  and  pianoforte 
pieces,  and  songs. — Riemann. 

FLUGEL,  GUSTAV,  born  at  Kloster- 
Nienburg,  Anhalt,  July  2,  1812,  still  living, 
1889.  Organist,  pupil  of  Cantor  Thiele  at 
Altenburg,  and  of  Friedrich  Schneider  at 
Dessau  ;  from  1830  he  taught  successively  at 
Nienburg,  COthen,  Magdeburg,  and  Schone- 


beck,  then  at  Stettin,  1840-50  ;  was  called  to 

Neuwied  to  teach  at  the  seminary  in  1850, 

received  the  title  of  roj'al  director  of  music 

,  iu  1856,  and  returned  to  Stettin  as  Cantor 

and  organist  of 
the  Schloss- 
kirche  in  1859. 
He  has  contrib- 
uted also  a 
number  of  ex- 
cellent articles 
to  musical  pe- 
riodicals. Works  :  Concert  overture  for  or- 
chestra ;  String  quartet ;  Thirty-five  books 
of  comjjositions  for  pianoforte  ;  Six  do.  for 
organ  ;  Nine  do.  of  songs  ;  Sacred  and  sec- 
ular songs  for  mixed,  and  male  choruses  ; 
Priiludienbuch  (112  preludes),  etc. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel ;  Riemann. 

FLYING  DUTCHMAN,  THE.  See 
FUegcnde  Hollander. 

FODOR,  ANTOON,  born  at  Venloo  in 
1775,  died  in  Amsterdam,  Feb.  22,  1846. 
Pianist,  studied  in  Mannheim,  whence  he 
went,  about  1792,  to  Amsterdam.  He  wrote 
Numa  Pompilius,  the  first  national  opera 
given  in  Holland,  and  comjjosed  a  great 
deal  of  pianoforte  music.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Netherland  Institute,  conductor 
at  the  German  Theatre  of  Amsterdam,  1814, 
and  dii-ector  of  the  Felix  Meritis  Society. 
— Fetis,  iii.  279  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  339  ; 
Gregoir,  Mus.  Neerlandais,  75  ;  Mendel ; 
Viotta. 

FODOR,  JOZEF,  born  at  Venloo,  in 
1752,  died  iu  St.  Petersburg,  Oct.  3,  1828. 
Violinist,  brother  of  Antoon  Fodor,  pupil  in 
Berlin  in  1766  of  Franz  Benda.  He  trav- 
elled in  Germany  and  the  Netherlands,  was 
in  Paris  iu  1790,  aud  lived  in  St.  Peters- 
burg in  1794r-1828.  Works:  Concertos; 
Solos ;  Duos ;  Quartets  for  strings  and 
much  violin  music  (Paris,  Berlin,  Vienna, 
Amsterdam). — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Gregoir,  Mus. 
Neerlandais,  74  ;  Mendel ;  Viotta. 

FOERSTER,  ADOLPH  MARTIN,  born, 
of  German  parentage,  in  Pittsburgh,  Penn- 
sylvania, Feb.   2,    1854,   still  living,  1889. 


79 


rr 


FOGAgA 


He  studied  the  pianoforte  as  a  boy  under 
his  mother,  and  later  under  Jean  Manns. 
In  1872  he  went  to  Europe  and  studied,  at 
the  Leipsic  Conservatorium,  the  pianoforte 
under  Coccius  and  Wenzel,  singing  under 
Grill  and  Schimon,  and  theorj'  under  E.  F. 
Richter  and  Papperitz.  Returning  in  1875, 
he  taught  in  the  Fort  Wayne  Conservatory 
of  Music  during  1875-76,  then  settled  in 
Pittsburgh,  where  he  still  resides.  He  was 
conductor  of  the  Pittsburgh  Symphonic  So- 
cietj-,  1878-79,  and  of  the  Pittsburgh  Musi- 
cal Union,  1883.  Works  :  Thusnelda,  op.  10, 
for  orchestra,  first  played  in  Baltimore,  Feb. 
11,  1882  ;  Quartet,  op.  21,  for  pianoforte, 
violin,  viola,  and  violoncello ;  Fautasie,  op. 
15,  for  violin  and  pianoforte  ;  Romanza,  op. 
17,  for  violin  and  jsianoforte  ;  Andante,  op. 
3  ;  Valse  cajjrice,  op.  5  ;  Nocturne,  op.  7  ; 
Three  Sonatinas,  op.  14  ;  Pianoforte  music  ; 
Songs  ;  Part-songs,  and  choruses. 

F0GA(;A,  JOAO,  bom  at  Lisbon  in  1589, 
died  there  about  1G58.  Church  composer, 
pupil  of  Duarte  Lobo,  entered  a  monastic 
order,  and  lived  afterwards  in  a  convent  at 
Ossa.  His  works  are  in  the  royal  library  at 
Lisbon. — Mendel  ;  Vasconcellos. 

FOGGIA,  FR.VNCESCO,  born  in  Rome 
in  1604:,  died  there, 
Jan.  8,  1688.  Church 
composer,  pupil  of 
Cifra,  Nanini,  and 
Agostini.      He    was 


Kapellmeister  to  the 
Elector  of  Cologne, 
to  the  Elector  of  Ba- 
varia, and  then  to  the 
Archduke  Leopold  of 
Austria.  On  his  return  to  Italy  he  became 
successively  maestro  di  capjjella  at  the  Ca- 
thedrals of  Narni  and  Montefiascone,  and 
of  the  following  churches  iu  Rome  :  S.  M.  in 
Aquiro,  S.  M.  in  Trastevere,  S.  Giovanni  in 
Laterano  (1636-1661),  S.  Lorenzo  in  Dama- 
so,  and  S.  M.  Maggiore  (1677),  remaining  at 
the  last  until  his  death.  He  was  a  prolific 
composer  of  church  music.  Besides  his 
published  works,  a  list  of  which  is  given  in 


Fetis,  there  is  an  immense  amount  in  MS, 
scattered  throughout  the  churches  of  Italy. 
He  was  one  of  the  first  musicians  to  write 
tonal  fugues,  and  the  last  who  remained 
faithful  to  the  traditions  of  Palestrina. 
Works  :  Motets  ;  Masses  ;  Psalms  ;  Lita- 
nies, for  2  to  9  voices,  published  iu  Rome 
from  1640  to  1681.  His  motets  are  in  the 
Spiridione  collection. — Grove  ;  Fetis,  iii. 
284  ;  do.,  Supiplemeut,  i.  340  ;  Larousse  ; 
Mendel. 

FOGLIANI,  LUDOVICO,  born  in  Mod- 
ena  close  of  the  15th  century,  died  there 
about  1539.  Composer,  whose  songs  for 
several  voices  are  found  in  Petrucci's 
"Frottole"  (Venice,  1504-1508).  In  one 
of  his  songs  each  of  the  four  voices,  cantus, 
altus,  tenor,  and  bassus,  sings  different 
words.  He  was  a  learned  writer  for  his 
time.  He  was  the  author  of  Musica  the- 
orica  (1529),  a  treatise  on  the  theory  of 
sound. — Fetis  ;  Biog.  Gen.,  xviii.  35  ;  Bur- 
ney.  Hist.,  iii.  157  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann,  268  ; 
Viotta. 

FOIGNET,  CHARLES  GABRIEL,  born 
in  Lyons  in  1750,  died  in  Paris  in  1823. 
Dramatic  comjjoser,  studied  music  from  au 
early  age,  and  in  1779  went  to  Paris  where 
he  taught  singing,  the  harpsichord,  and  the 
harp.  He  wrote  many  operettas  for  the 
small  Paris  theatres,  and  became  director, 
iu  1797,  of  the  Thuatre  des  Jeuues  Artistes. 
He  was  director  also  of  the  Theatre  Mon- 
tansier  until  1802,  when  he  gave  it  up. 
The  Jeunes  Artistes  was  closed  by  the  edict 
of  1807.  For  a  list  of  his  operas,  which 
are  now  forgotten,  see  the  supplement  to 
Fetis.  He  published  also  vocal  music  with 
l^ianoforte  or  violin  accompaniment. — Fe- 
tis ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  340  ;  Mendel. 

FOIGNET,  FRANgOIS,  born  in  Paris 
about  1780,  died  in  Strasburg,  July  22, 
1845.  Dramatic  composer  and  singer,  sou 
and  puj)il  of  the  preceding,  made  his  debut, 
when  yet  a  child,  at  the  Theatre  des  Jeunes 
I^leves,  and,  besides  comic  operas,  wrote 
the  music  for  a  number  of  pantomimes  and 
melodramas.     From  1806  he  sang  in  vari- 


80 


FOLKUNGER 


ous  provincial  theatres,  after  1829  in  the 
South  of  France,  especially  at  Angoulome, 
where  he  was  manager  of  the  theatre.  He 
died  in  poverty  at  the  hospital.  Works  :  La 
noce  de  Lucette,  Theatre  Montansier,  1799  ; 
Le  gondolier,  ou  la  soiree  venitienne,  ib., 
1800  ;  Le  chat  hotte,  ou  les  vingt-quatre 
heures  d"Arlequin,  feerie.  Theatre  des  Jeunes 
Artistes,  1802  ;  Le  retour  inattendu,  ou  le 
mari  revenant,  ib.,  1802  ;  Eaymond  de  Tou- 
louse, ou  le  retour  de  la  Terre  sainte,  gi'aud 
opera  (with  his  father),  ib.,  1802  ;  Riquet 
a  la  houpjie,  fairy  ojjera,  ib.,  1802 ;  La 
uaissance  d'Arlequin,  ou  Arlequiu  dans  un 
ceuf,  do.,  ib.,  180.3  ;  Arlequiu  a  Maroc,  ou  la 
pyramide  enchantce,  do.,  ib.,  1801 ;  L'oi- 
seau  bleu,  do.  His  brother  Gabriel,  born 
in  Paris,  1790,  has  made  a  name  for  himself 
as  a  virtuoso  on  the  harp. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Sup- 
plement, i.  311  ;  Mendel. 

FOLKUNGER,  DIE  (The  Folkuugs), 
grand  ojsera  in  five  acts,  text  by  S.  H.  Mo- 
senthal,  music  by  Edmund  Kretschmer,  first 
represented  at  the  Court  Theatre,  Dresden, 
April,  1874.  Scene,  in  Sweden.  Time,  end 
of  thirteenth  century.  Characters  repre- 
sented :  Magnus,  son  of  King  Eric  of  Swe- 
den ;  Maria,  niece  of  Eric  ;  Karin,  nurse  ; 
Lars  Olasson,  castellan  of  the  Castle  of 
Borgniis ;  Bengt,  Duke  von  Schoonen ;  Sten 
Petrik,  his  confidant  ;  Ansgar,  Abbot  of 
Kloster  Nydal.  This,  Kretschmer's  first  op- 
era,, had  a  fair  run,  but  has  now  disappeared. 

FONTAINE,  ANTOINE  NICOLAS  MA- 
EIE,  born  in  Paris  in  1785,  died  at  Saint- 
Cloud,  Ajiril,  18GG.  Violinist,  pupil  of  his 
father,  and  of  Lafont,  Kreutzer,  and  Baillot. 
He  entered  the  Conservatoire  in  1806,  and 
won  the  1st  violin  prize  in  1809  ;  studied 
harmony  under  Catel  and  Daussoigne  and 
composition  under  Reicha.  After  a  profes- 
sional tour  of  ten  years,  he  settled  in  Paris 
in  1825  as  teacher  of  the  violin,  and  was 
solo  violin  to  Charles  X.  until  the  revolu- 
tion of  1830.  He  published  a  great  deal  of 
violin  music,  and  some  church  music. — Fe- 
tis, iii.  288  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  312  ;  Men- 
del ;  Yiotta. 


FONTANA,      GIOVANNI     BATTISTA, 

Italian  composer,  living  in  1G60.  He  pub- 
lished a  collection  of  sonatas,  for  two  or 
three  violins  with  bass  (Venice,  IGll).  Ac- 
cording to  Hart,  these  sonatas  furnish  the 
earliest  indication  of  the  removal  of  the 
violin  as  a  solo  instrument  to  a  higher 
sphere  of  composition. — Fetis  ;  Hart,  The 
Violin,  172  ;  Mendel,  iii.  590  ;  do.,  Ergilnz., 
sii.  110. 

FONTANA,  URANIO,  born  at  Iseo,  Italy, 
November,  1815,  still  living,  1889.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  at  the  Milan  Conser- 
vatorio.  His  opera  seria,  Isabella  di  Lara, 
given  in  Rome,  1837,  first  brought  him  into 
notice.  He  then  produced  in  Paris,  1810, 
another  work,  Le  Zingaro,  and  soon  after 
became  director  of  the  Italian  theatre  in 
Athens,  but  returned  to  Italy  in  1811,  and 
gave  in  Padua  his  Giulio  d'  Este  (1812). 
His  best  work  is  I  Baccanti,  written  for  La 
Scala,  Milan,  1849.  He  was  professor  of 
singing  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  in  1856- 
65.— Fetis,  iii.  289  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  342  ; 
Mendel ;  Viotta. 

FONTEI,  NICOLO,  born  at  Orzinuovi, 
Italy,  in  1597,  died  (?).  He  wrote  masses, 
psalms,  etc.,  published  in  Venice  (1634- 
1647),  and  Bizzarrie  poetiche  for  1,  2,  and  3 
voices,  three  books,  the  two  last  in  Venice 
(1636-39).— Fetis  ;  Van  der  Straeten,  i.  61 ; 
Mendel ;  Viotta. 

FONTENELLE,  GRANGES  DE,  born  at 
Villeneuve  d'Agen  (Lot-et-Garonue),  France, 
in  1769,  died  there  in  1819.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, first  instructed  in  his  native  town, 
then  in  Paris  pupil  of  Rey  in  harmony  and 
of  Sacchini  in  composition.  Works  :  La 
montagne,  ou  la  fondation  du  temple  de 
la  Liberte,  opera,  given  in  Paris,  Opera, 
1793  ;  Hecube,  do.,  ib.,  1800 ;  Medee  et 
Jason,  do.  (1802),  ib.,  1813  ;  Circe,  cantata  ; 
Priam  aux  pieds  d'Achille,  do. ;  Other  can- 
tatas ;  Quartets  for  violin. — Fetis ;  do.,  Sup- 
plement, i.  312  ;  Mendel. 

FONTjNHCHEL,  hippolyte  hono- 

RE  JOSEPH  COURT  DE,  born  at  Grasse 
(Var),  May  5, 1799,  died  (?).     Dramatic  com- 


& 


FOOTE 


poser,  puj)il  of  Chelard  at  the  Conservatoire, 
Paris,  won  the  second  prize  for  composition 
iu  1822,  and  %-isited  Italy.  Works :  Ainadeo 
il  Grande,  gi%'en  at  Genoa;  I  due  Forzati, 
Leghoi'n  ;  H  Gitano,  Marseilles,  1835  ;  Le 
chevalier  de  Canolle,  Paris,  Oj^era  Comique, 
183G  ;  Amleto,  not  performed ;  Choruses  for 
the  Amalocites  of  Chateaubriand. — Fetis; 
do.,  Supplement,  i.  342  ;  MendeL 

FOOTE,  AETHUR  (^\TLLIAM),  born,  of 
American  parents,  iu  Salem,  Mass.,  March 
5,  1853,  still  living,  1889.  Graduated  at 
Harvard  University  in  1874,  studied  the 
pianoforte  and  organ  under  B.  J.  Lang, 
and  harmony  and  composition  under 
Stephen  A.  Emery  and  John  K.  Paine.  Has 
been,  since  1878,  organist  of  the  First  Uni- 
tarian Church,  Boston.  Works — Vocal : 
The  Fareirell  of  Hiawatha,  for  male  chorus 
and  orchestra,  Boston,  May  12,  1886  ;  Tlie 
Wreck  of  the  Hesperus,  for  soli,  mixed 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  ib.,  Jan.  2G,  1887; 
Numerous  songs  and  part-songs.  Instru- 
mental :  String  quartet  in  G  minor,  op.  4  ; 
Trio  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  violoncello 
in  C  minor,  op.  5  ;  Serenade  for  strings,  op. 
12  ;  Overture,  /;(  the  Mountains,  op.  14  ; 
Concerto  for  violoncello  and  orchestra ; 
Several  fugitive  pieces  for  pianoforte,  for 
violin,  and  for  violoncello. 

FORAN  SYDENS  KLOSTER  (Before 
the  South  Convent),  cantata  for  soli,  female 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Edvard  Grieg, 
op.  20.  Subject  from  Bjorustjerne  BjOrn- 
sou's  "Aruljot  Gelline."  Translated  iuto 
German  as  Vor  der  Klosterpforte,  by  F.  von 
Holstein,  and  published  by  E.  W.  Fritzsch 
(Leipsic,  1877).— Wochenblatt  (1877),  226. 

FOE,  AS  IN  ADAM  ALL  DEE,  short 
chorus  in  D  minor,  iu  Handel's  llcssiah, 
Part  in. ;  usually  sung  as  an  unaccompa- 
nied quartet  of  solo  voices. 

FORBES,  GEORGE,  born  in  London, 
JiUy  1,  1813,  died  there,  Sept.  11,  1883. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  his  brother  Henry  and  of 
Sir  George  Smart.  He  gave  concerts  with 
his  brother  in  London  in  1831-44  and  after- 
wards on  his  own  account.    Works  :  Sonata 


in  C  for  pianoforte  ;  Marche  des  Guides ; 
Larghetto  and  rondo  capriccioso  in  E  ;  La 
pluie  de  perles ;  Nocturnes,  waltzes,  and 
other  works  for  pianoforte. — Brown. 

FORBES,  HENRY,  born  in  London  in 
1804,  died  there,  Nov.  24,  1859.  Pianist 
and  organist,  brother  of  George  Forbes, 
pupil  of  Sir  George  Smart,  Hummel,  Mo- 
scheles,  and  Herz.  He  was  conductor  of 
the  Societa  Armonica  and  organist  of  St. 
Lukes,  Chelsea.  Works :  The  Fairy  Oak, 
opera,  given  at  Drury  Lane,  London,  1845  ; 
Ruth,  oratorio,  London,  1847 ;  National 
Psalmody,  a  collection  of  psalm  tunes  for 
four  voices  ;  Songs,  etc. — Grove. 

FORD,  THOMAS,  English  composer  of 
17th  century,  buried,  London,  Nov.  17, 
1648.  He  was  one  of  the  musicians  of 
Prince  Henry,  son  of  James  I.,  and  also  of 
Charles  I.  He  published  a  work  entitled, 
"  Musicke  of  Sundrie  Kindes,  set  forth  in 
two  Bookes.  The  first  whereof  are  Aires  for 
4  Voices  to  the  Lute,  Orpharion,  or  Basse- 
Viol,  etc.  The  second  are  Pavens,  Galiards, 
Thumpes  and  such  like  for  two  Basse  Viols, 
the  Liera  Way,"  etc.  This  work  contains 
the  beautiful  four-part  songs  :  "  Since  first  I 
saw  your  face,"  and,  "There  is  a  ladie  sweet 
and  kind."  He  contributed  to  Leighton's 
"  Teares  or  Lamentacions  of  a  Sorrowfull 
Soule  "  (1614)  ;  and  composed  canons  and 
rounds  which  are  printed  in  Hilton's 
"  Catch  that  Catch  Can,"  and  an  anthem  in 
the  Anthems  by  Madrigal  Composers  of  the 
Music  Antiquarian  Society. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ; 
Jilendel. 

FORGUES,  VICTOR  ESPRIT  I5mILE, 
born  in  Paris,  Sept.  26,  1823,  still  living, 
1889.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoire 
under  Goblin,  Laurent,  Zimmermann,  and 
Leborne.  He  won  the  1st  prize  for  piano- 
forte in  1840  ;  has  played  with  great  success 
at  concerts  in  Paris  and  other  cities.  He 
has  jjublished  morceaux  de  genre,  and  a  col- 
lection of  12  iStudes. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
i.  343. 

FOR  HE  SHALL  GIVE  HIS  ANGELS. 
See  Deiin  er  hat  seiuen  Engelu. 


FORKEL 


FORKEL,  JOHANN  NICOLAUS,  born 
at  Meeder,  near  Coburg,  Feb.  22,  1749, 
died  in  GOttiiigen,  March  17,  1818.  The 
son  of  a  shoemaker,  he  received  some  in- 
struction from  a  chorister  of  his  native  place 
and  then  taught  himself.  He  became  choir- 
boy at  Liineburg  in  1762,  and  Chorprilfect 
at  Schwerin  in  17GG  ;  went  to  GOttingen  in 
17G9  to  study  law,  but  soon  devoted  him- 
self to  music  again,  and  was  appointed  or- 
ganist of  the  University  Church,  and  in  1778 
musical  director  to  the  university,  which 
gave  him  the  doctor's  degree  in  1780.  He 
■was  the  earliest  of  the  musical  historians 
of  Germany,  and  showed  great  energy  in 
amassing  materials  with,  sometimes,  a  want 
of  the  critical  faculty  in  digesting  them. 
Woi-ks  :  Hiskias,  oratorio  ;  2  cantatas :  Die 
Machtder  Harmonie  and  DieHirteu  bei  der 
Krij^pe  zu  Bethlehem  ;  Choruses ;  Symj^ho- 
nies,  concertos,  and  pianoforte  sonatas. 
Among  his  historical  and  critical  writings 
are  :  "  Ueber  die  Theorie  der  Musik  "  (GOt- 
tingen, 1771) ;  "  Musikalisch-kritische  Bibli- 
othek"(Gotha,1778);  "Musikalischer  Alma- 
nach  f  iir  Deutschland  "  (Leipsic,  1782,  1783, 
1784,  1789);  "Allgemeine  Geschichte  der 
Musik  "  (ib.,  1788-1801),  his  greatest  work, 
though  imfiuished  ;  "  Allegemeine  Litera- 
tur  der  Musik"  (ib., 
1792),  the  first  biblio- 
graphical attempt  of 
the  kind;  "Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  Leb- 
en,  Kunst  und  Kunst- 
werke"  (ib.,  1802,  English  translation, 
London,  1820).— Mendel  ;  Schilling  ;  FOtis  ; 
Grove  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vii.  155. 

FORNABI,  VINCENZO,  born  at  Naples, 
May  11,  1848,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of  Luigi  Siri  on  the  piano- 
forte and  of  Battista  in  composition.  His 
opera,  Maria  di  Torre,  was  given  at  Naples, 
Teatro  Filarmonico,  1871. — Fctis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  343. 

FORNASINI,  NICOLA,  born  at  Bari, 
Aug.  17,  1803,  died  at  Naples,  June  24, 
18G1.     Dramatic    composer,    pupil    at  the 


AArt 


Conservatorio,  Naples,  of  Furno,  Tritto,  and 
Zingarelli,  became  bandmaster  of  a  regi- 
ment, and  afterwards  was  aj^pointed  direc- 
tor of  music  of  the  royal  army,  also  inspec- 
tor of  the  classes  in  wind  instruments  at 
the  Conservatorio.  Works :  Oh !  quante 
imposture,  opera  buft'a,  Naples,  Teatro 
Nuovo,  1829  ;  Un  matrimonio  per  medieina, 
ib.,  1829  ;  L'avvocato  in  angustie,  farce,  ib., 
1831  ;  La  vedova  scaltra,  ib.,  1831 ;  Ro- 
berto di  Costanzo,  ib.,  Teatro  Sau  Carlo, 
1839  ;  Several  ballets,  ib.  ;  Masses,  vespers, 
litanies,  a  Te  Deum,  and  other  church  mu- 
sic.— Futis,  Supplement,  i.  343. 

FORONI,  JACOPO,  born  at  Verona,  July 
25,  1825,  died  at  Stockholm,  Sept.  8,  1858. 
Dramatic  and  instrumental  composer,  son 
and  probably  pupil  of  Domenico  Foroni, 
church  composer  (179G-1853)  ;  introduced 
the  symphony  for  orchestra  into  Italy,  and 
composed  several  meritorious  works  in  this 
form.  In  1849  he  was  called  to  Stockholm 
as  royal  director  of  mvisic.  Works  :  Mar- 
gherita,  opera,  given  in  Milan,  1847  ;  Les 
gladiateurs,  do.,  Stockholm,  about  1855  ; 
L'avocat  Pathelin,  do.  (unfinished)  ;  Three 
overtures  for  grand  orchestra  ;  Several  sym- 
phonies for  do.  ;  Pianoforte  pieces. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

FORSTER,  ALBAN,  born  at  Reichen- 
bach.  Saxony,  Oct.  23,  1849,  still  living, 
1889.  Pupil  of  R,  Blume  and,  at  the  Con- 
servatorium,  Dresden  (1866-69),  of  Eietz  in 
composition,  of  Lauterbach  on  the  violin, 
and  of  Diiring  on  the  pianoforte.  Having 
held  positions  at  Carlsbad,  Breslau  and 
Stettin,  he  went  as  court  musician  to  Neu- 
Strelitz  in  1871.  Besides  an  operetta.  Das 
Fliistern,  given  at  Neu-Strelitz,  1875,  he  has 
written  2  string  quartets,  2  trios,  soli  for 
violin  and  for  violoncello,  some  orchestral 
works,  and  pianoforte  j^ieces  and  songs. 
— Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  111. 

FORSTER,  CHRISTOPH,  born  at  Bebra, 
Thuringia,  Nov.  30,  1693,  died  at  Rudol- 
stadt,  Dec.  6,  1745.  Organist,  pupil  in  his 
native  town  of  the  organist  Pitzler  on  the 
pianoforte  and  organ,  then  at  Weissenfels 


FOIiSTER 


of  Heinichen  in  tliorougb  bass  and  compo- 
sition, and  at  Merseburg  of  Kaufimann  in 
counterpoint.  In  1719  he  went  to  Dresden, 
■was  in  Prague  during  the  coronation  festiv- 
ities in  1723,  and  became  Kapellmeister  at 
Eudolstadt  in  1745.  He  composed  over 
300  works,  consisting  of  cantatas,  sympho- 
nies, overtures,  and  pianoforte  and  organ 
pieces. — Fctis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FOKSTER,  EJIANUEL  ALOYS,  born  at 
Niederstein  (at  Neurath,  according  to  Men- 
del), Silesia,  Jan.  26,  1748,  died  in  Vienna, 
Nov.  12, 1823.  Self-taught,  he  went  to  Vi- 
enna in  177G,  and  became  a  vei-y  successful 
teacher  of  thorough  bass  and  composition. 
Beethoven  esteemed  him  highly.  Works: 
48  string  quartets  and  quintets  ;  Quartets 
for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Pianoforte  so- 
natas and  pieces  ;  Cantata  and  songs  ;  Va- 
riations on  an  air-  from  Sarti's  opera,  I  finti 
Eredi,  which  were  long  attributed  to  Mozart. 
He  was  the  author  of  "Anleitimg  zum  Ge- 
neralbass"  (1802,  1805,  1824),  with  146  ex- 
amples, a  work  of  considerable  value. — Men- 
del ;  Ft'tis  ;  Wurzbach. 

PORTIA  DE  PILES,  Comte  AL- 
PHONSE,  born  in  Marseilles,  Aug.  18, 
1758,  died  at  Sisteron,  Feb.  18,  1826. 
Dramatic  composer,  puj^il  of  Ligori.  The 
last  member  of  the  noble  family  of  his 
name,  he  was  an  officer  of  the  regiment  du 
Roy  and  governor  of  Marseilles  before  the 
Revolution.  Works — Ojjeras  :  La  fi'e  Ur- 
gi-le,  Nancy,  1784  ;  V<.'nus  et  Adonis,  ib., 
1784  ;  Le  pouvoir  de  I'amour,  ib.,  1785  ; 
L'officier  franjais  a  I'armee,  ib.,  1786  ;  8  so- 
natas for  pianofoiie,  with  violin  and  violon- 
cello ;  Trios  for  violin  ;  Quartets  for  violin  ; 
SymjAony  for  full  orchestra. — Fotis  ;  La- 
rousse  ;  Biog.  Gt'n.,  xviii.  221 ;  Mendel. 

FOETSCH,  JOHANN  PHILIPP,  born  at 
Wertheim,  Franconia,  May  14,  1652,  died 
at  Ltibeck  after  1708.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  at  Weissenfels  of  Johann  Philipp 
Krieger,  and  completed  his  musical  train- 
ing under  different  masters  while  studying 
medicine  at  Frankfort,  Jena.  Helmstiidt, 
Ei-furt,  and   Altdorf.     Having  travelled  in 


Germany,  Holland,  and  France,  he  entered, 
iu  1671,  the  Chapel  of  the  Council  at  Ham- 
burg as  tenor  singer,  and  a  few  years  later 
was  engaged  for  the  theatre  there,  as  singer, 
composer,  and  poet.  In  1680  he  became 
Kapellmeister  to  the  Duke  of  Sclileswig  at 
Gottoi^j,  went  in  the  same  year  to  Kiel,  to 
take  his  diploma  as  doctor,  and  practised 
medicine  at  Husum,  Schleswig,  etc.  ;  was 
made  court  physician  to  the  aforenamed 
duke  in  1689,  and  to  the  Bishop  of  Eutin  in 
1694,  living  at  Liibeck  from  1705.  Works 
— Operas :  Crosus,  given  at  Hamburg,  1684  ; 
Das  unmOgliche  Ding,  ib.,  1685  ;  Alexander 
in  Sidon,  Eugenia,  Polyeuct,  ib.,  1688  ;  Kaiu 
und  Abel,  Xerxes,  Cimbria,  ib.,  1689  ;  Tha- 
lestris,  Aucile  Romano,  Bajazeth  und  Tam- 
erlan,  Don  Quixote,  ib.,  1690.  Concertos 
for  harpsichord. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FORTUNATI,  GIOVANNI  FRANCES- 
CO, born  at  Parma,  Feb.  24,  1746,  died  (?). 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Omoboni  Ni- 
colini  the  elder,  and  in  Bologna  of  Padre 
Mai-tini.  He  brought  out  his  first  opera  in 
Parma,  1769,  was  made  maestro  di  capjsella 
to  the  court,  vocal  instructor  to  the  Arch- 
duchess Amalia,  and  director  of  the  opera. 
Having  composed  operas  for  many  Italian 
cities,  he  went  to  Germany,  lived  in  Dres- 
den, and  finally  went  to  Berlin,  as  com- 
poser to  Friedrich  Wilhelm  II.  On  his 
return  to  Parma  he  resumed  his  former 
position  at  the  court  and  the  principal  the- 
atre, and  held  them  initil  the  death  of 
Louis  Ferdinand  in  1802.  He  was  one  of 
the  original  members  of  the  musical  sec- 
tion of  the  Academy  of  Ai-ts  and  Sciences  in 
Italy,  founded  in  1810.  Works  :  I  caccia- 
tori  e  la  vendilatte,  given  at  Parma,  1769  ; 
L'incontro  inaspettato,  ib.,  about  1800  ;  La 
contessa  per  equivoco  ;  Ipermestra. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Mendel. 

FOR  UNTO  US  A  CHILD  IS  BORN, 
chorus  in  G  major,  in  Handel's  3fessiah, 
Part  L 

FORZA  DEL  DESTINO,  LA,  Italian  op- 
era seria  in  four  acts,  text  by  Piave,  music 
by  Verdi,  first  represented  in  St.  Peters- 


84 


FOSSA 


burg,  Nov.  10, 1862.  The  libretto  is  adapted 
from  a  romantic  drama  of  the  same  title, 
in  five  acts,  by  Don  Angelo  Saavedra,  duque 
de  Rivas,  plaj-ed  in  Madrid  in  1835.  The 
opera  was  produced  in  Loudon,  at  Her  Maj- 
esty's Theatre,  June  22, 1867  ;  and  in  Paris, 
at  the  Theatre  Itahen,  Oct.  .31,  187G,  with  a 
new  overture  and  changes  in  the  test  by 
Verdi.  The  action  takes  place  in  Spain. 
Don  Alvarez,  sou  of  the  viceroy  of  Peru, 
enamoured  of  Donna  Leonora  de  Vargas, 
daughter  of  the  Marchese  di  Calatrava,  acci- 
dentally kills  the  marquis,  who  tries  to  pre- 
vent their  elopement.  Donna  Leonora  re- 
tires into  a  convent  and  Don  Carlos,  her 
brother,  vows  vengeance  against  Don  Alva- 
rez. After  having  been  sworn  friends  in 
the  war  in  Italy,  both  being  under  assumed 
names,  Don  Carlos  at  last  discovers  his  iden- 
tity and  forces  him  to  fight  him.  Don  Car- 
los is  wounded  and  Don  Alvarez  goes  into  a 
monastery  under  the  name  of  Padre  Eaffaele. 
Don  Carlos,  recovered  from  his  wound,  seeks 
his  retreat  and  endeavours,  by  every  insult, 
to  make  him  fight  again.  Padre  Raffaele 
bears  his  taunts  with  saintly  patience,  but 
at  last,  goaded  beyond  endurance,  seizes  the 
sword  Don  Carlos  offers  him  and,  going 
without  the  monastery  walls,  fights  and 
mortally  wounds  him.  Leonora,  who  has 
witnessed  the  combat  from  her  window, 
rushes  upon  the  scene  as  her  brother  falls 
and,  while  ofl'ering  aid,  is  stabbed  by  him, 
and  Don  Alvarez,  losing  his  reason  at  the 
dreadful  sight,  throws  himself  from  a  prec- 
ipice. In  the  final  form  of  the  opera,  as 
given  in  Paris,  the  denouement  is  changed 
so  that  Alvarez  does  not  kill  himself.  — Hans- 
lick,  Moderne  Oper,  242  ;  Larousse,  viii. 
631. 

FOSSA  (Defossa),  JOANNES  DE,  born  in 
the  Netherlands  in  the  16th  century,  died  at 
Munich  in  1603.  Church  composer,  became 
assistant  Kapellmeister  at  Munich  in  1.569, 
under  Orlando  Lasso,  after  whose  death 
he  acted  as  Ober-Kapellmeister  from  1594 
until  1602.  Masses  and  motets  of  his  com- 
position are  in  the  royal  library  of  Munich  ; 


they  show  great  delicacy  and  original  con- 
ception. — Mendel. 

FOSSA  (de  Fossis,  De  Ca  Fossis,  Da  Fos- 
sa), PIERRE  DE,  Flemish  composer  of  the 
16th  century,  died  in  Rome  in  1527.  He  is 
the  first  recorded  maestro  di  cappella  of  S. 
Marco,  Venice,  having  immediately  preceded 
Adrien  Willaert  of  Bruges.  He  had  pre- 
viously been  a  singer  in  the  papal  choir  from 
about  1485,  and  in  1491  was  director  of  the 
music  of  the  chapel  and  of  the  maitrise. 
He  was  thus  the  first  chorodidascalus  and 
first  phonascus  of  that  celebrated  church. 
Though  noted  in  his  day  as  a  composer, 
none  of  his  works  have  survived.  He  is 
celebrated  by  Pietro  Contarini  in  "  Argo 
vulgare "  for  his  songs,  and  he  is  said  to 
have  written  a  cantata  for  the  marriage  of 
Anne  Condola  of  Aquitaine  with  Ladislas, 
King  of  Hungary  and  Bohemia,  1502,  which 
was  preserved  in  the  archives  of  that  queen. 
— Van  der  Straeten,  La  Musique  au  Pays 
Bas,  vi.  182  ;  Mendel  ;  Viotta. 

FOSSEY,  LEON,  born  in  Paris,  March 
17,  1829,  died  there  in  February,  1877. 
Dramatic  composer,  joupil  of  Elwart  at  the 
Conservatoire,  where  he  took  the  second 
prize  for  harmony  in  1849.  He  was  for 
many  years  chef  d'orchestre  of  the  Theatre 
de  la  Gaite.  Works  :  Pomme  d'api,  ope- 
retta, Gaite,  1859  ;  Marcel  et  Cie,  do.,  Bouft'es 
Parisiens,  1867.— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  345. 

FOSTER,  STEPHEN  COLLINS,  born, 
of  American  parent- 
age, in  Lawrenceville 
(now  part  of  Pitts- 
burgh), Pennsylvania, 
July  4,  1826,  died  in 
New  York,  Jan.  13, 
1864.  His  early  mu- 
sical education  was 
acquired  at  home, 
and  later  he  had 
some  instruction 
from  local  teachers, 
and  was,  in  his  own 
way,  a  close  student  of  the  works  of  the 
great  composers.     During  1850-51  he  lived 


FOUQUE 


for  a  time  in  New  York  aiiLl  Hoboken,  but 
in  1851  returned  to  Pittsburgh  ;  in  18G0  he 
again  went  to  New  York,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death.  Foster  occupies  a  place 
of  his  own  among  American  song-writers  ; 
few  musical  compositions  appeal  so  directly 
to  the  popular  heart  as  his,  and  none  have 
become  more  universally  known  or  been  in 
more  general  use.  His  first  published  com- 
position, written  when  he  was  about  seven- 
teen years  old,  was  a  serenade,  Open  thy 
lattice,  love  (1842).  The  Old  Folks  at 
Home,  often  called  The  Suwanee  Kiver,  was 
composed  in  the  summer  of  1851,  and  was 
purchased  by  the  negro-minstrel  Edwin  P. 
Christy,  who  published  it  as  "written  and 
composed  by "  himself.  More  than  half  a 
million  copies  of  it  were  sold,  and  it  still 
has  a  steady  sale.  Works :  Foster  com- 
posed about  150  songs  in  all,  and  in  most 
cases  wrote  the  words  as  well  as  the  music. 
Among  the  better  known  are  :  Old  Uncle 
Ned ;  Oh,  Susanna ;  Nelly  was  a  lady 
(1849);  Old  Folks  at  Home;  Oh,  boys, 
carry  me  'long  !  ;  Gentle  Annie  ;  Jily  Old 
Kentucky  Home  ;  Nelly  Ely  ;  Nancy  Till ; 
Old  Dog  Tray  ;  "Willie,  we  have  missed  you  ; 
Come  where  my  love  Hes  dreaming  (-1 
voices)  ;  Massa's  in  the  cold,  cold  ground  ; 
Maggie  by  my  side  ;  Old  Black  Joe,  18G1  ; 
Beautiful  Dreamer,  18G1. 

FOUQUE,  (PIERRE)  OCTAVE,  born  at 
Pau  (Basses-Pyrouces),  Nov.  12,  184-1,  died 
there,  Sept.  22,  18815.  Dramatic,  instru- 
mental, and  vocal  composer,  pupil  in  Paris 
of  Reiuhold  Becker  in  harmony,  of  Chauvet 
in  counteiiioint,  and  of  Ambroise  Thomas 
in  composition.  He  is  more  important  as  a 
writer  on  music.  Works  :  L'avocat  noir, 
operetta,  given  at  the  Alcazar,  1874 ;  Deux 
vieux  coqs,  do.  ;  Prelude  for  orchestra. 
Concerts  Daubo,  1874  ;  Preludes,  nocturnes, 
morceaux  de  genre,  etc.,  for  pianoforte  ; 
Songs,  and  choruses. — Fetis,  Suisplement, 
i.  345  ;  Mendel,  Ergiluz.,  112. 

FOWLE,  THOMAS  LLOYD,  born  at 
Amesbury,  Wilts,  England,  Oct.  16,  1827, 
still  living,   1889.     Church  composer  and 


organist,  self-taught ;  was  organist  at  Ames- 
bury,  then  at  Crawley,  Sussex,  and  from 
1856  engaged  as  editor  and  publisher.  Re- 
sides at  Ryde,  Isle  of  Wight.  Works :  Five 
cantatas ;  Four  volumes  of  anthems ;  do.  of 
organ  voluntaries  ;  Twelve  marches  for 
special  seasons  ;  Two  sei-vices,  etc. 

FRA  DIAVOLO,  ou  I'hoteUerie  de  Ter- 
racine  (The  Inn  of  Teiracina),  opcra-co- 
mique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Scribe,  music  by 
Auber,  first  represented  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Jan.  28,  1830.  Fra  Diavolo 
was  the  sobriquet  of  Michele  Pezza,  a  Cala- 
brian  bandit,  who  was  pardoned  in  1799  and 
became  a  colonel  in  the  Neapolitan  army, 
but  was  captured  in  1806  by  General  Hugo 
(father  of  Victor  Hugo)  and  hanged  in 
Naples.  Scribe  took  little  more  than  the 
title  for  his  libretto,  the  incidents  of  which 
are  derived  chiefly  from  La  Caverne  of 
Lesueur,  which  in  turn  is  founded  on  an 
episode  in  "  Gil  Bias."  A  spectacular 
drama,  entitled  Fra  Diavolo  chef  du  bri- 
gands dans  les  Alj^es,  by  Cuvelier  and  Fran- 
coui,  was  given  in  Paris  in  1808,  and  a  Ger- 
man version,  Die  Riluber  in  den  Abruzzen, 
in  Vienna  in  1822.  Auber's  Fra  Diavolo 
was  produced  in  Vienna  in  1830  ;  an  Eng- 
lish version  at  Drury  Lane,  Nov.  3,  1831, 
and  an  Italian  version  at  the  Lyceum,  Lon- 
don, July  9,  1857.  It  was  first  given  in 
New  York,  April,  1832.  In  the  first  act  of 
the  opera.  Lord  and  Lady  Kokbourg,  Eng- 
lish travellers,  after  a  narrow  escape  from 
Fra  Diavolo's  band,  during  which  the  lady 
loses  her  diamonds,  enter  the  inn  at  Terra- 
cina,  kept  hy  Matteo,  whose  daughter  Zer- 
line  loves  Lorenzo,  an  officer  in  command  of 
carabineers  searching  for  the  bandits.  Fra 
Diavolo  himself,  who  has  followed  the  trav- 
ellers disguised  as  the  Marquis  de  San 
Marco,  hearing  how  they  have  deceived  his 
men,  tries  to  perfect  his  plans  for  robbing 
them  by  ingratiating  himself  with  Zerline 
and  Lady  Kokbourg.  Lorenzo,  after  a  sad 
parting  from  Zerline,  who  is  promised  by 
her  father  to  a  rich  farmer,  goes  in  search 
of  the  bandits,  defeats  them,  and  recovers 


86 


FRA 


the  diamonds,  -winning  the  offered  reward 
of  10,000  francs,  and  becoming  thus  as 
wealthy  as  his  rival.  In  the  second  act 
Fra  Diavolo  and  his  companions  Beppo  and 
Giacomo  conceal  themselves  iu  a  closet  in 
Zerline's  room.  Their  plans  of  robbery  are 
interrupted  by  the  return  of  the  carabineers, 
and  Fra  Diavolo  boldly  comes  out  of  the 
closet  and  declares  to  Lord  Kokbom-g  that 
he  is  there  by  appointment  with  his  wife 
and  to  Lorenzo  that  it  is  by  invitation  of 
Zerliue.     With  two  duels  on  his  hands,  Fra 


1:  v^**  /  7'// 

Charles  Santley,  as  Fra  Diavolo. 

Diavolo  promises  satisfaction  in  the  morning 
and  coolly  walks  out,  leaving  his  two  rivals 
confounded  and  in  despair.  His  compan- 
ions, however,  are  captured  and  agree  to 
betray  their  chief  to  secure  their  own  safety. 
In  the  third  act,  where  the  scene  is  trans- 
ferred to  the  mountains,  Fra  Diavolo  is  en- 
snared, and  meets  death  at  the  hands  of  the 
carabineers,  after  acknowledging  Zerline's 
innocence,  and  the  lovers  are  made  happy. 
The  music,  which  made  Auber's  reputation, 
is  bright  and  sparkling  and  as  inspiring  as 
the  libretto.     Li  the  first  act  the  principal 


numbers  are:  Pamela's,  "Ah!  quel  voyage 
abominable  !  "  ;  Lord  Kokbourg's,  "  Je  vou- 
lais  bien,  je  voulais  bien  ; "  the  quintet  be- 
tween the  two  travellers,  the  sham  Marquis, 
Zerline,  and  Matteo,  "  Que  vois-je,  c'est 
elle!";  Zerline's  air,  "Voyez  sur  cette 
roche  ;  "  the  scene  between  the  Marquis  and 
Pamela,  "  Gondolier  Mi-le  ;  "  and  the  buffo 
trio  between  these  two  and  Lord  Kokbourg, 
"  Je  n'aimais  pas  le  musique."  In  the  sec- 
ond act  the  air  of  Zerline,  "  Quel  bonheur, 
je  respire  ;  "  the  barcarolle,  "  Agnes  la  jou- 
vencelle  ; "  the  cavatina  in  Zerline's  room, 
"  Oui,  c'est  demain  qu'on  me  marie  ;  "  and 
the  chorus,  "  Oui,  la  prudence."  In  the 
third  act,  Fra  Diavolo's  grand  air,  "  Je  vols 
marcher  sous  ma  banniere  ; "  the  chorus, 
"  C'est  aujourd'hui  Paques  fleuries  ;  "  Lo- 
renzo's romanza,  "Pour  toujours,  disait- 
elle,"  and  the  final  .scene. — Hanslick,  Mod- 
erne  Oper,  132  ;  Larousse,  viii.  G97. 

FRA  I  DUE  litigant:  IL  TEEZO 
GODE  (Between  two  quarrellers  a  third 
liarty  profits),  Italian  comic  opera,  text  by 
Lorenzi,  music  by  Sarti,  given  at  Turin, 
1780.  The  unpublished  score  of  this  work, 
which  was  very  successful,  is  in  the  library 
of  the  Conservatoire,  Paris.  Mozart  took  a 
theme  from  this  opera  for  the  table-music 
in  the  second  act  of  Don  Giovanni. 

FRANCESCA  DA  RIMINI,  German  op- 
era in  three  acts,  text  and  music  by  Her- 
mann GOtz,  rej)resented  in  Mannheim,  Sept. 
10,  1877.  GOtz  died  before  finishing  the 
work,  and  the  third  act  was  instrumented, 
from  the  composer's  sketches,  by  G.  Frank. 
The  music  is  dramatic  and  was  well  re- 
ceived. 

FRANCESCA  DA  RIISHNI,  symphonic 
poem  for  orchestra,  by  Peter  Iljitsch  Tschai- 
kowsky,  op.  32,  composed  in  1877,  first  per- 
formed in  Warsaw  in  1878. 

FRANCESCHINI,  PETRONIO,  born  in 
Bologna,  lived  in  the  second  half  of  the  17th 
century.  Dramatic  composer,  brother  of 
the  painter  Marco  Antonio  Franceschini ; 
pupil  of  Lorenzo  Perti,  and  at  Narni  of 
Giuseppe  Corso.     In  1673  he  was  elected 


FRANCESCO 


principe  of  the  Accatlemia  Filarmonica, 
Bologna.  Works  :  Oroute  di  Meiuii,  Bo- 
logna, Teatro  Formagliari,  1676  ;  Arsinoe, 
ib.,  1677 ;  Apollo  in  Tessaglia,  musical 
di-aiua,  ib.,  1679  ;  Dionisio,  ovvero  la  virtti 
trionfaute  del  vizio  (with  Parteuio),  Venice, 
1681. — Fotis  ;  do.,  Huijplument,  i.  347. 

FRANCESCO  DA  IVnLANO  (Francesco 
Milanese)  ;  organist,  early  part  of  16tli  cen- 
tmy.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Navizzi- 
ani  family  of  Milan  and  was  a  poet  as  well 
as  musician.  About  1.530  he  became  or- 
ganist of  the  Cathedi-al  of  Milan.  Accord- 
ing to  Doni  and  Picciuelli  he  was  the  author 
of  several  rare  collections  of  organ  and  lute 
music,  entitled :  Intabolatura  di  organo, 
lib.  i.  ;  Intabolatura  di  liuto  (Milan,  1540). 
Some  of  his  pieces  for  lute  are  in  a  collec- 
tion entitled,  Intabolatura  di  liuto  di  di- 
vei'si  autori,  etc.  (Milan,  1556),  w'hich  went 
through  several  editions  under  difl'ereut 
titles  ;  and  others  are  in  Hortus  Musai'um 
(Louvain,  1552). — FOtis  ;  Schilling. 

FRANCHJ,  GIOVANNI  PIETKO,  born 
at  Pistoja  about  the  middle  of  the  17th 
century.  He  was  maestro  concertante  to 
the  Duke  Rospigliosi  di  Zagarolo.  He  pub- 
lished Duetti  da  camera  (Bologna,  1689) ; 
Duetti  del  1'  amore  col  basso  numerate  (ib., 
1689) ;  Motets  ;  Psalms  ;  Sonatas,  etc. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Mendel ;  Viotta. 

FR.\NCHO:\niE,  AUGUSTE,  born  at 
Lille,  April  10,  1808,  died  in  Paris,  Jan.  21, 
1884.  Violoncellist,  pupil  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire of  Levasseur  and  of  Norbliu  ;  and 
in  1826  won  the  first  prize  for  violoncello. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  orchestra  of  the 
Anibigu  Comique  in  1825-26,  of  the  Opi"- 
ra  in  1827,  and  of  the  Theatre  Italien  in 
1828.  With  Alard  and  Charles  Halle  he 
founded  a  society  for  classical  quartets. 
The  intimate  friend  of  Choijin,  he  wrote 
with  him  a  duo  for  pianoforte  and  violon- 
cello on  Robert  le  Diable.  He  also  wrote 
a  duo  with  variations  in  collaboration  with 
Bertoni,  and  a  third  with  Osborne.  In  1846 
he  became  professor  of  the  violoncello  at 
the  Paris  Conservatoire.     Works :   Theme 


varie  pour  violoncelle  avec  orchestre,  op.  1 
(Paris) ;  Thome  original,  op.  3  ;  Theme 
original  vario  avec  orchestre,  op.  4  ;  Fan- 
taisie  sur  des  themes  russes  et  ucossaises, 
avec  quatuor  ou  orchestre,  op .  6 ;  Romance 
pour  violoncelle,  op.  10  ;  Trois  nocturnes  ; 
Deux  adagios,  oj).  21,  29  ;  Premier  concerto 
pour  violoncelle  et  orchestre,  op.  33,  etc. 
— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel. 

FRANCISCELLO  (Francischello),  —  ; 
violoncellist,  living  in  Italy  in  the  early  part 
of  the  18th  century  (1713-50).  His  birth- 
place is  unknown  ;  as  he  retired  to  Genoa 
in  his  old  age,  it  may  have  been  his  native 
place.  First  celebrated  at  Rome  shortly 
after  the  death  of  Corelli  (1713),  he  was  to  the 
violoncello  what  Corelli  was  to  the  violin,  and 
was  the  first  to  substitute  that  instrument 
for  the  bass-viol,  which  almost  disappear- 
ed from  Italian  orchestras  before  1730. 
Quantz  heard  him  in  Naples  in  1725  ;  Ge- 
miniani  sjjeaks  of  hearing  him  play  with 
Scai'latti  when  that  master  accompanied  him 
on  the  harj)sichord.  Benda  heard  him  in 
Vienna  in  1730,  and  took  him  for  his  model 
on  the  violin.  Gerber  says  that  Duport 
heard  him  at  Genoa  ;  if  so,  he  must  have 
been  over  seventy-five  years  of  age. — Fetis, 
iii.  307;  Grove,  i.  358;  Mendel,  iv.  14; 
Schilling,  iii.  32. 

FRANCE,  C£SAR  AUGUSTE,  born  in 
Liege,  Dec.  10, 1822.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the 
Liege  Conservatoire,  subsequently  at  that  in 
Paris  (1837)  under  Zimmerman,  Leborne, 
and  Beuoist,  winning  the  2d  organ  prize  in 
1841.  He  was  organist  of  Sainte-Clotilde, 
Paris.  His  oratorio,  Ruth,  composed  some 
twenty-five  years  before,  was  given  in  Paris 
in  1846,  when  he  succeeded  Benoist  as  pro- 
fessor of  the  organ  at  the  Conservatou-e. 
He  published  pianoforte  and  violin  music. 
— Fetis,  iii.  310  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  347  ; 
Mendel  ;  Viotta. 

FRANCK,  EDUARD,  born  in  Breslau, 
Dec.  5,  1817,  still  hying,  1889.  Instru- 
mental composer  and  pianist,  studied  music 
in  his  native  city  and,  1843-46,  in  Italy,  then 
settled  in  Berlin,  whence  he  was  called  to 


FRANCE 


Cologne  as  professor  of  the  pianoforte  at 
the  Conservatorium.  In  1859  he  went  as 
musical  director  to  Berne,  and  in  1867  to 
Berlin  to  teach  at  Stern's  Conservatorium. 
Works :  Sympihony,  op.  il  ;  Quintet  for 
l^ianoforte,  op.  4.5  ;  Sextet,  op.  4:1  ;  Sonata 
for  violoncello,  op.  42  ;  Duos  for  jjianoforte, 
op.  4G  ;  Six  sonatas,  op.  40  ;  Three  do.,  op. 
43 ;  Symphonies,  overtures,  concertos,  etc. 
— Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

FRANCE,  JOHANN  WOLFGANG,  born 
in  Hamburg  in  1G41,  died  in  Spain  after 
1G88.  Dramatic  composer,  one  of  the  ear- 
liest German  writers  of  opera.  He  pro- 
duced fourteen  works,  all  of  which  were 
represented  in  Hamburg  in  1679-86.  In 
1688  he  went  to  Spain,  and  became  a  favour- 
ite composer  of  Don  Carlos  II.,  a  distinction 
which  led  to  his  death  by  assassination. 
Works — Operas :  Michael  und  David  ;  An- 
dromeda und  Perseus ;  Die  Mutter  der 
Makkabiier ;  Don  Pedro ;  Aeneas ;  Jodelet ; 
Semele  ;  Hannibal ;  Charitine  ;  Diocletia- 
nus  ;  Attila ;  Vespasianus  ;  Kara  Mustafa,  in 
two  parts :  I.  Die  Belagerung  Wiens ;  H. 
Die  erfreuliche  Entsatzung  W^iens.  He 
published  also  sonatas  for  two  violins  and 
bass,  and  church  compositions.  —  Fetis  ; 
Jlendel ;  Riemann. 

FRANCE,    JOSEPH,    born     in    Liege 
about  18-20,  still  living,  1889.     Organist  and 
violinist ;  brother  of  Cesar  Auguste  Franck  ; 
pupil  at  the  Liege,  and  subsequently  at  the 
Paris   Conservatoire.      He   was   maitre   de 
chapelle   and   organist  of  the  Church  des 
Maisons  Etrangeres  and  of  that  of  Saint- 
Thomas  d'Aquin,  Paris,  and  a  teacher 
of  the  pianoforte  and  organ.     Works  : 
Collections  of  motets  for  one  or  sev- 
eral voices   with  two  choirs  ;   Ode  to 
St.  Cecilia,  with  orchestra  ;   Concertos 
for  pianoforte  with  quartet  or  orches- 
tra ;  Cantatas ;    Masses  ;    Songs.     He 
is  the  author  of  several  theoretical  and 
practical  works  for  the  instruction  of 
the  pianoforte  and  organ. — Ft-tis,  iii. 
310  ;    do.,   Sui^plement,   i.    347  ;    Mendel ; 
Viotta. 


FRANCE,  MELCHIOR,  born  in  Zittau 
about  1580,  died  in  Coburg,  June  1,  1G39. 
Church  composer,  lived  in  Nuremberg 
about  1600,  and  became  Kapellmeister  to 
the  Duke  of  Coburg  in  1603.  Gerber  gives 
a  list  of  44  of  his  works.  He  sometimes 
embellished  his  melodies  in  the  Italian 
style,  and  was  one  of  the  earliest  composers 
to  make  the  instrumental  accomj)animent 
more  independent.  Some  of  his  chorals  are 
still  sung.  Works  :  Melodia  sacrte  (1600- 
7) ;  Musikalische  Bergreyeu  (1602);  Con- 
trapuncti  compositi  (1602)  ;  Teutsche  Psal- 
men  und  Eircheugesiinge  (1602)  ;  Neue 
Paduanen,  Galliarden  (1603)  ;  Opusculum 
etlicher  newer  mid  alter  Reuterliedlein 
(1603)  ;  Neues  Quodlibet  (1604)  ;  Farrago 
(1604) ;  Teutsche  weltliche  Gesilnge  und 
Tiintze  (1605) ;  Geistliche  Gesilnge  und 
Melodien  (1608) ;  Neue  musikalische  Intra- 
den  (1608)  ;  Flores  mu.sicales  (1610)  ;  Musi- 
kalische FrOhlichkeit  (1610)  ;  Tricinia  nova 
(1611)  ;  Vincula  natalitia  (1611) ;  Sechs 
deutsche  Eouzerte  (1611)  ;  Suspiria  mu- 
sica  (1612)  ;  Opusculum  etlicher  geistli- 
cher  Ge.siinge  (1612) ;  Viridarium  musi- 
eum  (1613)  ;  Recreationes  musicro  (1614)  ; 
Zween  Grabgesiinge  (1614)  ;  Zwey  newe 
Hochzeitsgesiinge  (1614)  ;  ThrenodiiB  Da- 
vidicit!  (1615)  ;  Die  trostreichen  Worte  aus 
dem  54.  Eajjitel  Esaiil  (1615)  ;  Delicije 
amoris  (1615)  ;  Fasciculus  quodlibeticus 
(1615) ;  Geistlicher  musikalischer  Lustgar- 
ten  (1616) ;  Lilia  musicalia  (1616)  ;  Teut- 
sches  musikalisches  frohliches  Eonvivium 
(1621) ;    Laudes    Dei   vespertiuse    (1622)  ; 


■^  ^--^'7^. 


(ZM>^- 


«^v-i. 


Newe  teutsche  Magnificat  (1622)  ;  Gemmu- 
Ise  evangeliorum  musical  (1623-24) ;  Newes 


FEANCK 


liebliclies  musikalisches  Lustgiirtlein  (1623) ; 
40  Teutscbe  lustige  musikalische  Tiiutze 
(1624) ;  Newes  musikalisches  Ojiusculuiu 
(1624) ;  Sacri  convivii  musica  sacra  (1628) ; 
Eosetuluni  musicum  (1628)  ;  Cithara  eccle- 
siastica  et  scliolastica ;  Psalmodia  sacra 
(1631) ;  Dulces  muudani  esilii  clelici;c 
(1631)  ;  Der  51  Psalm  (1634)  ;  Paradisus 
musicus  (1636). — Eiemanu  ;  Fctis  ;  Mendel  ; 
Gerber  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  vii.  213  ;  Grove  ; 
Winterfeld,  Der  evaug.  Kii-cbengesang,  ii. 
50. 

FRANCE,  mCHAEL,  born  at  Scbleu- 
siugen,  March  16,  1609,  died  at  Coburg, 
Sept.  24,  1667.  Vocal  composer,  studied 
music  iu  middle  life,  after  he  had  lost  all 
his  property  during  the  Thirty  Years'  War, 
and  iu  1640  had  settled  at  Coburg,  where 
in  1644  he  found  employment  as  teacher  at 
the  Gymnasium.  It  was  then  that  he  took 
uf>  music  and  poetry,  with  such  success  as 
to  be  made  imperial  poet  laureate  in  1659. 
Of  his  comjjositions  ai'e  known  :  Geistliches 
Harfeuspiel  aus  dreissig  vierstimmigen  Arien 
uebst  Generalbass  (Coburg,  1657)  ;  and  the 
chorals  :  Kein  Stiindleiu  geht  dahin,  Ach, 
wie  nichtig,  ach,  wie  fliichtig,  and  Sey  Gott 
getreu,  halt'  seineu  Bund. — Fctis ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

FRANCCEUR,  FRANCOIS,  born  in 
Paris,  Sept.  28,  1698,  died  there,  Aug.  6, 
1787.  Dramatic  composer,  member  in 
1710  of  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera,  where  he 
formed  a  lifelong  friendship  and  ijaitner- 
ship  with  Rebel.  He  was  subsequently  a 
member  of  the  king's  private  band,  and  in 
1733  composer  to  the  king.  He  was  ap- 
pointed joint-inspector  of  the  Opera  with 
Rebel  in  1736,  was  director  iu  1751-67,  and 
superintendent  of  the  king's  chamber  music 
iu  1760.  He  published  when  young  two 
books  of  sonatas,  the  only  works  in  which 
he  did  not  have  Rebel  as  a  collaborator. 
Works — Operas,  with  Rebel :  Pyrame  et 
Thisbe,  1726  ;  Tarsis  et  Zelie,  1728  ;  Scan- 
derbeg,  1735  ;  Le  ballet  de  la  pais,  1738  ; 
Les  Augustales,  1744 ;  Zelindor,  1744 ; 
Ismene,  1747  ;  Les  genies  tutelaii-es,  1757  ; 


La  princesse  de  Noisy,  1760. — Mendel ; 
Grove  ;  Fetis ;  Larousse. 

FRANCCEUR,  LOUIS  JOSEPH,  born  in 
Paris,  Oct.  8,  1738,  died  there,  Mai'ch  10, 
1804.  Violinist  and  dramatic  composer', 
nephew  and  jmpil  of  Francois  Francceur. 
He  was  first  a  page  of  the  king's  band, 
1746-52,  then  violinist  in  the  orchestra  at 
the  Opera,  second  maitre  de  musique  in 
1764,  and  in  1767  succeeded  Berton  as  di- 
recteur  en  chef,  which  position  he  held  un- 
tU  1779.  In  1792  he  became  with  Cellerier 
manager  of  the  Ojiera,  and  in  1794  was  di- 
recteur  of  the  Opi'ra  with  Denesle.  Pro- 
duced several  operas,  among  them  Ismene 
et  Lindor,  1766,  and  Ajas,  1770,  and  left 
others  in  MS.,  as  well  as  church  music,  all  of 
which  are  in  the  Conservatoire  Library.  He 
is  the  author  of  "  Diajsason  general  de  tous 
les  instruments  a  vent,"  etc.  (Paris,  1772). 
— Grove  ;  Fetis,  iii.  311 ;  do.,  Supplement, 
i.  348  ;  Larousse ;  Mendel. 

FRANgOISE  DE  RIMINI,  French  grand 
opera  in  five  acts,  text  by  Barbier  and  Carre, 
music  by  Ambroise  Thomas,  represented  at 
the  Opera,  Paris,  Ajnil  14,  1882.  Subject, 
the  story  of  Francesca  da  Rimini  and  Paolo 
Malatesta,  as  related  by  Dante  in  the  "  Di- 
vina  Commedia."  One  of  the  composer's 
best  works. 

FRANCO-lNIENDfiS,  JACQUES,  born  iu 
Amsterdam  in  1812,  of  a  distinguished 
Portuguese  Israelitish  family  that  settled 
there  in  the  16tli  century.  Violoncellist, 
pupil  of  Priiger  and  Bertehuann,  and  sub- 
sequently of  Merk,  in  Vienna.  After  visit- 
ing London  and  Paris  with  his  brother 
Joseph,  he  was  appointed  in  1831  court 
violoncellist.  He  made  another  profes- 
sional tour  in  Germany  with  his  brother  in 
1833,  and  in  1836  went  to  Paris  to  perfect 
himself  in  composition,  and  established 
there  a  series  of  quartet  matinees  with  his 
brother  which  were  greatly  appreciated. 
After  Joseph's  early  death  he  lived  princi- 
pally in  Holland.  He  published  violoncello 
and  other  instrumental  music.  Orders  of 
Isabella   the    Catholic,    the  Oaken   Crown, 


90 


FRANCO- MEND:I^S 


Adolph  of  Nassau. — Fc-tis  ;  Larouisse ;  Gre- 
goir,  Mus.  neerlandais  du  xviiie  et  xixe  siecle, 
76  ;  Mendel  ;  Viotta. 

FRANCO-MENDfiS,  JOSEPH,  born  in 
Amsterdam,  May  4,  181G,  died  Oct.  U, 
1841.  Violinist,  brother  of  Jacques  Franco- 
Mendes ;  pupil  of  Prilger,  and  in  Paris  in 
1836  of  Baillot.  After  a  professional  tour 
to  London,  Paris,  and  Germany  he  played 
chiefly  at  The  Hague  and  Amsterdam.  In 
1835  two  of  his  quartets  for  two  Yiolins, 
viola,  and  bass  were  ci'owned  by  the  Nether- 
land  Society  for  the  Encouragement  of 
Music.  He  left  many  works  in  MS. — Fotis  ; 
Larousse ;  Gregoir,  Mus.  ncerlandais  du 
xviiie  et  xixe  sii'cle,  76  ;  Viotta. 

FRANCS-JUGES,  LES  (The  Vehmic 
Judges),  overture  to  the  ojiera  of  the  same 
title,  by  Hector  Berlioz,  op.  3,  first  performed 
at  the  Conservatoire,  Paris,  May  26,  1828. 
The  opera,  written  by  Berlioz  in  1825,  on  a 
libretto  by  Humbert  Ferrand,  was  declined 
by  the  committee  of  the  Acadcmie  Royale 
de  Musique,  and  only  the  overture  ever  saw 
the  light.  The  score  of  the  opera  was  de- 
stroyed. The  overture  was  the  first  of 
his  works  to  gain  him  any  lasting  reputa- 
tion. Published,  full  score  and  parts,  by 
Richault  and  Hofmeister  (Leipsic)  ;  in  parts 
for  military  band,  arranged  by  "Wieprecht, 
Eichault  ;  for  pianoforte,  4  hands,  Richault, 
Hofmeister  ;  do.,  arranged  by  Karl  Czerny, 
Meyer  (Brunswick) ;  do.,  2  hands,  arranged 
by  Liszt,  Schott  (^lainz).  Given  in  New 
York,  Philharmonic  Society,  season  of 
1845-46.— Jullien,  Hector  Berlioz  (1888), 
375. 

FRANK,  ERNST,  born  in  Munich,  Feb. 
7,  1847,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic  and 
vocal  composer,  and  excellent  conductor, 
pupil  of  Mortier  de  Fontaine  on  the  piano- 
forte and  of  Franz  Lachner  in  composition  ; 
became  court  organist  and  chorus-master  at 
the  Royal  Opera,  and  in  1868  Kapellmeister 
at  Wiirzburg.  In  1869  he  was  made  chorus- 
master  at  the  Opera  in  Vienna,  where  he 
afterwards  conducted  the  Siugverein  and 
the    Academische   Gesangvereiu.     Hof-Ka- 


pellmeister  at  Mannheim  in  1872-77,  he 
was  called  to  Frankfort  as  first  Kapellmeis- 
ter at  the  theatre,  and  in  1879  to  Hanover  as 
von  Bidow's  successor.  In  1887  he  became 
insane,  and  was  committed  to  an  asylum. 
Works :  Adam  de  la  Halle,  opera,  given  at 
Carlsruhe,  1880  ;  Hero,  do.,  Berlin,  1884  ; 
Duettinos  for  female  voices  ;  Rattenfiinger 
Lieder  from  Wolff's  Singuf,  with  violin 
obligato  ;  Other  songs  and  choruses.  He 
translated  into  German  the  operas.  The 
Veiled  Prophet,  and  Savonarola  by  Stanford, 
and  Colomba  by  Mackenzie. — Mendel,  Er- 
giluz.,  113  ;  Riemann. 

FRANKENBERGER,  HEINRICH,  born 
at  Wiimbach,  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 
Germany,  Aug.  20,  1824,  died  at  Sonders- 
hausen,  Nov.  22,  1885.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  at  Sondershausen  of  Bartel  the  elder, 
of  Ernst  Bartel  in  theorj',  of  Birnstein  on 
the  organ,  and  of  G.  Hermann  on  the  piano- 
forte ;  then  at  Leipsic  of  Plaidy,  Karl  Ferdi- 
nand Becker,  and  Hauptmann.  In  1847  he 
entered  the  princely  orchestra  at  Sonders- 
hausen as  violinist,  and  afterwards  became 
its  assistant  conductor.  During  his  annual 
furlough  he  conducted  the  operas  at  Erfurt, 
Halle,  Frankfort,  etc.  He  was  also  an  ex- 
cellent harpist,  and  able  teacher,  and 
published  hand-books  on  instrumentation, 
and  harmony,  and  a  method  for  the  or- 
gan. Works — Operas  :  Die  Hochzeit  zu 
Venedig,  four  acts,  given  at  Sondershausen, 
1847  ;  Vineta,  three  acts,  text  by  Bohn, 
ib.,  Jan.  30,  1851 ;  Der  Giinstling,  three 
acts,  text  by  Lemm,  ib.,  1863. — Riemann. 

FRANZ,  J.  H.  (Count  Bolko  von  Hoch- 
berg),  born  at  Castle  Fiirstenstein,  Silesia, 
Jan.  23,  1843,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  supported  in  Dresden,  for  several 
years,  a  string  quartet  bearing  his  name, 
and  in  1876  instituted  the  Silesian  music 
festivals.  Li  1886  he  was  appointed  in- 
tendant  general  of  the  royal  Prussian  court 
theatres.  Works  :  Claudine  von  Villabella, 
given  at  Schwerin,  1864  ;  Der  Wilrwolf 
(Die  Falkensteiner),  Hanover,  1876  ;  Sym- 
phonies, songs,  etc. 


FEANZ 


FRANZ,  KARL,  born  at  Langenbielau, 
Silesia,  in  1738,  died  in  Muuicli  in  1802. 
Played  the  bom  in  the  service  of  the  Ai'ch- 
bishop  of  Olmiitz  in  1758  ;  then  joined 
Prince  Esterhazj's  orchestra  in  Eisenstadt, 
and  became  the  greatest  virtuoso  on  the 
barytone,  the  predecessor  of  the  violoncello. 
Haydn  composed  a  cantata,  Deutschland's 
Klage  auf  den  Tod  Friedrich's  des  Grossen, 
with  barj-tone  accompaniment,  especially  for 
him.  He  spent  eight  years  in  Presburg 
under  Cardinal  Bathiany,  and  in  1787 
was  called  to  Munich  as  chamber  musician. 
Works  :  12  barytone  concertos. — Allgem. 
d.  Biogr.,  vii.  310  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Grove. 
FRANZ  ROBERT,  born  in  Halle,  June 
28,  1815,  stm  liv- 
ing, 1889.  After 
studying  by  him- 
self several  years, 
he  became  a  pupil 
at  Dessau  (1835- 
37)  of  Schneider 
in  pianoforte,  har- 
mony, and  coun- 
terpoint ;  rctumod 
then  to  Halle,  and, 
without  employ- 
ment for  six  yeai's,  made  thorough  studies  in 
Bach,  Beethoven,  and  Schubert.  In  1811  his 
sense  of  hearing  began  to  decline.  In  1843  he 
published  his  first  set  of  twelve  songs,  which 
won  him  the  sincere  admiration  of  Schumann, 
and  later  of  Mendelssohn,  Gade,  Liszt,  and 
others.  About  this  time  he  was  appointed 
organist  at  the  Ulrichskirche  in  Halle,  and 
conductor  at  the  Singacademie.  Somewhat 
later  he  was  given  the  titles  of  KOniglicher 
Musikdirelctor  and  Doctor  of  Music,  the 
latter  for  his  musical  lectures  at  the  Halle 
Univer.sity.  His  deafness  gradually  became 
more  and  more  serious,  and  in  1853  was 
aggravated  by  nervous  disorders.  In  18G8 
he  was  forced  to  throw  up  all  his  employ- 
ments, and  almost  entirely  to  abandon  com- 
position. The  pecuniary  difficulties  result- 
ing from  this  were  made  up  for  by  a  sum  of 
about  $25,000  realized  from  concerts  given 


in  1872  for  Franz's  benefit  by  Liszt,  Joa- 
chim, Helene  Magnus,  and  others,  and  by 
sums  raised  in  a  similar  way  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  by  Otto  Dresel  (his  intimate  friend 
and  co-worker),  B.  J.  Lang,  and  Sebastian 
B.  Schlesinger.  Franz's  fame  rests  upon  a 
twofold  basis  :  upon  his  songs,  and  upon 
his  additional  accompaniments  to  choral 
works  by  Bach,  Handel,  Durante,  and  As- 
torga.  He  is  undisputedly  the  greatest  liv- 
ing song-writer  :  the  legitimate  successor  of 
Schubert  and  Schumann.  At  first  his  songs 
were  caviare  to  the  general  public,  but  the 
admiration  of  men  like  Schumann  and  !!Men- 
delssohn,  and  the  ardent  propagandism  of 
Liszt  (through  his  incomparable  pianoforte 
transcriptions),  of  the  baritone  Stockhausen, 
and  others  in  Germany,  and  of  Otto  Dresel 
in  America  (at  one  time  Boston  was  one  of 
the  chief  focuses  of  the  Franz  cult),  helped 
much  to  gain  them  universal  recognition. 
Franz's  additional  accompaniments  to  old 
choral  works  are  to  be  ranked  only  with 
what  is  most  perfect  in  this  difficult  depart- 
ment. In  this  matter  he  has  been  from  the 
first  a  stout  ojspouent  of  Chrysander,  Spit- 
ta,  and  others  of  more  timidly  archaeologi- 
cal tendencies.  Works — I.  Original :  257 
songs,  in  45  sets,  for  voice  and  pianoforte, 
published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Whist- 
ling, Peters,  Senff,  Fritzsch,  etc.  ;  Ivyrie  a 
cappella  for  4-part  chorus  and  soli ;  Psalm 
cxvii.  for  double  chorus  (8  parts)  a  cap- 
pella ;  Liturg}'  for  the  evangelical  service ; 
G  chorals  ;  6  part-songs  for  mixed  voices, 
and  6  do.  for  male  voices.  H.  Ai-range- 
ments,  from  J.  S.  Bach  :  Miltthaus-/'a.s-.sio/i  ; 
ire/«ac/i/.s-Oratorium,  Parts  I.  and  H.  ;  3Iag- 
iiificat  in  D  ;  Tracer-Ode.  Church  canta- 
tas :  Es  ist  dir  gesagt,  Mensch,  was  gut  ist ; 
Oott  fiihret  auf  mit  Jauohzen  ;  leh  hatte 
viel  Bekiimmerniss  ;  Wcr  sich  selbst  erhu- 
het ;  0  ewiges  Feuer  ;  Lobet  Gott  in  Seinen 
Reichen  ;  Wer  da  glaubet  und  getauft  wird  ; 
Ach  wie  fliichtig,  ach  wie  nichtig ;  Freue 
dich,  erloste  Schaar  ;  Gotles  Zeit  ist  die 
allerbeste  Zeit  (Actus  tragicus) ;  Sie  wer- 
den    aus    Saba  Alle   kommen ;    Airs  from 


93 


FRANZ 


other  cantatas,  etc.  For  soprano :  Mei)i 
Seelenscbatz  ist  Gottes  Wort,  from  Gleicb 
wis  der  Regen  unci  Sclinee  ;  Aucli  niit 
gediimjDften,  scliwacben  Stimmen,  from 
Schwingt  freudig  eucb  empor ;  Liebster 
Jesu,  main  Verlangen ;  Gottlob,  nun  gebt 
das  Jabr  zu  Ende ;  Hot,  deine  Giite,  from 
Wer  Dank  opfert,  der  preisset  micb  ;  Herr, 
der  du  stark  und  miicbtig  bist,  from  Meine 
Seele  erbebt  den  Herren  ;  Gedenk'  an  uns 
mit  deiuer  Liebe,  from  Wir  danken  dir, 
Gott ;  3Tein  gliiubiges  Herze,  from  Also 
bat  Gott  die  Welt  geliebt.  For  alto  :  Ein 
ungefi'irbtGemutbe  ;  llenschcn,  g\a.uht  docb 
dieser  Guade,  from  Christ  unser  Herr  zum 
Jordan  kam ;  Domiue  Fili  unigenite,  from 
G  Minor  JIass  ;  O  Menscb,  errette  deine 
Seele,  from  O  Ewigkeit,  du  Donnerwort ; 
Wie  furchtsara  wankeu  meine  Schrittc,  from 
AUein  zu  dir,  Herr  Jesu  Christ.  For  tenor  : 
Welch  Uebermaass  der  Giite,  from  Wer 
Dank  opfert  ;  Ergiesse  dicb  reicblicb,  from 
Wo  soil  icb  fliehen  bin  ;  Um^ri-  Mund  und 
Ton  der  Saiten,  from  Wie  scbi'm  leucbtet  der 
Morgen  stern  ;  Nun  mOgt  ibr  stolzen  Feinde, 
from  Herr,  wenndie  stolzen  Feinde  schnau- 
ben ;  Ich  will  dir  zu  Ehren  leben,  from 
Fallt  mit  Danken  ;  Die  Liebe  ziebt  mit 
sanften  Scbritten,  from  Scbwingt  freudig 
eucb  empor.  For  bass  :  Verstianme,  HOl- 
leubeer,  from  Wo  soil  ich  fliehen  bin  ;  Gxte 
Nacht,  du  Weltgetiimmel,  from  Wer  weiss 
wie  nahe  mir  mein  Ende  ;  Booh  weichet, 
ibi-  tollen,  vergeblichen  Sorgen,  from  Lieb- 
ster Gott,  wann  werd'  ich  sterben  ;  Goll  ist 
gerecht,  from  O  Ewigkeit,  du  Donnerwort ; 
Gott,  bei  deinem  starken  Schiitzen,  from 
Wiir'  Gott  nicbt  mit  uns  diese  Zeit.  Duets  : 
HeiT,  dein  Mitleid,  for  S.  and  B.,  from 
Herrscber  des  Himmels,  erbiire  das  Lallen  ; 
Cbriste  eleison,  for  2  S.,  from  the  Hohe 
Messe  ;  Wenn  Sorgen  auf  micbdringen,  for 
S.  and  A.,  from  Ach  Gott,  wie  manches 
Herzeleid  ;  Et  in  unum  Dominum,  for  S. 
and  A.,  from  the  Hohe  Messe ;  Domine 
Deus,  for  S.  and  A.,  from  the  G  major 
Mass  ;  Four  movements  from  JTusiLnlit'ches 
Opfer,    for    pianoforte,    flute,    and   violin ; 


Suite  in  E  minor,  for  pianoforte  (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel).  From  G.  F.  Handel : 
L'  Allegro,  il  Penseroso,  ed  il  Moderato ; 
Jubilate,  in  D ;  The  3Iessiah.  Airs,  for  so- 
prano :  Cara  sposa,  from  Eadamisto  ;  Sommi 
Dei,  from  do.  ;  Vanne,  sorella  ingrata,  from 
do.  ;  3Iio  bel  tesoro,  from  Alcina ;  Mio  caro 
bene,  from  Rodelinda  ;  lUtorna,  o  caro,  from 
do.  ;  Il  vostro  maggio,  from  Rinaldo  ;  Menti 
eterne,  from  Lotario  ;  Spera  si,  mio  caro 
bene,  from  Admeto  ;  SI,  t'  amo,  ocara,  from 
Muzio  Scevola  ;  S'ei  non  mi  vuole  amar, 
from  Tamerlano  ;  Ab,  non  son  io  cbe  parlo. 
from  Ezio.  For  alto  :  Con  rauco  mormorio, 
from  Rodelinda  ;  Confusa  si  miri  1'  infida 
consorte,  from  do.  ;  Si,  si  minaccia,  e  viuta, 
from  Sosarme  ;  Empio,  diro,  tu  sei,  from 
Giulio  Cesare  ;  rupille  sdegnose,  from 
Muzio  Scevola  ;  IJn  disprezzato  affetto,  from 
Otbone  ;  Io  sperai  trovar  riposo,  from  do.  ; 
Son  confusa  pastorella,  from  Poro  ;  Stille 
amare,  gi:i  vi  sento,  from  Tolomeo  ;  Furi- 
hondo  sjnra  il  vento,  from  Partenope  ;  Gi- 
acchh  morir  non  jiosso,  from  Radamisto ; 
Vi  fida  Io  sposo,  from  Ezio.  Duets  :  Se 
teco  vive  il  cor,  for  2  S.,  from  Radamisto  ; 
Fuor  di  periglio,  for  S.  and  T.,  fi'om  Flori- 
dante  ;  Io  t'abbraccio,  for  S.  and  A.,  from 
Rodelinda ;  Per  le  porte  del  tormento,  for 
S.  and  A.,  from  Sosarme  ;  Ricordati,  mio 
ben,  for  S.  and  A.,  from  Flavio  ;  Deh,  per- 
dona,  for  S.  and  A.,  from  do.  ;  Vivo  in  te, 
for  S.  and  A.,  from  Tamerlano  ;  A  teneri  af- 
fetti,  for  S.  and  A.,  from  Otbone  ;  Cara,  piii 
amabile  belta,  for  S.  and  A.,  from  Giulio 
Cesare  ;  Che  vai  pensando,  for  S.  and  B., 
Kammer-Duett,  No.  5  ;  Vh,  speme  infida, 
pur !,  for  2  S.,  id.,  No.  7  ;  Tacele,  ohime, 
tacete,  for  S.  and  B.,  id.,  No.  10  ;  Langue, 
geme,  for  S.  and  A.,  id.,  No.  13.  From 
other  composers  :  Astorga's  Stabat  Mater  ; 
Francesco  Durante's  Magnificat  in  B-flat. 
HI.  Literary  works :  Oft'ener  Brief  an  Edu- 
ard  Hanslick  iiber  Bearbeitungen  illterer 
Tonwerke,  namentlicb  Bach'scber  und  Hiin- 
del'scber  VocalmusLk  (Leipsic,  1871) ;  Mit- 
theilungen  tiber  J.  S.  Bach's  Magnificat 
(Halle,  18G3).— Ambros,  Rob.  Franz,  Eine 


94 


FRANZ 


Studie  (Leipsic,  1872)  ;  La  Mara,  HIus. 
StudieukOpfe,  iii.  131  ;  Liszt,  Ges.  Schrif- 
ten,  iv.  207 ;  Mus.  Wochenblatt,  i.  211,  228, 
2'47 ;  Schumann,  Ges.  Schriften,  ii.  318  ; 
Schuster,  Rob.  Franz  (Leipsic,  1874) ; 
Sarau,  Eob.  Frauz  uud  das  deutsche  Volks- 
und  Kivcheuhed  (Leipsic,  1875)  ;  Illustr. 
Zeitg.  (1872),  i.  288  ;  ii.  213. 

FEANZ,  STEPHAN,  born  in  Vienna,  1785, 
died  there  in  1850  (?).  VioHnist,  pupil  of 
his  father  and  several  other  Viennese  violin 
teachers,  and  on  the  pianoforte  pu^jil  of 
Dominik  Ruprecht,  and  in  composition  of 
Albrechtsberger,  besides  which  he  was  often 
advised  by  Josef  Haydn.  For  a  short  time 
compelled  by  his  father  to  foUow  a  mercan- 
tile career,  he  was  soon  led  back  to  music, 
being  offered  a  permanent  employment  as 
teacher,  and  as  first  violinist  in  a  private 
quartet,  in  a  wealthy  nobleman's  house.  He 
held  this  position  in  1803-G,  then  a  similar 
one  at  Presburg,  and  in  1807  became  mu- 
sical director  to  a  nobleman  in  Stuhlweis- 
seuburg  county,  where  he  devoted  himself 
to  composition.  He  gave  successful  con- 
certs at  Presburg,  Pesth,  and  other  Hun- 
garian cities,  returned  to  Vienna  in  1813, 
became  first  violinist  at  the  Theater  an  der 
Wien,  and  in  181G  a  member  of  the  imperial 
orchestra.  In  great  demand  as  a  teacher, 
he  gave  up  his  position  at  the  theatre  in  1818, 
and  in  1820  also  ceased  to  perform  in  pub- 
lic. From  1828  to  1850  he  conducted  the 
orchestra  of  the  Burgtheater.  Works  :  Sym- 
phony ;  15  overtures  ;  about  90  entr'actes  ; 
Grand  mass ;  Graduals  and  offertories ; 
String  quintet ;  Several  quartets,  concert- 
pieces,  variations,  solos,  etc.,  for  violin ; 
Septet  for  flute,  violin,  oboe,  bassoon,  horn, 
violoncello,  and  bass ;  Quintet,  quartets, 
trios,  and  duos  for  flute  ;  Rondo  for  harp 
and  orchestra  ;  Two  pianoforte  trios,  varia- 
tions for  pianoforte  ;  Songs. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Wurzbach  ;  Neue  wiener  Musikzei- 
tung  (1856),  4. 

FKANZL,  FERDINAND,  boru  at  Schwet- 
zingen  in  the  Palatinate,  May  24,  1770,  died 
in  Mannheim,  November,   1833.     Violinist 


and  dramatic  composer,  son  and  pupil  of 
Ignaz  Frilnzl,  whom  he  greatly  surpassed  as  a 
composer.  He  joined  the  Mannheim  court 
band  in  1782,  made  concert  tours  with  his 
father  from  1785,  studied  under  Pleyel 
and  Richter  in  Strasburg,  and,  after  a  visit 
to  Paris,  went  to  Italy  and  studied  composi- 
tion under  Padre  Mattel  of  Bologna,  giving 
concerts  in  Rome,  Naples,  and  Palermo. 
He  became  Conzertmeister  in  Frankfort-on- 
the-Main  in  1792,  director  of  a  private  or- 
chestra at  Oflenbach  in  1794,  went  on  con- 
cert tours  from  1799,  and  visited  Poland 
and  Russia  in  1803-6.  In  1806  he  suc- 
ceeded Caunabich  as  court  Kapellmeister 
and  director  of  German  opera  in  Munich. 
Pensioned  in  1827,  he  retired  to  Geneva, 
and  later  to  Mannheim.  Spohr  considered 
him  an  old-fashioned  virtuoso.  Works — 
Operas  :  Die  LuftbilUe,  Strasburg,  1788  ; 
Adolph  uud  Clara,  1800  ;  Carlo  Floras, 
Munich,  1800  ;  Haireddin  Barbarossa,  ib., 
1815  ;  Der  Fassbinder,  ib.,  1824  ;  a  festival 
composition — Die  Weihe,  ib.,  1818  ;  8  con- 
certos and  4  concertinos  for  violin  ;  9  quar- 
tets and  G  trios  for  strings  ;  Overtures,  sym- 
phonies, and  songs. — Mendel ;  Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  vii.  203  ;  Fetis  ;  Grove ;  Wasielewski, 
Die  Violine,  188. 

FRANZL,  IGNAZ,  born  at  IMannheim, 
June  3, 1734,  died  there  in  1803.  Virtuoso  on 
the  violin,  entered  the  famous  court  orches- 
tra of  the  Elector  Karl  Theodor  at  Mann- 
heim in  1750,  became  afterwards  Conzert- 
meister and  finally  Kapellmeister,  in  which 
capacity  he  removed  with  the  orchestra  to 
Munich  in  1768.  From  1784  he  travelled 
for  several  years  with  his  son  Ferdinand, 
and  in  1790  was  made  director  of  the  the- 
atre orchestra  at  Mannheim.  His  composi- 
tions, numbering  about  twenty  works,  con- 
sist of  concertos,  quartets,  and  trios. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FRASI,  FELICE,  born  in  Lombardy  in 
1803,  died  at  Vercelli,  Sept.  8,  1879.  Dra- 
matic composer,  piupil  at  the  Conservatorio, 
Milan,  gained  reputation  as  a  jjiauist  and 
organist,    and    at    the   age  of   twenty-one 


95 


FRAUEXLIEBE 


became  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  cathedral 
at  Vercelli,  Piedmont.  His  opera  La  selva 
di  Hermanstadt  was  given  at  La  Scala, 
Milan,  in  1827  ;  he  also  published  sonatas 
for  pianoforte,  and  pastorals  for  the  organ. 
— Fetis;  Mendel. 

FRAUENLIEBE  UND  LEBEN  (Wom- 
an's Love  and  Life),  eight  songs  by  Cha- 
misso,  for  voice  and  pianoforte,  by  Robert 
Schumann,  op.  42,  1840.  The  music  to 
this  cycle  reveals  an  extraordinary  depth  of 
jjenetration  into  a  side  of  human  character 
which  men  are  generally  supposed  incapable 
of  understanding.  Schumann  treated  the 
series  as  a  whole,  as  Beethoven  did  his  Lie- 
derkreis,  An  die  feme  Geliebte,  yet  with- 
out connecting  the  separate  songs  even  in 
an  external  way,  as  did  the  latter.  Only  at 
the  close  does  the  pianoforte  give  an  echo 
of  the  first  song  as  a  postlude. — Maitland, 
68  ;  Eeissmann,  100. 

FEECH,  JOHANN  GEORG,  born  at 
Kaltenthal,  near  Stuttgart,  Jan.  19,  1790, 
died  at  Esslingen  in  1864.  Organist  and 
pianist,  chiefly  self-taught,  and  since  1806, 
when  he  became  assistant  teacher  at  Deger- 
loch,  pupil  at  Stuttgart  of  Knecht  in  har- 
mony, of  Sutor  in  composition,  of  Nanz  on 
the  violin,  of  Kriiger  on  the  flute,  and  of 
Scherzer  on  the  violoncello.  In  1811  he 
went  to  Esslingen,  where  he  became  or- 
ganist and  musical  director  in  1820,  and 
founded  the  still  existing  Liederkranz  in 
1827.  His  influence  upon  musical  educa- 
tion in  Wiirtemberg  was  gi-eat  and  bene- 
ficial. Works  :  ]\Iontezuma,  opera  ;  Abra- 
ham auf  Moria,  oratorio  ;  Cantatas ;  German 
mass  for  mixed  chorus  ;  Oi-gan  and  piano- 
forte pieces;  Songs  and  j)art-songs. — Fetis; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FREDDI,  AMADEO,  born  in  the  Vene- 
tian States  about  the  close  of  the  16th  cen- 
tury. Priest  and  maestro  di  cappella  succes- 
sively at  Treviso  and  of  the  Cathedral  of 
Padua.  Works  :  Madrigals  (Venice,  1601- 
2) ;  Motets,  psalms,  hymns,  etc.  (ib.,  1616- 
42). — Fetis  ;  Van  der  Straeten,  i.  30  ;  Men- 
del ;  Viotta. 


FREDERICK  THE  GREAT,  King  of 
Prussia,  born  at  Berlin,  Jan.  24,  1712, 
died  at  Sans  Souci, 
Aug.  17, 1786.  Flut- 
ist, pupil  of  Quautz, 
who  composed  for 
him  nearly  300  con- 
certos and  200  soli, 
besides  e  x  e  r  c  is  e  s 
which  the  king  prac- 
tised regularly  every 
morn  ing.  Works: 
H  re  pastore,  opera  ; 
Overture  to  Aci  e  Galatea  ;  Marches ;  Arias  ; 
About  100  soli  for  flute.  A  complete  edi- 
tion of  his  compositions  is  in  preparation 
by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel,  Leipsic. —  Fetis  ; 
Mendel ;  Midler,  Friedr.  d.  Gr.  als  Kenner 
und  Dilettant  auf  dem  Gebiete  der  Ton- 
kuust  (Potsdam,  1847). 

FREEER  (Freyer),  AUGUST,  born  at 
Mulda,  near  Dresden,  in  1803,  still  living, 
1889  (?).  Organist,  pujjil  of  Cantor  Geissler, 
whom  he  often  replaced  at  the  organ,  from 
his  tenth  year.  He  afterwards  went  to 
Poland,  and  settled  at  Warsaw,  where  he 
studied  counterpoint  imder  Elssler.  In 
1834  he  made  a  concert  tour  through  Ger- 
many, and  after  his  return  was  made  organ- 
ist of  the  Lutheran  Church  at  Warsaw.  He 
has  published  a  large  number  of  composi- 
tions for  the  organ. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
350  ;  Mendel;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  113. 

FREISCHUTZ,  DER,  German  romantic 
opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Fiiedrich  Kind, 
music  by  Weber,  first  represented  in  Ber- 
lin, June  18,  1821.  The  score  was  finished, 
May  13,  1820,  at  Dresden.  The  opera  was 
first  named  "  Der  Probeschuss,"  then  "  Die 
Jiigerbraut,"  but  was  produced  under  its 
present  title.  The  libretto  is  founded  on  a 
stoiy  in  vol.  i.  of  the  "  Gespeusterbuch," 
edited  by  Johann  August  Apel,  and  Fried- 
rich  Laun  (Leipsic,  1810),  translated  into 
English  by  De  Quincey  under  the  title  of 
"  The  Fatal  Marksman,"  and  which  is  itself 
founded  on  a  stiU  earlier  tale  in  "Unterre- 
dungen  vom  Reiche  der  Geister,"  pubhshed 


96 


rS^liiYO^^. 


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1  ,.;r~3i:i-ii2!!i- 


FEEISCIItTZ 


about  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury. In  the  opera,  Max,  a  marksman,  in 
love  with  Agathe,  daughter  of  Kuno,  head 
ranger  to  the  Prince  of  Bohemia,  is  recom- 
mended by  Kuno,  who  is  old  and  infirm,  as 
his  successor.  The  prince  agrees  to  accept 
him  if  he  is  victorious  in  the  coming  shoot- 
ing-match. Caspar,  also  in  love  with  Agathe, 
who  has  sold  himself  to  the  demon  Samiel, 
forms  a  plan  to  win  the  girl  and  to  substi- 
tute Max  for  himself  in  the  fulfilment  of  his 
contract  with  the  Evil  One.  He  shows  Max 
the  power  of  magic  bullets,  made  with  Sa- 
miel's  aid,  and  persuades  him  to  meet  him 
in  the  Wolf's  Glen  at  midnight  to  obtain 


Therese   Malten. 

more.  Max  keeps  his  appointment,  though 
terrified  by  sjjectres  and  grotesque  forms, 
and  warned  by  his  mother's  spirit,  and  re- 
ceives seven  bullets,  six  of  which  are  to  be 
used  at  Max's  will  in  the  coming  match,  and 
the  seventh  is  to  be  directed  by  the  demon 
himself  Agathe,  warned  by  a  holy  hermit 
of  coming  danger,  but  guarded  against  it 
by  a  wreath  of  roses  which  he  has  given 
her,  prepares  in  the  third  act  for  her  wed- 
ding. Oppressed  by  melancholy  forebod- 
ings, she  tells  Annchen  that  she  dreamed  she 
was  a  dove  and  that  Max  fired  at  her.  On 
the  day  of  the  shooting-match  her  lover  wins 
with  his  six  magic  bullets,  and  at  the  com- 
mand of  the  prince  fires  the  seventh  one  at 


a  flying  dove.  As  he  fires  the  dove  takes  in 
his  eyes  the  form  of  Agathe  and  he  fancies 
he  has  slain  her ;  but  she  is  saved  by  her 
wreath  and  the  bullet  pierces  Caspar's  heart. 
Samiel  claims  his  victim,  and  Max  wins  his 
bride  and  the  ranger's  position  amid  the 
general  rejoicing.  The  original  cast  in  Ber- 
lin was  as  follows : 

Agathe Frau  Caroline  Seidler. 

Annchen Frl.  Johanna  Eunicke. 

Max Herr  Carl  Stumer. 

Caspar Herr  Heinrich  Blume. 

Ottokar Herr  Rebenstein. 

Kuno Herr  Wauer. 

Samiel Herr  Hillebrand. 

Kilian Herr  Wiedemann. 

Among  the  best  personators  of  Agathe  is 
Therese  Malten,  whose  portrait  is  given. 
Der  Freischiitz  met  with  an  enthusiastic  re- 
ception, and  its  pojjularity  is  still  very  great 
in  Germany.  Its  500th  re^n-esentation  was 
celebrated  in  Berlin  in  188.5.  It  was  given 
in  Dresden,  Jan.  26,  1822,  and  soon  after 
in  other  German  cities.  An  English  ver- 
sion, entitled  Der  Freischiitz  or  The  Sev- 
enth Bullet,  was  produced  in  London,  at 
the  English  Opera  House,  July  22,  1824, 
with  ballads  inserted,  and  it  became  so 
popular  that  nine  different  theatres  played 
it  at  the  same  time.  The  German  version 
was  brought  out  at  the  King's  Theatre,  May 
9,  1832,  and  an  Italian  version,  II  franco 
arciero,  at  Covent  Garden,  March  IG,  1850. 
A  pasticcio  was  given  in  Paris,  at  the  Ode- 
on,  Dec.  7,  1824,  with  a  new  libretto,  with 
changes  of  names  and  scene,  by  Castil-Blaze 
and  Sauvage,  under  the  title,  Eobin  des  Bois. 
An  accurate  French  version  of  the  original 
by  Emilien  Pacini  and  Hector  Berlioz,  with 
recitatives  by  Berlioz,  was  produced  at  the 
Academic  Koyale  de  Musique,  June  7,  1841. 
Der  Freischiitz  was  first  represented  in  New 
York,  at  the  Park  Theatre,  March  3,  1825. 
Among  its  most  popular  numbers  are  : 
"  Durch  die  Willder,  dui-ch  die  Auen,"  aria 
of  Max,  Act  i..  No.  3  ;  "  Schelm  !  halt  fest!," 
duet  between  Agathe  and  Annchen,  Act  ii., 


9T 


frI:lon 


No.  6;  "Wie  naLte  mir  der  Sclilummer,'' 
scene  and  aria  of  Agathe,  Act  ii.,  No.  8 ; 
"  Eiust  triiumte  mciner  seligeu  Base,"  ro- 
mance and  aria  of  Annchen,  Act  iii.,  No.  13  ; 
"  Wir  wiuden  dir  den  Jungfernkranz,"  Volks- 
lied,  cliorus  of  bridesmaids,  with  soprano 
solo,  Act  iii..  No.  14 ;  "  Was  gleicht  wolil 
auf  Erden  dem  Jiigervergniigen,"  chorus  of 
huntsmen,  Act  iii.,  No.  15. — Ji'ihns,  Weber 
in  seiuen  Werken,  297  ;  Larousse,  viii.  809  ; 
Max  M.  von  Weber,  Carl  M.  von  W.  (Leip- 
sic,  1864),  ii.  277,  312  ;  Edwards,  Lyrical 
Drama,  i.  33 ;  Hanslick,  Mod  erne  Oper, 
66  ;  Berlioz  (Apthorp),  395 ;  Wagner,  Ges. 
Schr.,  i.  257 ;  Burlingame,  Wagner,  92  ; 
Ambros,  Bunte  Blatter,  i.  1  ;  do.,  ii.  93. 

FE:fcLON,  LOUIS  FKANCOIS  ALEX- 
ANDRE, born  at  Orh'ans,  France,  in  1825, 
still  living,  1889.  Pianist  and  organist, 
studied  music  in  his  native  city,  where  he 
founded  a  gratuitous  course  of  musical  in- 
struction for  workmen  in  1847.  When  the 
harmonium  came  into  use,  he  was  one  of  its 
most  active  propagators  in  Paris,  and  pub- 
lished an  excellent  method  for  this  instru- 
ment. In  1851  he  went  to  London  to  rep- 
resent the  organs  constructed  by  the  firm 
of  Alexandre.  He  has  composed  a  great 
number  of  morceaus  de  genre,  fantaisies, 
etc.,  for  harmonium,  and  for  do.  and  piano- 
forte.— Ft'tis,  Supplement,  i.  349. 

FREMART,  HENRI,  French  composer 
of  church  music,  vicar  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Paris  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century, 
having  been  maitre  de  musique  of  the  ca- 
thedral at  Rouen  in  1611-25.  Works: 
Missa  4  voe.  ad  placitum,  Ballard  coll., 
1642  ;  Missa  4  voe.  ad  imit.  mod.  Confun- 
dantur  suj)erbi,  ib.  ;  Missa  5  voe.  ad  imit. 
mod.  Verba  mea  auribus,  etc.,  ib.,  1643  ; 
Missa  5  voe.  ad  imit.  mod.  Eiipe  me,  Domine, 
ib. ;  Missa  5  voe.  ad  imit,  mod.  Domine  re- 
fugium,  ib.  ;  Missa  6  voe.  ad  imit.  mod.  Ju- 
bilate Deo,  ib.,  1645  ;  Missa  6  voe.  ad  imit. 
mod.  Salvum  me  fac,  Deus,  ib. — Fetis. 

FRENCH  SUITES  (Ger.,  Franzosisehe 
Suiten),  the  name  generally  given  the  six 
smaller  cla-vder  suites  by  Johann  Sebastian 


Bach  :  Suite  i.  D  minor  ;  ii.  C  minor  ;  iii.  B 
minor  ;  iv.  E-flat  major  ;  v.  G  major  ;  vi.  E 
major.  Published  by  the  Bach-Gesellschaft. 
FRESOHI,  GIOVANNI  DOMENICO, 
born  in  Vicenza,  Italy,  in  1640,  died  there  in 
1690.  A  priest,  he  lived  in  Venice  in  1677- 
85,  and  wrote  there  many  ojjeras.  On  his 
return  to  Vicenza  he  became  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  cathedral.  Works— Operas : 
Elena  rapita  da  Paride,  Venice,  1677  ;  Sar- 
dauapale,  ib.,  1678;  TuUia  Superba,  ib., 
1678 ;  Circe,  ib.,  1679 ;  Berenice,  ib., 
1680  ;  Giulio  Cesare  trionfante,  1682  ; 
Silla,  1683  and  1699  ;  L'  incoronazione  di 
Dario,  1684  ;  Teseo  tra  le  rivali,  1685  ; 
Dario,  1685.  Giuditta,  oratorio.  Missa  a 
cinque,  salmi  a  3,  4,  5  voci  (Venice,  1660)  ; 
Missa  a  0,  e  salmi  a  2,  5,  6  voci  (ib.,  1673). 
— Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

FRESCOB.^LDI,  GIEOL.UIO,  born  in 
Ferrara,  1588,  died 
after  1640.  Little  is 
known  of  his  life.  He 
studied  under  Fran- 
cois MiUeville  (not 
under  Alessandro 
Milleville,  his  father, 
who  died,  1589) ;  his 
first  composition,  a 
book  of  five-voice 
madrigals,  was  imb- 
lished  by  P.  Phalesius  in  Antwerp,  June 
10,  1608.  During  this  year,  Frescobaldi 
visited  Milan.  In  1615  he  succeeded  Ei-- 
cole  Pasquini  as  organist  at  St.  Peter's 
in  Rome,  his  fame  being  then  so  great 
that  thirty  thousand  are  said  to  have 
flocked  to  the  church  to  hear  his  first 
performance.  The  latest  record  of  him 
is  in  a  letter  of  P.  della  Valle  (1640),  in 
which  he  is  mentioned  as  still  living,  and 
fifty-two  years  old.  Johann  Jacob  Fro- 
berger  was  his  pupil.  Frescobaldi  may 
be  called  the  father  of  the  great  schools 
of  organ  playing  and  organ  music ;  not 
only  was  he  the  first  very  imposing  fig- 
ure we  meet  with  in  the  history  of  or- 
gan  writing,  but   no   genius   so  great   as 


as 


FREUBEL 


his  is  to  be  found  in  this  department  of 
composition  until  we  come  to  J.  Sebastian 
Bach.  Hawkins's  statement  that  Fresco- 
baldi  was  the  first  Italian  who  played  in  the 
fugued  style  is  an  error  which  has  found 
much  favour  with  subsequent  historians. 
But  he  probably  was  the  first  organist  who 
used  the  tonal  (instead  of  the  real)  response 
in  the  fugue.  "Works:  1.  Libro  primo  di 
Madrigali  a  5  voc.  (Antwerp,  Phalesius, 
1C08) ;  2.  Libro  secoudo  di  Madrigali,  etc. 
(Milan,  1608) ;  3.  Ricercari  e  canzoni  fran- 
cesi  (Rome,  Borboni,  1G15)  ;  4.  Toccate 
.  .  .  e  partite  d'  intavolatura  (1G13-27- 
37-57)  ;  5.  Secoudo  libro  di  toccate,  etc. 
(Rome,  1G15) ;  6.  Primo  libro  delle  canzoni 
a  1,  2,  3,  4  voei  (Rome,  1628) ;  7.  Primo 
libro,  Arie  musiculi,  Florence,  1630 ;  8. 
Capricci  sopradiversi  soggetti  (Venice,  1626, 
Rome,  1627).  Separate  pieces  are  found 
in  the  following  collections :  Three  in  Can- 
zoni per  sonare  con  ogni  sorta  di  stromenti, 
etc.  (Venice,  Aless.  Rauer,  1608)  ;  One  in  Se- 
lecta3  Cantiones,  etc.  (Rome,  Bart.  Zauetti, 


>^^Wz^ 


1616) ;  One  in  Scelta  di  Motetti,  etc.  (Rome, 
Zauetti,  1618)  ;  Lilia  Camjii,  etc.  (Rome,  J. 
Bapt.  Robletto,  1621).— Arabros,  iv.  103, 
438  ;  Clement,  Mus.  celebres,  16. 

FREUBEL,  JOHANN  LUD^^aO  PALT,, 
born  at  Namur  in  1763,  died  at  Amster- 
dam, May  21,  1828.  Organist  and  violinist, 
and  for  many  years  conductor  at  the  Dutch 
theatre,  Amsterdam.  Works  :  De  vroiiwe- 
lijke  recruten,  ballet,  1788  ;  Several  other 
ballets ;  De  triomf  der  liefde,  symphony, 
1793  ;  Het  vredefeest,  1802  ;  14  cantatas  ; 
3  concertos  for  violin  ;  Several  overtures  ; 
Psalms  ;  Popular  songs. — Fetis,  Supjile- 
ment,  i.  350  ;  Viotta. 

FREUDENBERG,  KARL  GOTTLIEB, 
born  in  a  village  of  Silesia,  Jan.  15,  1797, 
died  at  Breslau,  April  13,  1869.  Organist, 
pupil  of  the  Cantor  Klein  at  Schmiedeberg, 


then  of  Berner  and  Schuabel  in  Breslau, 
and,  finally,  at  the  organists'  school  in  Ber- 
lin, of  Zelter  in  harmony  and  composition 
and  of  Beruhard  Klein  in  counterpoint.  In 
1826  he  visited  Italy,  and  in  1827  became 
organist  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen's  Church  at 
Breslau.  He  composed  organ  and  piano- 
forte music,  psalms,  songs,  and  part-songs. 
— Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

FREUDENBERG,  WTLHELM,  born  at 
Raubacher-Hiitte,  near  Neuwied,  Prussia, 
March  11,  1838,  still  living,  1889.  Dra- 
matic composer,  studied  music  at  Leij)sic 
in  1858-61,  was  then  for  four  years  Kaijell- 
meister  at  the  theatres  of  diflerent  cities, 
last  at  Mainz,  and  in  1865  went  to  Wies- 
baden as  conductor  of  the  Ciicilienverein 
and  the  Synagogenverein.  In  1870  he 
founded  there  a  school  of  music  and  con- 
ducted the  Singakademie  until  1886,  when 
he  removed  to  Berlin,  and  opened  a  school 
of  music  with  Mengewein.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Die  Pfahlbauer,  burlesque,  three  acts, 
given  at  Mainz,  March  24,  1877  ;  Die  Ne- 
benbuhler,  romantic,  three  acts,  Wiesbaden, 
Feb.  6,  1879  ;  Kleopatra,  four  acts,  Magde- 
burg, Jan.  12,  1882  ;  Die  Miihle  im  Wis- 
perthale,  three  acts,  Magdeburg,  Jan.  21, 
1883 ;  Ein  Tag  in  Florenz,  symphonic 
poem  ;  Durch  Duukel  zum  Licht,  overture  ; 
Music  to  Romeo  and  Juliet  ;  Pianoforte 
pieces,  and  songs. — Mendel  ;  Riemanu  ; 
Signale  (1879),  433. 

FREUDENTHAL,  JULIUS,  born  at 
Brunswick,  April  5,  1805,  still  living,  1889 
(?).  Violinist  and  flutist,  pupil  of  Karl 
Miiller,  entered  the  ducal  orchestra,  of 
which  he  in  time  became  musical  director, 
retiring  in  1860  on  account  of  his  health. 
He  evinced  a  remarkable  talent  for  the  hu- 
morous genre  of  music,  and  his  comic  songs 
and  quartets  for  male  voices,  but  especially 
his  operettas,  and  opera-travesties — capital 
satires  on  modern,  chiefly  Italian,  operas — 
must  be  mentioned  with  distinction. — Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

FREUE  DICH,  ERLOSTE  SCHAAR, 
church  cantata,  Festo  S.  Joanuia  Bapt.,  for 


35« 


FREUNDE 


solo  voices  and  chorus,  with  accompanimeut 
of  3  trumpets,  drums,  2  flutes,  2  oboes, 
strings  complete,  and  continue,  by  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach  (Year  V,  No.  30,  Bach-Ge- 
sellschaft  ed.)  ;  published  also  in  full  score, 
with  additional  accompaniments  by  Robert 
Franz,  and  in  pianoforte  score,  by  Leuc- 
kart  (Leipsic). 

FREUNDE  VON  SALAMANKA,  DIE, 
oijeretta  in  two  acts,  text  by  Mayrhofer, 
music  by  Franz  Schubert,  written  in  1815, 
never  jierformed.  The  music,  which  was 
written  between  Nov.  18  and  Dec.  31,  is  on 
a  large  scale,  the  first  act  alone  filling  320 
pages.  The  MS.  is  in  the  possession  of  Dr. 
Eduard  Schneider,  Vienna.  The  libretto  is 
lost. — Hellborn  (Coleridge),  i.  72. 

FREUDESAUSEN,  JUBELBRAUSEN. 
See  Stradella. 

FREUDIG  BEGRUSSEN  WIR  DIE 
EDLE  HALLE.     See  Tannhiiuser. 

FREYSTADTLER  (Freystiidler),  FRANZ 
JACOB,  born  at  Salzburg,  Sept.  13,  1760, 
died  in  Vienna  in  1841.  Organist,  pupil  of 
Georg  Lipp,  competed  successfully  against 
thirty-two  applicants  for  the  organist's 
place  at  the  Domstift  of  St.  Peter,  which 
he  held  for  sis  years,  then  taught  music  for 
two  years  in  Munich,  whence  he  went  to 
Vienna  in  178G,  and  soon  secured  many  pu- 
pils through  the  recommendation  of  his 
countryman  and  school-mate  Mozart.  He 
published  many  pianoforte  compositions, 
mostly  didactic,  besides  characteristic  pro- 
gramme-pieces, like  Die  Belagerung  von 
Belgrad,  Mittag  und  Abend,  Der  Friihling- 
smorgen,  etc.,  and  songs,  and  left  in  manu- 
script over  GO  works,  consisting  of  concer- 
tos, fantasias,  organ  preludes,  cadenzas,  etc. 
— Allgem.  wiener  Musikzeitung  (1812),  No. 
121  ;  Fetis ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling ; 
Wurzbach. 

FRIBERTH,  KARL,  bom  at  Wullers- 
dorf.  Nether  Austria,  June  7,  1736,  died  in 
Vienna,  Aug.  6,  1816.  Church  composer 
and  tenor  singer,  first  instructed  by  his 
father,  then  studied  in  Vienna  under  the 
guidance  of  the  court  composers  Bono  and 


Gassmann.  In  17.59  he  joined  the  chape\ 
of  Prince  Eszterhazy  at  Eiseustadt  as  tenor, 
and  in  1776  became  Kapellmeister  of  the 
Jesuits'  and  IMinorites'  churches  at  Vienna. 
Works  ;  Nine  masses  ;  Five  motets  ;  Stabafc 
Mater  ;  Requiem  ;  Graduals  and  offerto- 
ries.— Fc'tis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

FRIDOLIN,  or  the  Message  to  the  Forge, 
cantata,  by  Alberto  Randegger,  written  for 
and  first  performed  at  the  Birmingham 
(England)  Festival,  Aug.  28,  1873.  Tlie 
text,  by  Mme  Erminea  Rudersdorft",  is 
founded  on  Schiller's  ballad,  "  Der  Gang 
nach  dem  Eisenhammer."  Characters  rep- 
resented :  Waldemar,  Count  of  Saverne  ;  Eg- 
lantine, Countess  of  Saverne  ;  Fridolin,  page 
to  the  Countess  ;  Hubert,  squire  to  the 
Count.  The  cantata  was  a  complete  suc- 
cess. Published  by  Chappell  (London). 
—Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  299. 

FRIDZERI,  ALEX.INDRE  MARIE  AN- 
TOINE  FRIXER,  called,  born  at  Verona, 
Italy,  Jan.  16,  1711,  died  in  Antwerp  in 
1819.  Violinist,  and  virtuoso  on  the  man- 
dolin. He  lost  his  sight  when  a  year  old, 
and  learned  to  play  the  mandolin  without 
a  teacher ;  he  had  five  different  violin 
teachers,  constructed  his  own  mandolin  at 
eleven,  learned  the  flute,  the  viol  d'  amore, 
the  organ,  the  horn,  and  several  other  in- 
stniments  without  instruction,  and  never  re- 
ceived any  lessons  in  harmony  or  counter- 
point. He  was  organist  of  the  Chapel  la 
IMadonna  del  Monte  Berico,  at  Vicenza,  for 
three  years,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-four 
started  on  a  concert  tour,  played  at  the  Con- 
certs Spirituels  in  Paris  (where  he  remained 
two  years),  travelled  through  the  northern 
part  of  France,  Belgium,  Germany,  lived 
in  Strasburg  over  a  year,  and  returned  to 
Paris  in  1771.  He  went  to  Brittany,  and 
spent  twelve  years  with  the  Comte  de  Ch:\- 
teaugiron,  visiting  Paris  several  times.  On 
the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution  he  went 
to  Nantes,  and  established  a  philharmonic 
academy.  The  terrors  of  the  war  in  the 
Vendee  caused  him  in  1791  to  seek  refuge 
in  Paris,  whence  he  left  for  Antwerp  in  1801, 


100 


FRISCIIMUTII 


settled  there  as  a  music  teacher,  and  estab- 
lished a  trade  in  music  and  instruments. 
Works :  Les  deux  miliciens,  comic  opera, 
given  at  the  Comedie  Italienne,  1772  ;  Les 
souliers  mordores,  do.,  ib.,  1776  ;  Lucette, 
do.,  ib.,  1785  ;  Les  Thermopyles,  grand 
opera  ;  Six  quartets  for  strings  ;  Six  sonatas 
for  mandolin  ;  Two  concertos  for  violin  ; 
Symphouie  concertante  for  two  violins,  viola, 
and  orchestra  ;  Six  quartets,  2d  book  ;  Duos 
for  violins ;  Six  romances  for  voice  and 
pianoforte. — Futis  ;  Mendel. 

FRISCHMUTH,  JOHANN  CHRISTIAN, 
born  at  Schwabhausen,  Gotha,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, July  31,  1790.  Dramatic  composer,  was 
musical  director  of  various  travelling  com- 
panies, and  small  theatres,  then  lived  for 
some  years  at  Gotha,  and  removed  to  Ber- 
lin, where  he  became  director  of  the  Dub- 
bliu  Theatre  in  1785,  and  Kapellmeister  of 
the  National  Theatre  in  1787.  Works  :  Die 
krauke  Frau,  Clarissa,  Das  Modereich,  oper- 
ettas ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  Duets  for 
violin,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FRITHJOF,  cantata,  for  soli,  male  chorus, 
and  orchestra,  by  Max  Bruch,  op.  23. 
Scenes  from  the  Frithjof-Saga  of  Esaias 
TegDL^r.  The  cantata  opens  with  Frithjofs 
return  from  the  Orkneys,  and  closes  with 
his  sailing  away  in  "  Ellida "  to  become  a 
sea  rover,  after  firing  the  temple  in  which 
the  false  kings  are  sacrificing. — Upton, 
Standard  Cantatas,  87. 

FRITHJOF  -  SYJMPHONIE,  symphony 
for  orchestra,  by  Heinrich  Hofmann,  op. 
22,  written  in  1871. 

FRITZ,  KASPAR,  born  in  Geneva  in 
1716,  died  there  in  1782.  Violinist,  pupil 
in  Turin  of  Giovanni  Battista  Somis. 
Works :  Quartets  and  solos  for  violin ;  6 
symphonies ;  Concerto  for  harpsichord, 
etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel,  iv.  67  ;  do.,  Erganz, 
115. 

FRITZE,  WILHEL:\I,  born  in  Bremen, 
Feb.  17,  1812,  died  in  Stuttgart,  Oct.  7, 
1881.  Pianist,  pupil  in  Bremen  of  Sobo- 
lewski,  then  studied  at  the  Conservatorium 
in  Leipsic,  and  under  Biilow  and  Weitzmanu 


in  Berlin.  Having  travelled  in  France  and 
Italy,  he  settled  in  1866  at  Glogau,  Silesia, 
and  in  1867  at  Liegnitz,  where  he  conducted 
the  Singakademie  in  1867-77,  went  once 
more  to  Berlin  to  study  under  Kiel,  and  in 
1879  to  Stuttgart.  Works:  Die  Jahres- 
zeiten,  symphony  ;  Fingal,  oratorio  ;  David, 
do.  ;  Concerto  for  violin  ;  do.,  for  piano- 
forte ;  Sonata  fordo.,  op.  2  ;  Sanctus,  Bene- 
dictus,  and  Agnus  Dei  for  mixed  chorus,  soli, 
and  orchestra  ;  Pianoforte  pieces,  songs,  and 
choruses. — Riemann. 

FROBERGER,  JOHANN  JACOB,  born 
(Mattheson  says  in  Halle,  but  no  proof  has 
been  found)  early  part  of  17th  century  (the 
date  usually  given,  1635,  is  undoubtedly 
many  years  too  late),  died  at  Hericourt 
(Haute-Saone),  France,  May  7,  1667.  The 
story  of  his  life  has  been  made  the  nucleus 
of  a  large  amount  of  accumulated  fiction  ; 
Fctis's  acount  is  eminently  untrustworthy, 
and  Mattheson's  dates  are  mostly  wrong. 
The  following  facts  are  known  :  Jan.  1, 
1637,  he  was  appointed,  by  Emperor  Fer- 
dinand HI.,  organist  in  the  imperial  Hofmu- 
sikkapelle,  Vienna,  where  he  remained  un- 
til Sept.  30,  when  he  was  sent  by  the  Em- 
peror to  study  under  Frescobaldi,  at  Rome, 
where  he  changed  from  the  Luthei'an  to 
the  Romish  faith,  in  accordance  with  the 
Emperor's  wish.  In  1611  he  retui-ned  to 
Vienna,  and  resumed  his  position  as  court 
organist.  He  relinquished  this  post  in  Oc- 
tober, 1615,  but  staid  in  Vienna  certainly  as 
late  as  September,  1619.  He  occupied  this 
post  for  a  third  time  from  April  1,  1653,  to 
June  30,  1657,  when  he  incurred  the  Em- 
peror's displeasure  (how,  is  not  known)  and 
was  discharged  in  disgrace.  He  then  en- 
tered the  service  of  Sybilla,  Dowager  Duch- 
ess of  Wiirtemberg,  as  teacher  and  music 
director,  and  passed  the  last  years  of  his  life 
at  her  home  at  Hericourt,  much  beloved 
and  revered  by  his  pupil  and  patroness.  He 
died  suddenly  of  a  stroke  of  apoplexy  while 
at  evening  prayers,  and  was  buried.  May 
10,  in  the  church  at  Bavilliers  (Haut-Rhin). 
The  monument  erected  over  his  tomb  by 


101 


FEOM 


Sybilla  was  destrojecl  during  the  French '  in  Stuttgart.  This,  and  another  edition, 
Revolution.  Besides  these  absolutely  known  dated  171-1,  are  printed  from  the  same 
facts  of  Froberger's  life,  his  visits  to  Paris,  '  plates  as  the  first,  but  bear  different  titles. 
Dresden,  and  London  may  be  accounted  as  No  copy  of  the  edition  of  1714  is  known  to 
more  than  probable.  In  Paris  he  caught  exist.)  2.  Diverse.  .  .  .  etc..  Prima  con- 
the  ornamented  lute-style  of  Galot  and  Gau-  tinuazione  .  .  .  Mogont.,  1696.  3.  Suites 
tier  and  apislied  it  to  the  clavecin,  which  de  Clavecin,  par  Giacomo  Froberger,  2me 
proves  that  the  accepted  legend  which  credits  edition  ;  Amsterdam  :  Roger.  (A  copy  is  in 
Couperin  (1668-1733)  with  originating  the  the  Berlin  Librarj*. )  Several  volumes  of  au- 
ornameuted  clavecin-stjde  is 
false,  for  the  so-called  French 
agroments  are  found  jjlenti- 
fully  in  Froberger's  clavecin 
works.  Liternal  evidence  goes 
to  jjlace  the  date  of  his  -N-isit  to 
Paris  before  his  return  from  Rome  to  Vienna  I  tograpli  MS.,  dated  1649  and  1656,  are  in 
in  1637.  His  visit  to  Dresden  was  probablj'  the  Berlin  Library  ;  four  volumes  do.,  in 
between  1646  and  1657.  The  date  of  his  visit  the  Vienna  Hofbibliothek. — Anibros,  iv. 
to  Loudon  is  set  at  1662  by  Dr.  Franz  Geh-  4G3  ;  Edmund  Schebek,  Zwei  Briefe  fiber 
ring  in  Grove's  Dictionary,  relying  upon  J.  J.  Froberger,     .     .     .     (Prague,  1874) ; 


zfto    JOl 


'auoTiw 


Mattheson,  but  Ambros  suspects  that  this 
date  should  be  earlier,  before  Froberger's 
final  depai'ture  from  Vienna  in  1657.  That 
Froberger  went  to  Mainz  after  quitting  Vi- 
enna, as  asserted  by  Gerber,  is  more  than 
doubtful.  Froberger  was  the  first  of  the 
great  German  organists  and  clavecinists. 
He  brought  the  grand  Italian  style  of  or- 
gan writing,  which,  first  developed  by 
Claudio  Merulo  (1533-1604),  culminated  iu 
Frescobaldi  (1588  — ?),  to  Germany,  and 
was  thus  the  real  father  of  the  great  Ger- 
man organ  school,  the  precursor  of  Pachel- 
bel,  Buxtehudc,  and  the  other  immediate 
predecessors  of  Sebastian  Bach.  His  style, 
if  somewhat  less  grand  than  that  of  his 
master  Frescobaldi,  was  more  easily  grace- 
ful and  elegant.  Ambros  calls  him  the 
earliest  salon-composer.  None  of  his  works 
were  published  during  his  lifetime.  Those 
published  since  are  :  1.  Diverse  ingegnosis- 
sime  e  rarissime  Partite  di  Toccate,  Canzoni, 
Ricercari  .  .  .  Stampate  da  Ludovico 
Bourgeat  .  .  .  Mogont.,  1693.  (Two 
copies,  one  with  Italian,  the  other  with  Ger- 
man title,  are  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  F. 
Gehring  in  Vienna.  A  copy  of  a  reprint, 
1695,  is  in  the  possession  of  Prof  Im.  Faisst 


Samml.  mus.  Vortriige,  v.  357. 

FROM  LOVE  UNBOUNDED.  See  "  Aus 
Liebe,  nur  aus  Liebe,"  in  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach's  Passion  nach  Matthiius. 

FROINIM,  EMIL,  born  at  Spremberg, 
Nether  Lusatia,  Jan.  29,  1835,  still  living, 
1889.  Organist,  pupil  of  A.  W.  Bach,  Grell, 
and  Schneider,  at  the  Royal  Institute  for 
Church  Music  in  Berlin,  became  cantor  at 
Cottbus  in  1859,  received  the  title  of  royal 
director  of  music  iu  1866,  and  went  to 
Flensburg  as  organist  of  St.  Nicholas's  in 
1869.  "Works:  Die  Kreuzigungdes  Herrn, 
oratorio  ;  Two  Passion  cantatas  ;  Organ  mu- 
sic, and  songs. — Mendek 

FROM  anOHTY  KINGS,  soprano  air  in 
A  major,  in  Handel's  Judas  Maccabeus, 
Part  n. 

FROM  THE  VALLEYS  AND  HILLS. 
See  Bohemian  Girl. 

FROST,  CHARLES  JOSEPH,  born  at 
Westbury-on-Trim,  near  Clifton,  England, 
June  20,  1848,  still  living,  1889.  Organist, 
pujjil  of  his  father,  who  was  organist  at 
Tewkesbury  from  1849,  of  George  Cooper, 
Steggall,  and  Sir  John  Goss ;  was  organist 
successively  at  different  places  from  1865  to 
1884,  when   he   succeeded   Henry   Robert 


FEOYO 


Gadsby  at  St.  Peter's,  Brockley,  Surrey,  a 
position  which  he  still  holds.  He  has  been 
also   professor   of   the 


organ  at  GuOdhall 
School  of  Music  since 
1880.  Mus.Bac.,  Cam- 
bridge, 18  7  7;  Mus. 
Doc, ib.,  1882.  Works: 
Nathan's  Parable,  ora- 
torio, 1878  ;  Harvest 
cantata,  1880  ;  By  the 
Waters  of  Babylon,  can- 
tata, 187G ;  Services ; 
Anthems ;  Te  Deum ;  Symphony  for  orches- 
tra, 1878  ;  Evening  Service  in  D,  1883  ;  The 
Gypsies,  chorus,  1888;  Organ  music,  and 
songs. 

FROVO,  JOAO  AliVAEEZ,  born  in  Lis- 
bon, Nov.  IG,  1G08,  died  in  January,  1G82.  ' 
Mestre  de  capella  to  Dom  Joao  IV.,  and  of 
the  Cathedral  of  Lisbon,  and  hbrarian  of 
the  royal  musical  library.  He  composed 
hymns,  masses,  motets,  etc.,  preserved  in 
the  royal  library  of  Portugal,  and  wrote  sev- 
eral theoretical  works. — Fetis  ;  Vascoucel- 
los,  Mus.  Portug.,  i.  113  ;  Mendel. 

FRUH,  ARMIN  LEBERECHT,  born  at 
Muhlhausen,  Bavaria,  Sept.  1.5,  1820,  still 
living,  1889.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Dehu  in  Berlin,  where  he  settled  to  teach 
vocal  music.  In  1857  he  invented  an  appa- 
ratus, called  by  him  Semeio-Melodicon,  to 
facilitate  elementary  musical  instruction,  by 
introducing  the  notes  to  sight  and  hearing 
simultaneously.  Having  travelled  and  se- 
cured approvals  for  his  invention  from  such 
authorities  as  Fctis,  Moscheles,  Stephen 
Heller,  Auber,  Halcvy,  Dreyschock,  the 
Paris  Conservatoire,  etc.,  he  settled  in  1858 
in  Dresden,  to  establish  a  factory,  but 
failed  in  his  enterprise.  Works — Operas  : 
Die  Bergknappen  ;  Die  beiden  Figaro  ;  Der 
Stern  von  Grenada  ;  Nachtigall  und  Savoy- 
arde  ;  A  symphony,  and  songs. — Mendel. 

FRUHLINGS-BOTSCH.\FT  (Spring's 
Message),  cantata  (Conzertstiick)  for  chorus 
and  orchestra,  by  Niels  Wilhelm  Gade,  op. 
35.     Breilkopf  and  Hiirtel  (Leipsic). 


FRtJHLINGSKLANGE  (Sounds  of 
Spring),  symphony  No.  8,  in  A,  for  orches- 
tra, by  Joachim  Raff,  op.  205,  first  per- 
formed, 1878. 

FRUHLINGSPHANTASIE  (Spring  Fan- 
tasy), cantata  (Conzertstiick)  for  four  solo 
voices,  orchestra,  and  pianoforte,  by  Niels 
Wilhelm  Gade,  op.  23,  written  in  1850. 
Subject,  a  poem  by  Edmund  Lobedanz, 
translated  into  English  by  Mrs.  Van  der 
Weyde,  for  the  performance  of  the  work  in 
London,  1878,  under  the  direction  of  von 
Biilow. — Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  146. 

FRY,  WILLIAM  HENRY,  born,  of  Amer- 
ican parentage,  in  Philadelphia,  Pennsyl- 
vania, Aug.  10,  1815,  died  in  Santa  Cruz, 
West  Indies,  Dee.  21,  18G4.  About  1835 
he  went  through  a  course  of  musical  in- 
struction in  the  United  States,  and  wrote 
four  orchestral  overtures  which  were  pub- 
licly performed ;  in  1845  he  produced  an 
English  opera  entitled  Leonora,  which  was 
given  in  Philadelj)hia,  and  later  in  New 
York.  In  1846  he  went  to  Europe  as 
regular  correspondent  of  the  New  York 
Tribune,  and  on  his  return  to  New  York, 
in  1852,  he  became  its  musical  editor.  He 
wrote  the  music  to  an  ode  for  the  opening 
of  the  New  York  Industrial  Exhibition  of 
1853,  and  about  this  time  delivered  a 
course  of  ten  lectures  on  the  history  of 
music,  illustrated  by  performances  of  com- 
positions, among  them  two  of  his  own  sym- 
phonies. The  Breaking  Heart,  and  A  Day  in 
the  Country.  A  second  opera,  Notre  Dame 
de  Paris,  was  produced  at  the  Academy  of 
Music,  Philadelphia,  in  April,  18G4.  Be- 
sides those  mentioned,  bis  principal  works 
are  a  set  of  symphonies,  performed  by 
JuUien's  orchestra  in  New  York ;  Stabat 
Mater,  1854 ;  Violin  quartets,  1855  ;  Can- 
tatas ;  Songs,  etc. 

FUCHS,  ALBERT,  born  at  Basel,  Aug. 
6,  1858,  still  living,  1889.  Instrumental 
and  vocal  composer,  pupil  at  the  Conserva- 
torium,  Leipsic  (1876-79),  became  music 
director  at  Treves  in  1880,  and  settled  at 
Oberlossnitz,  near  Dresden,  in  1883.     He 


-103 


FUCIIS 


Las  composed  Hungarian  suites  for  orches- 
tra, pianoforte  jiieces,  and  songs. — Eie- 
manu. 

FUCHS,  FERDINAND  KAKL,  born  in 
Vienna,  Feb.  11,  1811,  died  there,  Jan.  7, 
1848.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  the 
Conservatorium,  Vienna,  where  he  soon  be- 
came popular  through  his  numerous  songs. 
His  operas,  Gutteuberg,  and  Der  Tag  der 
Verlobung,  given  1842,  show  many  pleasing 
featiu'es,  but  lack  originalitj-.  A  third  op- 
era. Die  Studenten  von  Salamanca,  was  not 
given. — Wiener  allgem.  Musikzeitg.  (1846), 
Nos.  41,  42  ;  (1848),  11-17,  19-23  ;  Wurz- 
bach. 

FUCHS,  GEORG  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Mainz,  Dec.  3,  1752,  died  iu  Paris,  Oct.  9, 
1821.  Instrumental  composer,  pupil  of 
Cannabich  at  Mannheim,  became  military 
music  dii'ector  at  Zweibriicken,  whence  he 
went  to  Paris  in  1784.  At  the  foundation 
of  the  Conservatoire  he  was  appointed  one 
of  the  teachers  to  form  the  musicians  for 
the  armies  of  the  French  Republic.  Works  : 
Mai'ches  for  military  band  ;  Concertos  for 
flute,  clarinet,  and  horn  ;  Quartets,  trios,  and 
duos  for  wiud  instruments ;  Six  quartets 
for  strings. — -Fctis  ;  Gerber  ;  Meudel ;  Schil- 
ling. 

FUCHS,  JOHANN  (NEPOMUK),  born 
iu  Vienna,  June  29,  17G0,  died  at  Eisen- 
stadt,  Hungary,  Oct.  29,  1839.  Dramatic 
and  church  composei",  pupil  and  great  fa- 
vourite of  Haydn,  whom  he  succeeded  as 
conductor  of  Prince  Eszterhazy's  famous 
orchestra.  He  numbers  among  the  best 
church  composers  of  his  time.  His  complete 
works  are  in  the  princely  archives  at  Eisen- 
stadt,  and  consist  of  20  operas,  3  operettas, 
1  cantata,  28  masses,  51  oifertories  and  grad- 
uals,  31  litanies  and  vespers,  62  Salve  Regina, 
Ave,  etc.,  and  hymns,  1  Te  Deum,  2  over- 
tures for  orchestra,  1  nonet,  1  octet,  1  quar- 
tet, 3  trios,  and  15  quartets  for  male  voices. 
— Theaterzeitung  (Vienna,  1840),  688  ; 
Wurzbaeh. 

FUCHS,  JOHANN  NEPOMUK,  born 
at  Frauenthal,  Styria,  May  5,  1842,  still  liv- 


ing, 1889.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Sechter  in  Vienna,  became  opera-Kapell- 
meister at  Presburg  in  18G4,  then  acted  in 
the  same  capacity  at  difierent  theatres ;  last 
in  Cologne,  Hamburg,  and  Leipsic,  and  since 
1880  at  the  imperial  opera,  Vienna.  His 
opera  Zingara  was  given  at  Briinn,  Moravia, 
1872  ;  he  wrote  additional  accompaniments 
to  Handel's  Almira  for  representation  at 
Hamburg,  and  revised  Schubert's  Alfonso 
und  Estrella,  and  Gluck's  Der  betrogene 
Kadi,  for  Vienna.  His  brother  Robert 
(born,  Feb.  15,  1847),  pupil  at  the  Conser- 
vatorium, Vienna,  where  he  teaches  har- 
mony, has  published  a  symphony,  oji.  37,  a 
quartet,  a  trio,  3  serenades,  2  sonatas  for 
violin,  sonata  for  pianoforte,  several  varia- 
tions, etc. — Eiemaun. 

FUCHS,  PETER,  born  in  Bohemia  about 
1750,  died  iu  Vienna,  1804.  Violin  virtu- 
oso, studied  in  Prague,  where  he  enjoyed 
considerable  reputation  as  earlj'  as  1768  ; 
then  went  to  Hungary.  Iu  1794  he  was  ap- 
pointed violinist  in  the  imperial  chapel  iu 
Vienna.  He  published  a  concerto  for  vio- 
lin, sonatas  for  violin  and  violoncello,  and 
variations  for  violin. — Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FUENTES,  Don  PASQUALE,  born  at 
Albayda,  Valencia,  early  part  of  the  18th 
century,  died,  April  26,  1768.  Church  com- 
poser, one  of  the  best  of  the  Valencian 
school.  He  was  maestro  de  capilla  of  the 
Church  of  S.  Andres  and  in  1757  of  the  Ca- 
thedral of  Valencia.  "Works  :  Masses  ;  Te 
Deums  ;  Motets  for  6  to  12  voices  ;  Vilhan- 
cicos  with  orchestral  accompaniment. — Fo- 
tis  ;  Meudel ;  Viotta. 

FUETSCH,  JOACHIM  JOSEF,  born  at 
Salzbm-g,  Aug.  12,  1766,  died  (?).  Violon- 
cellist, self-taught,  afterwards  pupil  of  Luigi 
Zardonati,  who  came  for  a  year  especially 
for  this  purpose  from  Verona,  engaged  by 
the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg,  whose  court 
violoncellist  Fuetsch  had  become.  With 
Luigi  Gatti  he  studied  thorough  bass,  and 
with  Michael  Haydn  composition.  Before 
taking  up  the  violoncello  he  had  been  in- 
structed on  the  violin  by  Hafeneder  and 


104 


FtJHEEE 


Leopold  Mozart.  He  composed  concertos, 
sonatas,  solos,  etc.,  for  violoncello,  also  for 
violonceUo  and  bass,  and  published  three 
and  foui--part  songs  for  male  voices. — Fotis  ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Wiirzbach. 

FUHKEE,  ROBERT,  born  at  Prague, 
June  2,  1807,  died  in  Vienna,  Nov.  28, 
18G1.  Organist,  pupil  of  Witasek,  was  at 
first  organist  at  Strahow,  appointed  princi- 
jial  instructor  at  the  organists'  school  in 
Prague,  1830,  and  organist  of  the  cathedral, 
1839.  His  irregular  life  caused  the  loss  of 
his  position  in  1845,  after  which  he  lived  in 
Salzburg,  Bavaria,  and  UiJper  Austria,  ob- 
taining an  appointment  as  organist  at 
Gmunden  and  Ischl  in  1857,  which  he  did 
not  keep  long.  He  finally  settled  in  Vienna, 
where  he  died  in  the  hospital.  Works : 
Twenty  masses,  and  other  church  music ; 
Preludes,  fugues,  etc.,  for  the  organ  ;  Sev- 
eral theoretical  works  about  the  organ. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Mendel ;  Wurzbach. 

FUITE  EN  EGYPTE,  LA.  See  Enfance 
du  Christ. 

FUMAGALLI,  ADOLFO,  born  at  In- 
zago,  near  Milan,  Oct.  19,  1828,  died  in 
Florence,  May  3,  185G.  Pianist,  pupil,  at 
the  Milan  Conservatorio,  of  Angeleri.  He 
gave  his  first  concerts  iu  Milan  in  1848, 
then  visited  Turin  and  Paris,  travelled  in 
Belgium  in  1854,  and  afterwards  played  in 
many  Italian  cities.  Works  :  Fantasia  on  I 
Puritani  (Milan),  Grande  fantaisie  de  concert 
on  the  same  ;  Others  on  La  Favorite,  Lucia, 
Norma,  etc.  Caprices,  tarantellas,  marches, 
etc.  ;  Concerte  fantastique  with  orchestra, 
entitled  Les  clochettes. — Fetis  ;  Filippi, 
Delia  vita  e  delle  opere  di  Ad.  F.  (Milan)  ; 
Mendel  ;  Wurzbach. 

FUin,  VINCESLAO,  born  at  Montepul- 
ciano,  Italy,  Oct.  30,  1826,  died  at  Florence, 
Nov.  20,  1880.  Dramatic  and  instrumental 
composer,  pupil  of  Giorgetti  at  Florence  ; 
was  maestro  di  cappella  to  the  operatic 
stages  of  different  Italian  cities,  and  in  Con- 
stantinople, Rio  de  Janeiro,  Buenos  Ayres, 
and  Montevideo,  and  returned  afterwards  to 
Florence.     Works :   Atala,  opera,  given  at 


Buenos  Ayres,  1852  ;  Several  compositions 
for  orchestra. — Riemann. 

FUNERAL  ANTHEM,  music  by  Handel, 
composed  for  and  performed  at  the  funeral 
of  Queen  Caroline,  in  the  Chapel  of  Henry 
VH.,  Westminster  Abbey,  Dec.  17,  1737. 
The  score,  in  Buckingham  Palace,  is  headed  : 
"  The  Anthem  for  the  Queens  Carolines  Fu- 
neral," and  is  dated  Dec.  12,  1737.  The 
text,  from  Psalms,  was  probably  selected  by 
the  composer  himself.  Though  the  score 
occujiies,  in  its  published  form,  about 
eighty  pages,  it  was  written  within  five 
days.  It  was  given  by  eighty  singers  and 
one  hundred  instrumental  pi^i'^oi'i^si'^- 
First  j^rinted  by  Walsh  ;  full  score,  Hilndel^ 
gesellschaft  (Leij^sic,  1861). — Schcelcher, 
Handel,  192  ;  Rockstro,  206 ;  Chrysander, 
ii.  436. 

FUOR  DI  PERIGLIO,  duet  for  soprano 
and  tenor  (Rossaue  and  Timante)  in  F  ma- 
jor, with  accompaniment  of  2  flutes,  2  oboes, 
2  bassoons,  strings  complete,  and  cembalo, 
in  Handel's  Floridante,  Act  ii.  Published 
with  additional  accompaniments  by  Robert 
Franz,  Leipsic,  Kistner. 

FURCHTE  DICH  NICHT,  chorus  in 
Mendelssohn's  Elias,  Part  H. 

FURIBONDO  SPIRA  IL  VENTO,  con- 
tralto aria  of  Arsace,  in  E  minor,  with  ac- 
companiment of  violins  iu  unison,  and  bass, 
iu  Handel's  Farlenope,  Act  iii.  Published 
with  additional  accompaniments  by  Robert 
Franz,  Leipsic,  Kistner. 

FURIO   CAMILLO.     See  Gamillus. 

FURLANETTO,  BONAVENTURA  (sur- 
named  Musin),  born  in  Venice,  May  27, 
1738,  died  there,  April  6,  1817.  Organist, 
educated  at  the  Jesuit  College,  Venice,  took 
orders,  and  devoted  himself  to  music.  He 
became  maestro  of  the  girls'  choir  of  La 
Pietii,  and  in  1797  maestro  di  cappella  of 
S.  Marco.  He  was  celebrated  for  his 
fugues,  and  on  his  appointment  as  maestro 
of  counterpoint  at  the  Philharmonic  Insti- 
tution of  Venice,  in  1811,  he  wrote  for  his 
pupils  a  treatise  on  fugue  and  counterpoint, 
which  still  remains  in  MS.     Works :    La 


105 


FURSTEXAU 


caduta  delle  mura  di  Gerico,  and  La  sj)osa 
de'  Saci'i  Cantici,  II  Tobia,  and  II  voto  di 
Jefte,  oratorios ;  II  S.  Giovanni  Nepomu- 
ceno,  sacred  cantata  ;  Galatea,  dramatic  can- 
tata ;  Te  Deum  ;  Dies  ii'fe ;  Psalms,  etc. 
— Caffi,  Delia  vita  e  del  comporre  tli  B. 
Furlanetto  (Venice,  1820).— F6tis ;  La- 
rousse  ;  Mendel  ;  Wurzbacb. 

rURSTENAU,  ANTON  BERNHAED, 
born  at  Miinster,  Oct.  20,  1792,  died  at 
Dresden,  Nov.  18,  1852.  Virtuoso  on  tbe 
flute,  son  and  pupil  of  Kaspar  Fiii'stenau, 
whom  be  even  surpassed.  He  ajspeared 
as  a  solo  player  wben  scarcely  seven 
years  old,  and  from  1803  travelled  exten- 
sively with  bis  fatber,  earning  everywhere 
enthusiastic  applause,  until  be  settled  at 
Dresden  in  1820  as  royal  chamber  musi- 
cian. His  last  concert  tour  was  made  with 
"Weber  to  London,  in  1826.  He  j)ublished 
about  150  works,  consisting  of  concertos, 
fantasias,  rondos,  variations,  studies,  tran- 
scriptions, duos,  trios,  quartets,  etc.,  for  the 
flute,  which  rank  high  among  compositions 
for  this  instrument. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  viii. 
214  ;  Fi'tis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

FURSTENAU,  liASPAR,  born  at  Miin- 
ster, Feb.  20,  1772,  died  at  Oldenburg, 
May  11,  1819.  Virtuoso  on  the  flute,  pupil 
of  his  father,  who  was  a  member  of  the 
bishop's  orchestra  at  Miinster,  and  of  Anton 
Romberg  ;  then  of  Josef  Franz  Antony  in 
composition.  In  1793  he  made  his  first  suc- 
cessful concert  tour  through  Germany,  and 
in  1794  became  first  flutist  in  the  court  or- 
chestra at  Oldenburg.  When  the  latter  was 
disbanded,  in  1811,  he  set  out  on  extensive 
travels  with  his  son  Beruhard,  on  which 
both  acquired  world  wide  reputation.  Of 
his  numerous  compositions  about  60  works 
are  known,  consisting  of  concertos,  fan- 
tiisias,  rondos,  variations,  pot-pourris,  etc. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  viii.  215  ;  Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

FUSS,  JOHANN  EVANGELIST,  born 
at  Tolna,  Hungary,  in  1777,  died  in  Vienna, 
March  9,  1819.  Dramatic  and  church  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Albrechtsberger  in  Vienna,  { 


whither  he  went  after  having  occupied  a  po- 
sition as  music  master  at  Presburg,  where 
he  brought  out  also  a  duodrama,  Pyramus 
und  Thysbe.  His  compositions  in  Vienna 
aroused  the  interest  of  Haydn,  who  assisted 
him  with  advice.  Recalled  to  Presburg  as 
Kapellmeister  at  the  theatre,  he  proved  him- 
self a  skilful  conductor  and  considerably 
raised  the  standard  of  the  ojjera  there,  but 
finally  chose  Vienna  for  his  permanent  resi- 
dence. Of  his  works,  the  following  were 
published  :  Quartets  and  trios  for  wind  in- 
struments ;  Duos  for  pianoforte  and  violin  ; 
Sonatas  for  pianoforte  (2  and  4  hands)  ; 
Rondos,  variations,  and  dances  for  piano- 
forte ;  Songs.  Besides  these  are  known  a 
mass  and  other  church  music  ;  an  overture 
to  Schiller's  Braut  von  Messina  ;  the  duo- 
dramas  :  "Watwort,  Isaak,  Judith,  Jacob  und 
Rahel  ;  the  operetta,  Der  Kiifig  ;  Pandorens 
Biichse,  a  parody  ;  Melodramas  with  cho- 
ruses, and  cantatas. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Wurzbacb. 

FUX,  JOIL\NN  JOSEPH,  born  at  Hir- 
tenfeld,  near  Gratz,  Styria,  in  1060,  died  in 
Vienna,  Feb.  13,  1741.  He  was  appointed 
organist  of  the  Schottenkirche,  Vienna,  in 
1696,  and  in  1698  the  Emi)eror  Leopold  I. 
made  him  court  comi^oser ;  he  became 
Kapellmeister  to  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Ste- 
phen in  1705,  vice-Kapellmeister  to  the  impe- 
rial court  in  1713,  and  at  the  same  time  Ka- 
pellmeister to  the  Dowager  Empress  "Wil- 
helmine  Amalie.  On  the  death  of  Ziaui, 
in  1715,  he  was  made  chief  Kajjellmeister 
to  the  court,  the  highest  ofiice  then  open  to 
a  musician.  Many  mai'ks  of  imperial  favour 
were  bestowed  upon  him.  He  dedicated 
his  first  work  to  Archduke,  afterwards  Em- 
peror, Josejjh  I.,  and  his  Gi'adus  ad  Par- 
nassum  to  the  Emperor  Charles  VI.  The 
latter  monarch  had  him  brought  from  Vi- 
enna in  a  Utter,  while  suffering  from  gout, 
to  witness  the  coronation  in  Prague  in 
1723  and  to  listen  to  one  of  his  own  operas. 
In  spite  of  painful  illness  and  all  the  in- 
trigues of  court  he  kept  his  office  and  faith- 
fully performed  its  duties  until  his  death. 


IOC 


GABELLONE 


He  was  buried  at  St.  Stephen's.  Among  Lis 
best  pupils  were  Wagenseil,  Tuma,  Muflfat, 
and  Zeleuka.  He  was  a  master  of  composi- 
tion, as  understood  in  liis  time,  of  tlie  art  of 
interweaving  contrapuntal  and  fugue  forms 
in  the  way  then  admired.  His  operas  do 
not  rise  above  the  Italian  taste  of  his  day, 
but  he  is  seen  to  better  advantage  in  his 
church  music,  where  his  reverent  spirit  pre- 
vented his  abuse  of  the  polyphonic  writing 
so  easy  to  him.  It  he  had  possessed  the 
genius  of  his  younger  contemj)oraries.  Bach 
and  Handel,  to  rise  above  mere  musical 
forms,  he  would  not  have  incurred  the  ob- 
livion and  the  reputation  of  a  pedant,  which 
are  now  perhaps  unjustly  his  fate.  Works  : 
290  compositions  in  church  music,  including 
50  masses,  among  them  the  Missa  cauonica, 
a  masterpiece  ;  3  Requiems ;  2  Dies  irse  ; 
1  Domine  Jesu  Christe  ;  1  Libera  me.  Do- 
mine  ;  57  vespers  and  psalms  ;  22  litanies 
and  completoria ;  14  offertories ;  12  gradu- 
als ;  22  motets  ;  and  lOG  hymns.  Further, 
10  oratorios  in  Italian  ;  18  operas,  some 
of  which  were  :  La  clemenza  di  Auguato, 
1702  ;  La  decima  fatica  d'  Ercole,  1710 ; 
Elisa  ;  Angelica  vincitrice  d'  Alciua,  1716  ; 
Psyche,  1719  ;  Costauza  e  Fortezza,  1723  ; 
La  Corona  d'  Arianua,  1726  ;  Enea  negii 
EUsi,  1731.  Instrumental  music :  The  Con- 
centus  musico-instrumentalis,  his  opus  1 
(1701)  ;  Many  other  partitas  ;  38  sacred 
sonate  a  tre ;  Overtures ;  and  8  pieces  for 
clavier.  The  Gradus  ad  Parnassum  (Vienna, 
172.5,  also  many  later  editions  and  transla- 
tions) is  in  Latin  and  treats  of  the  theoiy 
and  practice  of  composition.  It  was  ap- 
proved of  by  Piccinni,  Martini,  and  Vogler ; 
Albrechtsberger  and  Cherubiui  followed  its 
method ;  young  Mozart  used  it  in  his  con- 


trapuntal exercises,  and  Haydn  studied  it 
again  and  again.      Altogether,  his  known 


works  number  405  ;  and  but  a  small  portion 
of  them  has  been  printed.  Most  of  them, 
either  in  autograph  or  copies,  are  in  the 
Vienna  Imperial  Library. — KOchel,  Johann 
Josef  Fux,  etc.  (Vienna,  1872) ;  Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  viii.  272  :  Fetis  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling  ;  Wurzbach. 


GABELLONE,  GASPARO,  born  at 
Naples  about  1730,  died  (?).  Church 
composer,  and  one  of  the  best  singing 
masters  of  Italy.  A  Requiem  mass  by  him 
was  a  model  of  its  kind.  The  following 
works  are  in  the  Library  of  S.  Pietro  a  Ma- 
jella,  Naples  :  Mass  for  four  voices  and  in- 
struments, original  MS.  ;  Passion  for  Good 
Friday,  1774  ;  Fugues  for  two  voices,  1783  ; 
Christus  and  Miserere  for  four  voices ;  3 
Tan  turn  ergo  ;  Cantatas  and  arias. — Fetis. 

G.iBLER,  CHRISTOPH  AUGUST,  born 
at  Muhldorf,  Voigtland,  March  15,  1767, 
died  in  St.  Petersburg,  AjH-il  1.5,  1839. 
Studied  theology,  acted  as  secretary  to  a 
nobleman,  and  then  pursued  the  study  of 
law  and  music  together  in  Leipsic.  He  was 
a  music  teacher  and  concert  plaj'er  in  Reval 
in  1800  and  the  same  in  St.  Petersburg 
from  1836.  Works  :  Der  Pilger  am  Jordan, 
oratorio ;  Songs  ;  Pianoforte  and  other  in- 
strumental music. — Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

GABRIEL,  (MARY  ANN)  VIRGINIA, 
born  at  Banstead,  Surrey,  England,  of  Irish 
parentage,  Feb.  7,  1825,  died  in  London, 
Aug.  7,  1877.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil 
on  the  pianoforte  of  Pixis,  Dohler,  and 
Thalberg,  and  in  harmony  and  construction 
of  Molique.  She  married  in  1874  George 
E.  March,  the  author  of  most  of  her  librettos. 
Her  death  was  the 
result  of  a  carriage 
accident.  Works — 
Operettas  :  The 
Widows  Bewitched, 
given  in  London, 
1867  ;  The  Grass  Widows  ;  The  Shepherd 
of  Cornouailles  ;  Who's  the  Heir  ?  ;  A  Rainy 


107 


GABEIELI 


Day.  Cantatas  ;  Dreamland,  1870  ;  Grazi- 
ella  ;  Evangeline,  1873.  Many  songs,  some 
of  whicli  were  popular. — Grove  ;  Brown. 

GABRIELI,  ANDEEA,  born  in  the  Cana- 
reggio  quarter  (whence  called  also  Andrea 
da  Canareggio,  or  da  Canareio)  of  Venice 
about  1510,  died  in  Venice,  1.5SG.  Born  of 
one  of  the  oldest  and  most  distinguished 
families  in  Venice,  he  studied  composition 
under  Adrien  Willaert.  In  153G  he  entered 
the  choir  of  St.  Mark's;  in  1558  he  was,  to- 
gether with  Zarlino,  elected  member  of  the 
Accademia  della  Fama  ;  in  1566  he  suc- 
ceeded Claudio  Merulo  as  second  organist 
at  St.  Mark's,  and  again  as  first  organist  in 
1584.  In  1574  the  Republic  commissioned 
him  to  write  the  music  given  at  the  recep- 
tion of  Henri  III.  of  France.  Although  his 
fame  has  been  somewhat  overshadowed  by 
that  of  his  nephew  Giovanni,  he  was  one  of 
the  glories  of  the  great  Venetian  contrapun- 
tal school.  Noted  as  an  organist  and  organ 
writer  during  bis  lifetime,  his  greatest  fame 
rests  upon  his  choral  works — masses,  mo- 
tets, and  madrigals.  He  was  the  first  con- 
trapuntist to  write  a  real  fugue,  which  form 
was  afterwards  developed  into  the  tonal 
fugue  by  Frescobaldi.  He  was  also  noted 
as  a  teacher  ;  Giovanni  Gabrieli,  Hans  Leo 
Hassler,  and  Jan  Pieter  Swelinck  were 
among  his  pupils.  He  himself  accounted 
his  Psalmi  Davidici,  qui  ^Jcenitentiales  nun- 
cupantur  (Venice,  1583)  his  greatest  work. 
His  Psalm  Ixv.,  Deus  misereatur,  for  three 
choruses,  far  surpassed  anything  of  the  sort 
that  had  been  written  up  to  his  time. — Am- 
bros,  iii.  523. 

GABRIELI,  DOMENICO,  surnamed 
Meughino  del  violoncello,  born  at  Bologna 
about  1640,  died  there  about  1G90.  Dra- 
matic composer  and  virtuoso  on  the  violon- 
cello ;  was  at  first  connected  with  the  Church 
of  S.  Petronio  in  his  native  city,  and  after- 
wards in  the  service  of  Cardinal  Panfili, 
grand  prior  of  Rome.  Member  of  the  Ac- 
cademia Filarmouica,  1676 ;  principe,  1683. 
Works  :  Cleobulo,  given  at  Bologna,  Teatro 
Formagliari,  1683  ;  Gige  in  Lidia,  ib.,  1683  ; 


Clearco  in  Negroponte,  Venice,  1685  ;  Ro- 
doaldo,  re  d'  Italia,  ib.,  Teatro  San  Mosti, 
1685  ;  Teodora  Augusta,  ib.,  Teatro  S.  Sal- 
vadore,  1685  ;  Maurizio,  ib.,  1687  ;  Gordi- 
ano,  ib.,  1688  ;  Le  geuerose  gare  tra  Cesare 
e  Pompeo,  Venice,  1686  ;  Carlo  il  Grande, 
ib.,  1688  ;  Cantate  a  voce  sola  (Bologna, 
1691) ;  VexiUum  pacis,  motet  for  contralto 
with  instruments  (ib.,  1695)  ;  Balletti,  gighe, 
correnti,  e  sarabande,  for  two  violins  and 
violoncello,  with  basso  continuo  (ib.,  1703). 
— Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

GABRIELI,  GIOVANNI,  born  in  Venice, 
1557,  died  there,  Aug.  12,  1G12  (1613?). 
Church  composer  and  organist,  nephew 
and  pupil  of  Andrea  Gabrieli,  acquired  con- 
siderable reputation  early  in  life,  and  in 
1585  succeeded  Claudio  Merulo  as  first  or- 
ganist at  San  Marco.  Like  his  uncle,  he 
entertained  a  lively  intercourse  Avith  the 
German  masters  of  his  period,  and  was  es- 
pecially allied  in  close  friendship  with 
his  famous  co-disciple,  Hans  Leo  Hassler. 
Among  his  patrons  in  Germany,  where  he 
was  the  most  esteemed  of  foreign  masters, 
were  Duke  Albrecht  V.  of  Bavai-ia  and  his 
sons,  and  the  Counts  of  Fugger  at  Augs- 
burg. As  a  te.acher  he  was  sought  fai-  and 
wide  ;  his  most  renowned  pupil  was  Heiu- 
rich  Schiitz,  who  spent  four  years  in  Venice, 
sent  there  by  the  Elector  Maurice  of  Sax- 
ony. Together  with  Palestriua  and  Orlando 
Lasso,  Giovanni  Gabrieli  represents  the 
culminating  glory  of  the  strict  contrapun- 
tal schools  of  the  IGth  century  ;  he  was  in- 
disputably the  greatest  genius  of  the  Vene- 
tian school.  Unlike  Palestrina,  who  always 
wrote  strictly  a  cappella,  Gabrieli  often  in- 
troduced instrumental  parts  in  his  great 
choral  works,  although  a  cappella  writing, 
often  for  two  or  three  choruses,  was  still 
his  habitual  style.  But  these  instrumental 
parts  did  not,  in  any  sense,  form  an  accom- 
paniment to  the  voices  ;  his  treatment  of 
them  was  totally  different  from  that  whicli 
we  find  in  the  stilo  concertante  which  sprang 
up  later,  during  the  decline  of  the  "great" 
Roman  school.     His  choice  of  instiiimeuts, 


GABEIELLI 


too,  bears  no  relation  to  even  the  most  ru- 
dimentary form  of  the  orchestra.  If  he  falls 
somewhat  behind  Palestriua  in  perfection 
of  formal  beauty,  he  equals  him  in  sublim- 
ity, and  often  siirj)asses  him  in  wealth  of 
colouring.  The  twelve-voice  Benedictus,  in 
Rochlitz  (i.  34),  is  a  masterpiece  of  its  kind. 
Works :  Psalmi  poeuitentiales  6  vocum 
(1583)  ;  Madrigali  a  6  voci  o  istromenti 
(1585) ;  Madrigali  e  ricercari  a  4  voci  (1587) ; 
Ecclesiastics  cantioues  4-0  vocum  (1589)  ; 
Sacrse  symphoniae,  for  6-16  voices  or  instru- 
ments (1597)  ;  do.,  2d  book,  for  G-19  voices 
(1615)  ;  Canzoni  e  souate  a  3-32  voci  (1615). 
Single  pieces  are  published  in  almost  all 
collections  of  the  time  up  to  1620. — Wiuter- 
feld,  Johannes  Gabrieli  und  sein  Zeitalter 
(Berlin,  1834)  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 
-GABEIELLI,  Conte  NICOLO,  born  at 
Naples,  Feb.  21,  1814,  still  living,  1889. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupiil  of  Busti  in  sing- 
ing and  of  Ziugarelli  and  Donizetti  in  com- 
position. He  settled  in  Paris  in  1854.  He 
has  brought  out  22  oj^eras  and  written  60 
ballets,  all  showing  more  facility  than  merit. 
They  were  given  at  the  Teatro  Nuovo,  and 
Teatro  San  Carlo,  Naples,  in  1835-47,  and 
a  few  in  Paris,  and  were  mostly  unsuccessful. 
— Fetis,  iii.  369 ;  do.,  SuppK-meut,  i.  354  ; 
Mendel,  iv.  99  ;  do.,  Ergimz.,  115  ;  Vape- 
reau,  Contemporaius. 

GABRIELSia,  JOH.\NN  WTLHELM, 
born  in  Berlin,  May  27,  1791,  died  there, 
Sept.  18,  1846.  Flutist,  pupil  of  the  artil- 
lery caj^tain  Vogel,  and  of  the  chamber  mu- 
sician A.  Schrock  ;  appeared  in  public  in 
1810,  obtained  an  engagement  at  the  the- 
atre in  Stettin,  1814,  and  became  royal 
chamber  musician  in  Berlin  in  1816,  when 
he  studied  theory  and  composition  under 
Giirrlich,  Seidel,  and  Birnbach.  He  made 
concert  tours  in  North  Germany  from  1812, 
and  to  Warsaw  in  1822.  He  composed  con- 
certos, solos,  duos,  trios,  and  quartets  for 
his  instrument,  besides  some  songs.  His 
brother  and  pupil  Julius  (1806-78),  was  also 
a  noted  virtuoso  on  the  flute,  and  composer. 
— Fctis ;  Mendel, 


GABUSSI,  VINCENZO,  born  in  Bologna 
about  1800,  died  in  London,  Sept.  12,  1846. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Padre  Mattel. 
After  producing  his  first  opera  in  Modena, 
in  1825,  he  went  to  London  and  resided 
there  as  a  teacher  until  1840,  when  he  re- 
turned to  Italy  to  bring  out  another  opera. 
He  is  best  known  by  his  vocal  duets,  which 
are  still  sung  in  England.  Works — Operas : 
I  furbi  al  cimento,  Modena,  1825  ;  Ernani, 
Theatre  des  Italiens,  Paris,  1834  ;  Clemenza 
di  Valois,  Fenice,  Venice,  1841.  Songs  and 
part-songs  ;  Chamber  music. — Grove  ;  Fe- 
tis ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel. 

GABUZIO,  GIULIO  CESARE,  born  in 
Bologna,  first  half  of  the  10th  century, 
died  (?).  Maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Cathe- 
dral of  jMilan.  Works :  Motets  for  five  and 
six  voices  (Venice,  1586)  ;  Magnificat  and 
other  church  compositions  (Milan,  1587). 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GACES  BRULES  (Brulez),  one  of  the 
best  and  most  prolific  composers  of  chan- 
sons of  the  13th  century,  died  after  1255. 
Some  of  the  old  MSS.  give  his  name  as 
Gaste-Bk'.  Seventy-nine  of  his  chansons 
are  extant,  sixty-three  of  which  are  in  the 
National  Library,  Paris,  with  the  airs  of 
some  attached  to  them. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GADE,  NIELS  (WILHELM),  born  at 
Copenhagen,  Oct.  22, 
1817,  still  living,  1889. 
The  son  of  a  musical 
instrument  maker,  he 
early  learned  the  gui- 
tar, violin,  and  piano- 
forte ;  later  studied 
under  Wershall,  Berg- 
green,  and  Weyse,  un- 
der whom  he  began  to 
compose,  but  afterwards  looked  upon  these 
early  efibrts  as  of  little  value.  He  became 
a  violinist  in  the  royal  orchestra  at  Copen- 
hagen, and  soon  began  to  develop  that  origi- 
nal power  as  a  composer  which  has  j)laced 
him  in  the  foremost  rank  of  contemporary 
musicians.  By  the  vote  of  Spohr  and 
Schneider  his  Ossian  overtm-e  was  awarded 


109 


GADSBY 


the  prize  offered  by  the  Copenhagen  Musi- 
cal Union  in  1841.  This  was  followed  by 
his  first  symphony  in  C  minor,  the  score  of 
which  he  sent  to  Mendelssohn  at  Leij)sic, 
and  it  was  brought  out  at  the  Gewand- 
haus,  March  2,  1843,  to  general  admiration. 
This  second  brilliant  success  induced  the 
King  of  Denmark  to  allow  Gade  money  to 
•visit  the  great  musical  centres  of  Europe. 
He  went  to  Leipsic,  where  he  remained  until 
near  the  end  of  1843,  when  he  made  a  short 
trip  to  Italy,  but  soon  returned  to  Leipsic, 
as  Mendelssohn,  who  had  gone  to  Berlin, 
offered  him  the  conductorship  of  the  Ge- 
wandhaus  concerts.  Gade  filled  this  post 
during  181-1  15,  and  on  Mendelssohn's  re- 
turn continued  as  sub-conductor  under  him 
in  1845-4G.  On  March  3,  1846,  he  brought 
out  his  cantata  of  Comala.  After  Mendels- 
sohn's death  (Nov.  4,  1847),  Gade  resumed 
his  functions  as  conductor  in  chief,  contin- 
uing until  1848,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
Julius  Rietz.  He  then  returned  to  Coisen- 
hagen,  where  he  has  remained  ever  since, 
excepting  a  short  visit  to  England  in  1876, 
to  conduct  his  Crusaders  and  Zion  at  the 
Birmingham  Festival.  On  his  return  to 
Copenhagen  he  accepted  a  post  as  organist, 
and  was  made  conductor  of  the  Musical 
Union.  In  1861  he  succeeded  Glaeser,  de- 
ceased, as  coui-t  conductor.  Besides  the  ex- 
ercise of  his  official  functions,  he  has  de- 
voted his  time  wholly  to  composition  and 
teaching.  As  a  composer  Gade  stands  in 
a  manner  by  himself ;  if  the  cut  of  his  mel- 
odies (in  spite  of  their  distinctly  Northern 
character)  and  the  general  phj'sioguomy  of 
his  style  resemble  Mendelssohn,  and  he 
tends  somewhat  in  Schumann's  direction  by 
his  romanticism,  he  never  attained  either 
to  the  complete  mastery  of  form  and  organic 
musical  development  of  the  former  nor  to 
the  intensity  of  expression  and  depth  of 
thought  of  the  latter.  His  resemblance  to 
Mendelssohn  is,  after  aU,  superficial.  His 
striking  merits  are  clearness,  simplicity, 
warmth  and  grace  of  expression,  and  a 
never-failing  sense  of  beauty.     His  themes, 


as  well  as  his  harmony,  bear  the  unmistak- 
able stamj)  of  his  Scandinavian  associations, 
but  he  never  forces  the  "  national  "  element 
to  the  point  of  eccentricity.  In  his  earlier 
period  his  genius  gave  evidence  of  the  most 
brilliant  originality,  but  he  has  not  wholly 
kept  the  promise  of  his  youth,  and  among 
his  later  works  one  looks  in  vain  for  that 
divine  spark  which  gave  life  to  his  first  sym- 
phony (which  was  at  one  time  looked  ujjou 
as  an  epoch-making  work)  and  his  earlier 
overtures.  In  1886  he  was  made  Com- 
mander of  the  Order  of  Dauebrog.  Works  : 
8  symphonies,  in  C  minor,  oj).  5,  E,  op.  10, 
A  minor,  op.  15,  B-flat,  op.  20,  D  minor 
(with  jiianoforte),  op.  25,  G  minor,  op.  32, 
F,  oj).  45,  and  B  minor,  op.  47  ;  5  over- 
tures :  Nachkiange  von  Ossiau,  Im  Hoch- 
land,  op.  7,  Overture  in  C,  op.  14,  Hamlet, 
op.  37,  Michelangelo,  op.  39  ;  Novelletten,  4 
pieces  for  string  orchestra,  op.  53  ;  Octet 
for  strings,  op.  17  ;  Sextet  for  do. ;  Quartet 
for  do.  ;  Pianoforte  trio,  op.  42  ;  3  sonatas 
for  violin.  No.  2,  op.  21,  No.  3,  op.  59 ;  8 
cantatas  :  Comala,  op.  12,  Friihlings-FlmiiX- 
tasie,  op.  23,  ErlkOnigs  Tochter  (Elverskud), 
op.    30,    Friihlings-'BoisQkii.ii,  op.    35,    Die 


Heilige  Nacht,  op.  40,  Die  Kreuzfahrer,  op. 
50,  Zion,  op.  49,  Psyche,  op.  60  ;  Sommertag 
auf  dem  Lande,  5  pieces  for  orchestra,  op. 

55  ;  Concerto  for  violin  and  orchestra,  op. 

56  ;  Holbergiana,  suite  for  orchestra,  op. 
61  ;  Volkstilnze,  for  violin,  with  pianoforte, 
op.  62  ;  Sonata,  Aquarelles,  Folk-dances, 
Northern  Tone-pictures,  and  many  other  solo 
works  for  pianoforte  ;  Choruses  for  male  and 
mixed  voices;  German  and  Scandinavian 
songs.— Ulustr.  Zeitg.  (1872),  i.  288  ;  Men- 
del ;  Riemann. 

GADSBY,  HENRY  ROBERT,  born  in 
London,  Dec.  15,  1842,  still  living,  1889. 
Pianist,  son  of  a  musician,  principally  self- 


no 


GAEBLER 


taught.  He  was  a  member  of  the  choir 
of  St,  Paul's  in  1849-58  ;  organist  of  St.  Pe- 
ter's, Broekley,  Surrey, 
till  1884:  ;  professor 
at  Guildhall  School  of 
Music ;  jjrofessor  of 
harmony  at  Queen's 
College,  Loudon,  1884. 
Works — Cantatas  :  Al- 
ice Brand,  1870  ;  The 
Lord  of  the  Isles,  text 
by  Prank  Murray,  from 
Scott,  1879;  Colum- 
bus, for  male  voices, 
1881.  Overtures  :  Andromeda,  1873  ;  The 
Golden  Legend  ;  The  Witches'  Frolic. 
Music  to  Alcestis,  187G  ;  Symphonies  for 
orchestra  in  A,  C,  and  D  ;  String  quartet, 
187.5 ;  Festival  service  for  eight  voices, 
in  D ;  Service  in  C,  1872  ;  130th  Psalm  ; 
Audaute  and  rondo  for  pianoforte  and  flute  ; 
Magnificat  and  Nunc  dimittis  in  D ;  Te 
Deum  in  E-flat ;  Festival  symjihony  in  D, 
1888  ;  Anthems  ;  Part-songs,  etc. 

GAEBLER,  ERNST  FRIEDKICH,  born 
in  Bunzlau  in  1815,  still  living,  1889.  Pupil 
of  C.  Karow  and  at  the  Berlin  Institute  for 
Church  Music  under  A.  W.  Bach,  besides 
attending  the  lectures  of  A.  B.  Marx  ;  suc- 
ceeded KOhler  as  music  director  and  teacher 
of  the  Piidagogium  and  Orphan  House  in 
Ziillichau.  He  has  comj^osed  motets,  songs, 
and  other  pieces. — Mendel ;  Fotis  ;  Schil- 
ling, Supplement,  156. 

GAERTNER,  KARL,  born  at  Stralsund, 
Oct.  21,  1823,  still  Uving,  in  Philadelphia, 
1889.  Violinist,  pupil  at  Greifswald  of  Abel, 
and  at  the  Conservatorium,  Leipsic,  of  Men- 
delssohn, David,  and  Hauptmann  ;  played  in 
the  Gewandbaus  orchestra  until  1848,  when 
he  travelled  through  Germany  as  a  virtuoso, 
in  which  capacity  he  went  to  America  in 
1852.  In  Boston  and  other  cities  he  awak- 
ened a  taste  for  classical  music  by  his  ex- 
cellent performances,  and  in  1858  went  to 
Philadelphia  to  conduct  the  chorus  at  the 
Steuben  festival,  and  remained  there  as  mu- 
sical director  of  the  old  Miinuerchor  and  the 


Siingerbund  ;  later  he  became  also  conduc- 
tor of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society.  In 
1859  he  gave  the  first  series  of  classical  con- 
certs in  the  Academy  of  Music,  which  for 
thirty-one  years  be  has  continued  success- 
fully. In  1867  he  founded  a  conservatory 
of  music,  which  is  still  flourishing  under 
his  direction.  His  numerous  compositions 
include  orchestral  works,  violin  solos,  and 
vocal  music,  and  he  has  published  also 
methods  for  the  pianoforte  and  violin,  and 
a  system  of  vocal  training. 

GAFFI,  BERNARDO,  composer  of  the 
Roman  school,  early  part  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury. His  Cantata  dell'  Amore  was  pub- 
lished in  Rome  in  1700.  The  Lyceo  of  Bo- 
logna has  several  cantatas  in  MS. — Fetis ; 
Schilling  ;  Mendel. 

GAGLIANO,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA 
DI  ZANOBI  DA,  born  in  Florence  about 
1580,  died  (?).  Brother  of  Marco  di  Zanobi 
da  Gagliano  ;  was  in  the  service  of  the 
Medici  ;  succeeded  Alfonso  Benevenuti, 
chaplain  of  S.  Lorenzo,  as  maestro  of  the 
clerks  of  that  college.  Works :  Motets  ; 
Madrigals  (Venice,  1603-23).— Fetis;  Schil- 
ling ;  Mendel. 

GAGLLINO,  MARCO  DI  ZANOBI  DA, 
born  in  Florence,  second  half  of  the  16th 
century,  died  there,  Feb.  24,  1642.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  of  Luca  Bati.  He 
became,  in  1702,  maestro  di  cappella  of  S. 
Lorenzo,  where  his  compositions  were  still 
performed  at  the  beginning  of  this  century. 
Under  the  name  of  I'Alfannato  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Accademia  degli  Elevati. 
His  most  important  work  is  the  opera  TJafne, 
written  for  the  wedding  of  Francesco  Gon- 
zaga,  sou  of  the  Duke  of  Mantua,  1607,  one 
of  the  earliest  productions  of  this  kind. 
Other  works  :  Misse  a  cinque  voci  (Venice, 
1579)  ;  Responsorj  della  Settimana  Santa 
(ib.,  1580)  ;  H  primo  libro  de'  madrigali  (ib., 
1602) ;  II  secondo  ed  il  terzo  libro,  etc.  (ib., 
1601) ;  Libro  quinto,  etc.  (ib.,  1606) ;  Mu- 
siche  a  una,  due  e  tre  voci  (ib.,  1615)  ;  Li- 
bro sesto  de'  madrigali  (ib.,  1617)  ;  Respon- 
sorj della   Settimana   Santa   (Venice,   Bar- 


GAGLIAllDI 


tolomeo  Magni,  1630)  was  considered  Lis 
best  work.  The  melodies,  Bel  pastor  del 
cui  bel  guardo,  and  Ecco  solinga  delle  selve 
arnica,  were  in  great  favour,  in  his  time. 
— Ambros,  iv.  288  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Eock- 
stro.  Hist.  Music,  107. 

GAGLIAEDI,  DIONISIO  POLIANI, 
born  at  Naples  in  1811,  died  there  in  1835. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  the  Royal 
College  of  Music,  Naples.  Works — Operas  : 
L'  antiquario  e  la  modista,  opera  bulla,  Na- 
ples, 1828  ;  La  strega  di  Dernegleuch,  ib., 
1830 ;  Le  due  gemelle,  ib.,  1831  ;  E  lan- 
gravio  di  Turingia,  ib.,  1832  ;  La  casa  a 
veudere,  ib.,  1834  ;  Pulcinello  coudaunato, 
1835  ;  Le  ferriere  di  Maremma ;  La  barca- 
juola  svizzera  ;  E  coscritto.  His  langravio 
di  Turingia,  his  best  work,  was  given  ten 
years  after  his  death  as  Candida  e  Luigi. 
— Fctis;  Mendel. 

GAGNI,  ANGELO,  dramatic  composer, 
born  in  Florence,  middle  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury, died  (?).  His  opera  buffa,  I  pazzi 
gloi'iosi,  Milan,  1783,  is  also  known  as  I 
matti  gloriosi. — Fetis  ;  IMendel. 

GAHRICH,  WENZEL,  born  at  Zercho- 
witz,  Bohemia,  Sept.  IG,  1791,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, Sept.  15,  18G1.  He  studied  law  at 
Leipsic  Universitj',  but  poverty  compelled 
him  to  become  a  violinist  in  the  theatre  or- 
chestra there.  In  1825  he  joined  the  royal 
orchestra  in  Berlin,  and  in  1815-00  was 
conductor  of  the  ballet  at  the  Opera.  The 
merit  of  his  compositions  should  have  se- 
cured for  him  more  than  the  local  fame  he 
enjoyed  ;  especially  his  ballet  music  is  of  an 
indisputably  high  order.  "Works — Operas  : 
Die  Creolin ;  Der  Freibeuter.  Ballets : 
Don  Quixote  ;  Die  lusel  der  Liebe  ;  Der 
Seeriiuber ;  Aladdin,  etc.,  2  symphonies  for 
grand  orchestra  ;  Quartet  for  pianoforte 
and  strings,  op.  4  ;  Concertino  for  viola  and 
orchestra  ;  5  collections  of  dances  for  or- 
chestra and  for  pianoforte ;  Songs,  etc. 
— Mendel ;  Futis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  353  ; 
Riemann. 

GAlL,  EDlNlfiE  SOPHIE  (born  Garre), 
born  in  Paris,  Aug.  28,  1775,   died  there, 


July  24,  1819.  Dramatic  composer  and 
singer,  pupil  of  Meugozzi  in  singing  ;  after 
a  concert  tour  through  Southern  France 
and  Sijain,  and  writing  an  opera  for  private 
representation,  she  studied  harmony  and 
counterpoint  under  Fc'tis,  Perne,  and  Neu- 
komm.  In  181G  she  sang  in  London,  and  in 
1818  gave  concerts,  with  Mme  Catalani,  in 
Germany  and  Vienna.  "Works:  Les  deux 
jaloux,  opora-comique ;  Mademoiselle  de 
Launay  a  la  Bastille,  do.,  given  at  the  The- 
atre Feydeau,  1813  ;  Angela,  ou  I'atelier  de 
Jean  Cousin  (with  Boieldieu),  La  meprise, 
ib.,  1814  ;  La  serenade,  ib.,  1818  ;  Romances 
and  nocturnes. — Fctis  ;  do..  Supplement, 
i.  355  ;  Mendel. 

GAILI^mD.     See  Galliard. 

GALATEE,  opera-comique,  in  two  acts, 
text  by  Jules  Barbier  and  IMichel  Carre, 
music  by  Victor  Masse,  first  represented 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  April  14, 
1852.  Pygmalion,  having  finished  a  beauti- 
ful statue  of  Galatee,  falls  in  love  with  it, 
and  prays  Venus  to  give  it  life.  Galatee, 
become  a  woman,  exhibits  a  thousand  ca- 
prices and  disappoints  Pygmalion  by  her 
ingratitude.  She  prefers  his  sen'ant  Gany- 
mede to  his  melancholy  love,  accepts  pres- 
ents from  old  IVEdas,  and  gets  intoxicated 
on  Chian  wine.  At  last,  when  she  is  about 
to  fly  with  Ganymede,  he  prays  that  she 
may  be  turned  again  into  a  statue,  which  he 
sells  without  regret  to  Midas.  The  charac- 
ters of  Pygmalion  and  Galatee  were  played 
by  Mile  Vertheimber  and  Mme  Ugalde ; 
those  of  JEdas  and  Ganymede  by  Mme 
Sainte-Foy  and  Mocker.  The  briudisi, 
"Ah!  verse  encore,"  obtained  a  gi-eat  suc- 
cess.— Larousse,  viii.  93G. 

GALEAZZI,  ANTONIO,  born  at  Brescia, 
lived  mostly  in  Rome  and  Venice  in  the 
early  part  of  the  18th  century.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer.  Works  :  Zelniira  in 
Creta,  opera,  given  in  Venice,  1729  ;  E  tri- 
onfo  della  costanza  in  Statira,  ib.,  1731. 
Much  of  his  church  music  is  to  be  found  in 
the  Library  of  S.  M.  Maggiore,  Rome.  He 
rewrote  also  part  of  the  opera,  I  tre  difensori 


GALEAZZI 


della  patria,  by  Pescetti,  which  was  given  in 
this  form  at  Pailua,  Teatro  Obizzi,  in  1730. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GALEAZZI,  FRANCESCO,  born  in  Turin 
in  1738  (1758  ?),  died  in  Eome  in  1819. 
Violinist,  leader  of  the  baud  at  the  Teatro 
Valle,  Eome,  for  fifteen  years ;  afterwards 
professor  of  the  violin  at  Ascoli.  Besides 
numerous  comj)ositions  for  the  violin  and 
other  instruments,  he  deserves  special  no- 
tice for  his  Elementi  teoretico-practici  di 
musica,  etc.  (Rome,  1791-9G),  one  of  the 
earliest  methodical  instruction  books  for 
the  violin. — Fctis  ;  Grove  ;  Larousse. 

GALENO,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA,  lived 
in  the  second  half  of  the  IGth  century.  He 
was  in  the  service  of  the  Emperor  Rudolph 
II.  of  Austria  from  his  earliest  years. 
Works:  Madrigals  (Venice,  1587,  1598; 
Antwerp,  1591).— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GALIBERT,  PIERRE  CHRISTOPHE 
CHARLES,  born  in  Pei-pignan,  Aug.  8, 
182G,  died  in  Paris,  August,  1858.  Dra- 
matic comjjoser,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoire 
from  1815,  under  Bazin,  Elwart,  and  Halevy. 
He  won  the  2d  grand  prix  de  Rome  in 
1851,  and  the  1st  in  1853.  On  his  return 
to  Paris  in  1857  he  brought  out  an  opera, 
Apri'S  I'orage,  which  was  well  received,  and 
gave  much  promise,  but  it  was  his  only 
work  besides  two  cantatas,  Le  prisonnier, 
and  Les  rochers  d'Appeuzell,  and  a  few  other 
compositions. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GALILEI,  VINCENZO,  born  in  Florence 
about  1533,  died  there  about  IGOO.  Lute 
and  viol  player,  pujsil  of  Gioseffo  Zarliuo. 
He  was  a  noble  and  the  father  of  Galileo 
Galilei,  the  famous  astronomer  and  philos- 
opher. Associated  with  Giovanni  Bardi, 
Piero  Strozzi,  Corsi,  Peri,  Caccini,  and  oth- 
ers, he  was  one  of  the  first  to  introduce  dra- 
matic music  in  Italy.  A  warm  champion  of 
antique  music,  he  took  a  prominent  part  in 
the  dispute  with  the  supporters  of  the  con- 
trai^uutal  style,  among  whom  was  his  old 
master  Zarlino,  and  against  whom  he  wrote 
a  pamphlet.  He  was  one  of  the  prominent 
figures  in  the  Florentine  Music-Reform  of 


the  17th  century.  He  composed  a  cantata, 
II  coute  Ugoliuo,  for  one  voice  with  accom- 
paniment of  lute  and  viol,  and  a  dramatic 
setting  of  the  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah. 
He  was  the  author  also  of  several  theoreti- 
cal works  :  Discorso  della  musica  antica  e 
della  moderua  (Florence,  1581  ;  2d  ed., 
1G02)  ;  II  Frouimo,  etc.  (ib.,  1583) ;  Discorso 
iutorno  alle  ojjere  di  messer  Gioseftb  Zarlino 
di  Chioggia  (ib.,  1589). — Fetis  ;  Larousse. 

GALIMATHIAS  MUSICUM,  a  comic 
piece  for  orchestra,  with  clavier  and  other 
instruments  obligato,  by  Mozart,  first  per- 
formed at  The  Hague,  March  8,  17G6,  for 
the  festivities  at  the  coming  of  age  of  Will- 
iam of  Orange  the  Fifth.  Mozart  was  then 
only  ten  years  old.  The  piece,  which  is  in 
thirteen  short  numbers,  ends  with  a  varia- 
tion on  the  Dutch  national  air,  Wilhelmus 
von  Nassau.  Galimathias  is  a  French  term, 
of  doubtful  derivation,  meaning  gibberish. 
— KOchel,  No.  32  ;  Otto  Jahn,  2d  ed.,  i.  U  ; 
Grove. 

GALITZIN,  Prince  GEORG,  born  in  St. 
Petersburg  in  1823,  died  there  in  Septem- 
ber, 1872.  Composer  of  church,  instru- 
mental, and  vocal  music  ;  gave  concerts  in 
Germany,  Great  Britain,  and  France,  with  a 
large  orchestra  of  his  own,  to  make  a  propa- 
ganda for  Russian  music.  At  Moscow  he 
entertained  since  1842  a  choir  of  seventy 
boys,  whom  he  instructed  in  person.  He 
has  written  masses,  orchestral  works,  solos 
for  various  instruments,  choruses,  songs, 
etc. — Futis,  Supijk'ment,  i.  35G  ;  Mendel ; 
Riemann. 

GALLAY,  JACQUES  FRANCOIS,  born 
at  PeriJignan,  France,  Dec.  8,  1795,  died  iu 
Paris,  October,  18G4.  Virtuoso  on  the  horn, 
first  instructed  by  his  father,  an  amateur, 
then  pupil  of  Ozi,  and  at  the  Conservatoire, 
Paris,  of  Dauprat,  1820  ;  won  the  first  prize 
in  1821,  became  a  member  of  the  royal  or- 
chestra, and  of  the  orchestras  of  the  Odeon, 
and  the  Theatre  Italien  in  1825,  chamber 
musician  to  Louis  Philippe  in  1832,  and 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire  in  1842. 
He  composed  concertos,  nocturnes,  etudes, 


113 


GALLENBEPtG 


duos,  trios,  aiicl  quartets,  and  publislied  a 
method  for  liorn. — Fotis  ;  do.,  Sujiplt'ineut, 
i.  356  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

GALLENBERG,  WENZEL  ROBERT, 
Graf  VON,  born  iu  Vienna,  Dec.  28,  1783, 
died  in  Rome,  March  13,  1839.  Pupil  of  Al- 
brechtsberger ;  married,  in  1803,  to  Count- 
ess Ginlietta  Guicciardi,  who  had  been  loved 
by  Beethoven.  He  wrote  in  1805  music  for 
Joseph  Bonaparte's  festival  iu  Naples  ;  was 
associated  with  Barbaja  in  1821-23  in  the 
management  of  the  Vienna  court  theatre, 
which  he  undertook  to  conduct  in  1829, 
and  failed  from  want  of  funds.  He  then 
joined  Barbaja  in  Naples  as  ballet  composer 
and  director.  Works :  About  50  ballets, 
including  Samson,  1811  ;  Arsinoe,  and  Te- 
lemacco,  1813  ;  I  riti  ludiani,  1814  ;  Am- 
leto,  1815  ;  Alfred  der  Grosse,  1820  ;  Jeanne 
d'  Arc,  1821 ;  Margherita,  regina  di  Catania, 
1822  ;  Ismaans  Grab,  1823  ;  La  caravana 
del  Cairo,  1824  ;  Ottavio  PineUi,  1828  ;  Das 
befreite  Jerusalem,  1828 ;  Cresar  iu  Aegjp- 
ten,  1829  ;  Theodosia,  1831  ;  Orpheus  und 
Em-ydice,  1831 ;  Agnes  und  Fitz  Henri,  1833  ; 
Bianca's  Wahl,  1835 ;  and  Latona's  Rache, 
1838.  He  wrote  also  marches,  a  sonata, 
fantasias,  and  other  pieces  for  j)ianoforte. 
— Grove  ;  Fctis  ;  Mendel ;  Wurzbach. 

GALLERANO  (Galerauo),  LEANDRO, 
born  in  Brescia,  end  of  the  IGth  century. 
He  was  organist  of  S.  Francesco,  and  mem- 
ber of  the  Accademia  de  gli  Occulti  in 
that  city,  under  the  name  of  1'  luvolato. 
From  Brescia  he  went  to  Padua,  and  became 
maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Church  of  S.  An- 
tonio. Works :  II  primo  libro  delle  Messe, 
op.  1  (Venice,  1G19) ;  H  secondo,  do.,  op.  3 
(ib.,  1620) ;  Salmi  intieri,  op.  5  (ib.,  1624)  ; 
Missarum  et  Psalmorum  quinque  vocibus 
liber  primus,  oi5.  14  (ib.,  1628) ;  Missa  e 
salmi  concei'tati  (ib.,  1629) ;  do.,  ojx  16  (ib., 
1630) ;  II  primo  libro  de  Motetti  (ib.) ;  Mo- 
tetti  a  voce  sola  con  organo  (ib.) ;  Complete 
e  Litanie  a  otto  voci  con  stromcnti  (ib.). 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GALLET,  FRANgOIS  (Franciscus  Galle- 
tius),  born  in  Mons  about  the  middle  of  the 


16th  century.  Church  composer ;  one  of 
the  musicians  of  the  College  of  Saint-Amat, 
Douai.  Works :  Sacrse  cantiones  5,  6,  et 
plurium  vocum  (1586)  ;  Hymni  communes 
Sanctorum  (1596). — FiJtis  ;  Mendel ;  Rie- 
mann. 

GALLI,  ATkHNTORE,  born  at  Rimini, 
Oct.  12,  1845,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of  CrotTat  the  Conservatorio 
of  Milan ;  was  director  of  a  music  school 
in  the  province  of  Modena,  and  became  a 
successful  composer  of  operas,  but  is  best 
known  bj'  his  writings  on  music.  He  is 
the  musical  critic  for  "  II  Secolo,"  and  now 
conducts  the  great  publishing  house  of 
Edoardo  Sonzogno,  Milan.  Works :  Cesare 
al  Rubicone,  opera,  given  with  success  ;  II 
risorgimento,  given  in  Rome,  about  1870  ; 
n  corno  d'  oro  ;  Cristo  al  Golgota,  oratorio, 
L'  espiazione,  cantata,  Milan,  1867  ;  Masses; 
Stabat  Mater. — ^Fctis,  Supplement,  i.  358  ; 
Mendel,  Ergiiuz.,  116. 

GALLI  (Gallus),  EUGENIO,  born  at 
Lucca,  Italy,  Feb.  12,  1810,  died  there,  Sept. 
1,  1867.  Church  composer,  pujiil  of  Marco 
Santucci,  finished  his  musical  education  in 
Vienna,  where  he  became  an  excellent  con- 
trapuntist, and  after  his  retiu-n  to  Lucca  was 
appointed  professor  of  counterpoint  at  the 
Musical  Institute.  Later  on  he  was  direc- 
tor of  the  ducal  chapel.  He  wrote  several 
masses  for  4  voices  with  orchestra,  a  Re- 
quiem, and  fugues  for  the  organ. — Fetis, 
Suj)plemeut,  i.  258. 

GALLI,  VINCENZO,  born  in  Sicily, 
about  the  middle  of  the  16th  century. 
Franciscan  monk,  maestro  di  cappella  of 
the  Cathedral  of  Palermo.  His  masses, 
psalms,  and  madrigals  wei-e  published  in 
Palermo  (1589-1607).  With  the  proceeds 
of  their  sales  he  enlarged  the  Convent  of 
the  Annunciation,  and  had  cut  on  one  of 
the  columns  of  that  building  the  words, 
"  Musica  Galli."— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GALLIA,  motet  for  soprano  solo,  chorus, 
and  orchestra,  by  Gounod,  first  performed 
at  the  opening  of  the  International  Exhi- 
bition, Albert  Hall,  Loudon,  May  1,  1871. 


114 


GALLIAED 


The  text  is  from  the  Lamentations  of  Jerc- 
miab. 

GALLIAED,  JOHANN,  EENST,  born  at 
Zell,  Hanover,  about  1(387,  died  in  Loudon 
in  17-49.  Dramatic  comisoser,  jjupil  of  Fa- 
riuelli,  then  director  of  tlie  concerts  at  Han- 
over, and  of  Steftani.  He  won  distinction 
as  an  oboist,  went  to  Eugland  about  170G, 
and  was  ajipointed  chamber  musician  to 
Prince  George  of  Denmark,  and,  on  the 
death  of  Draglii,  organist  at  Somerset  House. 
He  wrote  the  music  for  Hughe's  opera. 
Calypso  and  Telemachus,  1712,  and  was 
emploj'ed  by  Rich  to  furnish  music  for  his 
masques,  etc.,  from  1717.  In  1728  he  set  to 
music  the  morning  hymn  of  Adam  and  Eve 
from  Milton's  "  Paradise  Lost,"  an  admirable 
composition,  afterwards  enlarged  by  Dr. 
Benjamin  Cooke,  who  made  additions  to  the 
orchestral  accompaniments.  Other  works  : 
Music  for  Julius  Cnesar,  1715  ;  Pan  and  Sy- 
rinx, 1717  ;  Jupiter  and  Europa,  1723  ;  The 
Necromancer ;  or  Harlequin,  Apollo,  and 
Daphne,  172G  ;  Dr.  Faustus,  1723  ;  The 
Royal  Chace,  or  Merlin's  Cave,  1736,  musi- 
cal entertainment,  in  which  occurred  the 
famous  hunting  song,  "  With  early  horn  ;  " 
The  music  for  Lee's  tragedj',  "  ffidipus  ; " 
Several  cantatas,  songs,  and  instrumental 
music. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

GALLICULUS,  JOHANN,  lived  in  Leip- 
sic  about  1.520.  His  motets  and  jisalms 
were  published  in  "  Novum  et  insigne  opus 
musicum"  (1537);  in  Petrejus's  "Psalmi 
select!"  (1538);  in  Rhaws'  "Harmonire 
selectfe,"  etc.  (1538) ;  and  in  Vesperarum 
precum  officia,  etc.  (1540).  He  was  the  au- 
thor, also,  of  a  theoretical  treatise,  "Isa- 
goge  de  compositione  cantus  "  (1st  and  4th 
ed.,  1520,  1548),  called  also,  "Libellus  de 
compositione  cantus"  (2d  and  3d  ed.,  1538, 
1546). — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Eiemann. 

GALLO,  DOMENICO,  born  in  Venice 
about  1730.  Violinist  and  composer  of 
church  music,  sonatas  for  violin,  and  sym- 
phonies for  2  violins,  viola,  and  violon- 
cello, all  of  which  are  still  in  MS. — Petis  ; 
Mendel. 


GALLUCCIO,  GERARDO,  maestro  di 
cappella  at  Pavia  in  the  last  years  of  the 
IGth  century.  He  composed  masses,  psalms, 
litanies,  etc.  (Venice,  1597). — Fetis ;  Mendel. 

GALLUS,  JACOBUS,  born  in  Carniola 
about  1550,  died  at  Prague,  July  4,  1591. 
His  real  name  was  Jacob  Hiihnel  (Hiindl, 
Handl,  etc.).  Contrapuntist,  Kapellmeister 
to  Stanislas  Pawlowski,  Bishop  of  Olmiitz, 
and  afterwards  in  the  imperial  cliajiel, 
Prague.  He  wrote  in  the  old  church 
tones,  before  the  modern  distinction  be- 
tween major  and  minor  existed,  and  was 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  German  con- 
temjioraries  of  Palestrina  and  Orlando 
Lasso.  In  1588  Emperor  Rudolf  H. 
granted  him  a  ten  years'  privilege  for  the 
publication  of  his  works.  Those  known 
are  :  Missse  selectiores,  for  5-8  voices,  4 
books  (1580) ;  Musici  operis  harmoniarium, 
for  4-8  and  more  voices  (Prague,  Part  L, 
1586  ;  Parts  H.  and  IH.,  1587 ;  Part  IV., 
1589)  ;  Moralia  5,  6  et  8  vocibus  concinnata 
(Nuremberg,  1586);  Epicedionharmonicum 
(1589) ;  Harmonise  varite  4  vocum  (Prague, 
1591)  ;  Harmoniarum  moralium,  do.,  3  parts 
(ib.,  1589-90)  ;  Sacrse  cantiones  de  prseci- 
puis  festis,  for  4-8  and  more  voices  (Nu- 
remberg, 1597) ;  Motettpe  quaj  pra?stant 
omnes  (Frankfort,  1610).  Bodenschatz's 
Florilegium  Porten.se  contains  19  pieces  by 
him,  among  them  the  famous  Ecce  quomodo 
moritur  Justus  ;  others  are  in  Proske's  ]\Iu- 
sica  divina,  and  in  the  collections  of  Schij- 
berlein,  Zahn,  Becker,  Rochlitz,  etc. — Rie- 
mann  ;  Fetis ;  Mendel ;  Grove ;  Ambros, 
Geschichte,  iii.  557  ;  Naumann  (Ouseley),  i. 
G14. 

GxVLLUS,  JOHANNES  (in  French,  Jean 
le  Cocq,  Maitre  Jean,  Mestre  Jhan,  etc.), 
born  in  the  Netherlands,  died  before  1543. 
He  was  maestro  di  cappella  to  Duke  Ercole 
of  Ferrara,  and  composed  motets  and  other 
music,  preserved  in  collections.  He  was 
long  confounded  with  Jhan  Gero. — Rie- 
mann. 

GALUPPI,  BALDASSARE  (called  H 
Buranello),  born  in  the  island  of  Burano, 


115 


GAMBAEA 


uear  Venice,  Oct.  IS,  170G,  died  in  Venice, 
Jan.  3,  1785.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil 
of  bis  father,  a  barber,  who  plaj-ed  the  vio- 
lin at  the  theatre.  He  went  to  Venice  when 
sixteen  and  was  organist  of  several  minor 
churches  in  succession.  Although  ignorant 
of  the  rules  of  composition  he  composed  an 
opera  buffa.  La  fede  nell'  inconstanza,  ossia 
gli  amici  rivali,  which  was  hissed  off  the  stage. 
He  was  on  the  point  of  giving  up  music  and 
becoming  a  barber,  when  Marcello  pi-ocured 
his  admission  to  the  Conservatorio  degli 
Incurabili,  where  he  studied  counterpoint 
for  three  years  under  Lotti.  Marcello  also 
helped  him  by  writing  the  libretto  of  Do- 
rinda,  which  was  well  received,  in  1729,  at 
the  Teatro  San  Angelo.  He  studied  the 
harpsichord  at  this  time  and  became  a  cele- 
brated player.  His  operas  held  the  stage 
from  1729  to  1797.  In  17-41  he  was  in  Eng- 
land, where  his  style  produced  a  marked 
effect  on  dramatic  music.  In  17G2-64:  he 
was  maestro  di  capi^ella  of  >S.  Marco,  Ven- 
ice, director  of  the  Incurabili,  and  organist 
of  several  churches.  About  1767  he  went 
to  St.  Petersburg  at  the  invitation  of  Cath- 
erine n.,  and  brought  out  there  two  ojjeras 
with  great  success,  but  returned  to  Italy  in 
1768  and  resumed  his  position  in  the  In- 
curabili. None  of  his  operas,  of  which  Fo- 
tis  gives  a  list  of  fifty-four,  have  survived  on 
the  stage  since  Rossini.  He  composed  the 
music  for  a  cantata  for  five  voices,  n  ri- 
torno  di  Tobia,  played  at  the  Conservato- 
rio, on  the  occasion  of  the  arrival  of  Pius 
VI.  in  Venice.  All  his  Church  music  and 
operas  remain  in  MS.  Some  of  them  are 
DOW  in  the  National  Librai-y,  Paris  ;  some 
in  the  Santini  collection.  His  oratorios 
were  :  La  fornace  di  Babilonia ;  Debbora 
profetessa,  and  Moyses  de  Sinai  reversus. 
Among  music  for  haq^sichord  is  one  sonata 
of  great  beauty,  printed  in  Pauer's  Alte 
Klaviermusik.  Principal  operas  :  Penelojie, 
given  in  London,  1711 ;  Scipione  in  Carta- 
gine,  ib.,  1742  ;  Enrico,  Sirbace,  ib.,  1743  ; 
H  mondo  della  luna,  Italy,  1750  ;  H  cava- 
liere  delle  piume  ;  II  mondo  alia  rovescia, 


ib.,  1752  ;  Alessandro  nell'  Indie,  ib.,  1755  ; 
Sesostri,  Venice,  1757  ;  Aifriano  in  Siria, 
Italy,  1760 ;  Cajo  Mario,  ib.,  1764  ;  Didone 
abbandonata,  St.  Petersburg,  1766  ;  Ifigenia 
in  Tauride,  ib.,  17G8.— Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling  ;  Hogarth,  Memoirs  of  Mus. 
Drama,  i.  396. 

GAMBARA,  Cavaliere  CARLO  ANTO- 
NIO, born  in  Venice  in  1774.  Instrumental 
composer  ;  of  noble  parentage,  he  was  edu- 
cated in  the  college  for  the  sons  of  nobles 
at  Parma,  where  he  studied  the  violin  under 
]\Ielegari,  violoncello  under  Ghiretti,  and 
counterpoint  under  Colla.  On  leaving  col- 
lege he  went  to  Brescia  to  finish  his  musical 
studies  under  Cannetti,  maestro  di  cajjpella 
of  the  cathedral.  Works  :  4  symphonies 
for  grand  orchestra  ;  Concertante  for  sev- 
eral instruments  ;  Quintet  for  harp,  violin, 
mandolin,  viola,  and  violoncello  ;  2  books 
of  trios  for  2  violins  and  bass  ;  2  do.  of 
quartets  ;  Vocal  music- — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GAMBINI,  CARLO  ANDREA,  born  at 
Genoa,  Oct.  22,  1819,  died  there,  Feb.  14, 
1865.  Dramatic  composer  and  pianist ; 
held  a  position  in  his  native  city,  which 
made  him,  so  to  speak,  the  musical  chief  in 
that  part  of  Italy.  Works — Operas  :  Eufe- 
mio  di  Messina,  given  in  Milan,  1833  ;  II 
Nuovo  Tartufo,  Genoa,  Teatro  Apollo,  1854  ; 
Don  Grifone,  Turin,  Teatro  Rossini,  1856  ; 
I  Tessali  e  la  vendetta  della  schiava  ;  Cristo- 
foro  Colombo,  dramatic  symphony  ;  Music 
to  La  Passioue,  by  Manzoni,  for  4  voices, 
chorus,  and  orchestra  ;  Mass  with  grand  or- 
chestra ;  Several  other  masses ;  Cantatas, 
hymns,  etc.  ;  Two  collections  of  etudes  for 
pianoforte,  op.  36  and  70  ;  etc.  His  com- 
jjositions  of  all  kinds  number  more  than 
150. — Futis  ;  do.,  Su^jplement,  i.  359  ;  Men- 
del ;  do.,  Ergilnz.,  116. 

GA:\IBLE,  JOHN,  English  violinist  of 
the  17th  century,  pupil  of  Ambrose  Bcyland. 
He  was  a  cornet  player  in  the  Chapel  Royal, 
and  later  one  of  the  band  of  violins  to 
Charles  H.  Works  :  "  Ajtcs  and  Dialogues 
to  be  sung  to  the  Theorbo  Lute  or  Bass 
Viol,"  words  by  Stanley  (1657) ;  and  "  Ajtcs 


110 


GAMBOGI 


and  Diiiloguefs  for  One,  Two,  and  Three 
Voj'ces  "  (1G59). — Grove;  Buruey,  Hist.,  iii. 
461  ;  Hawkins,  Hist.,  iv.  63. 

GAMBOGI,  Padre  FRANCESCO,  born 
at  Camaiore,  Duchy  of  Lucca,  about  1713, 
died  in  1781.  He  was  maestro  of  music  at 
tlie  Seminary  of  S.  Michele  in  Foro,  and  sub- 
sequently maestro  di  capjiella  of  the  Colle- 
giate Church  of  Camaiore.  His  most  im- 
portant work  was  the  oratorio,  Giuseppe 
riconosciuto.  From  1748  to  1778  he  wrote 
twenty  services  for  four  voices  with  instru- 
mental accompaniment. — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i,  360  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  116. 

GAaiMERSFELDER,  JOHANN,  com- 
poser at  Burghausen,  UpiJer  Bavaria,  in  the 
16th  century.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to 
compose  psalms  for  a  single  voice.  His 
work  was  called  Der  gantze  Psalter  Davids 
iu  Gesangsweiss  gestellt  (Nuremberg,  1542). 
— Mendel ;  Ft'tis  ;  Gerber. 

GAMjMIERI,  ERENNIO,  born  at  Campo- 
basso,  March  11,  1836.  Pupil  at  Naples 
Conservatorio  of  Busti  and  Carlo  Conti. 
Became  maestro  concertatore  at  the  theatre 
of  St.  Petersburg  in  1859.  Works  :  Chat- 
terton,  opera,  given  at  St.  Petersburg,  1867  ; 
L*  assedio  di  Firenze,  do.,  not  performed  ; 
Much  vocal  music. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
360. 

GAMUCCI,  BALDASSARE,  born  in 
Florence,  Dec.  14,  1822.  Pupil  of  Carlo 
Fortini  on  the  pianoforte  and  of  Luigi  Pic- 
chianti  iu  composition.  He  founded  in 
Florence  in  1845  a  choral  society,  Del  Car- 
mine, which  later  became  the  Royal  Music 
Institute,  of  which  he  was  director.  Works  : 
Masses  ;  Requiem  ;  Cantatas  ;  Motets  ; 
Psalms.  He  was  the  author  also  of  an  ele- 
mentary work  on  music,  and  of  "lutorno 
alia  vita  ed  alle  opere  di  Luigi  Cherubini  " 
(1869).— Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  117  ;  Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  360  ;  Riemanu. 

GANDINI,  Cavaliere  ALESSANDRO, 
born  at  Modena  iu  1807,  died  there,  Dec. 
17,  1871.  Dramatic  composer,  son  and  pu- 
pil of  Antonio  Gandini,  whom  he  succeeded 
as  maestro  di  cappella  at  the  court  iu  his 


native  city.  Works — Operas  :  Demetrio, 
given  at  Modena,  1827  ;  Zaira,  ib.,  1829  ; 
Isabella  di  Lara,  ib.,  1830 ;  Maria  di  Bra- 
bante,  ib.,  1833  ;  Adelaide  di  Borgogna,  ib., 
1841.  Cantatas  :  La  fedelta,  1832  ;  La  fata, 
1842  ;  n  genio  di  Modena,  1857.— Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  361  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  117  ; 
Riemann. 

GANDINI,  Cavaliere  ANTONIO,  born  in 
Bologna,  Aug.  20,  1786,-  died  in  Modena, 
Sei^t.  10,  1842.  Dramatic  comjjoser,  pupil 
of  Mattel,  became  ducal  maestro  di  cappella 
at  Modena.  Works  :  Ruggiero,  Modena, 
1822 ;  Erminia  ed  Antigone,  ib.,  about 
1825.  He  wrote  also  several  cantatas. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel,  iv.  123  ;  Erganz.,  117. 

GANDOLFI,  RICCARDO,  born  at  Vo- 
ghera,  Piedmont,  in  1839,  still  living,  1889. 
Dramatic  comj^oser,  pupil  in  Najiles  of 
Carlo  Conti,  and  in  Florence  of  Mabellini. 
Works :  Aldina,  given  iu  Milan,  Teatro  Ra- 
degonda,  1863  ;  II  Paggio,  Turin,  Teatro 
Regio,  1805  ;  II  Coute  di  Moni-eal,  Genoa, 
Teatro  Carlo-Felice,  1872  ;  Requiem  with 
grand  orchestra,  Florence,  1866  ;  Symphony 
for  do.,  ib.,  1869  ;  Psalm,  ib.,  1872  ;  II  Bat- 
tesimo  di  Santa  Cecilia,  ib.,  1875  ;  Elegie 
for  violoncello,  with  quartet,  harp,  and  har- 
monium, il).  ;  Solemn  Mass,  Chiavari,  1869 ; 
Pensieri  ed  Affetti,  vocal  album  (Milan, 
Lucca). — Fetis,  Sujjplemeut,  i.  361  ;  Men- 
del, Ergilnz.,  117. 

GANDOLFO,  operetta  in  one  act,  text 
by  Chivot  and  Duru,  music  by  Charles 
Lecocq,  represented  at  the  Bouffes  Pari- 
siens,  Paris,  Januar  r,  18S9  The  libretto  is 
from  a  tale  by  Boccaccio. 

GANSBACHER,  JOHANN,  born  at  Ster- 
zing  in  the  Tyrol,  May  8,  1778,  died  in 
Vienna,  July  13,  1844.  Instructed  by  his 
father  in  singing,  pianoforte,  organ,  and 
violin,  he  became  a  choir-boy  first  at  Inns- 
pruck,  then  at  Halle.  Entered  Innsin-uck 
University  iu  1795,  but  left  iu  1796  to  serve 
as  a  soldier ;  visited  Vienna  in  1801,  and 
studied  under  Vogler  and  Albrechtsberger  ; 
accompanied  his  patron.  Count  Firmian,  to 
Bohemia  in  1804.     He  then  travelled,  and 


.llT 


GANZ 


resided  some  time  in  Innspruck,  and  in  1810 
visited  Vogler  iu  Darmstadt,  where  be  be- 
came intimate  witli  his  fellow-pupils  Mey- 
erbeer and  Weber,  who  addressed  to  him 
a  large  part  of  their  correspondence.  He 
again  entered  the  army  in  1813,  but  was 
appointed  iu  1823  Kapellmeister  to  the 
Cathedral  of  St.  Stephen,  in  Vienna,  as  suc- 
cessor of  Preindl,  and  held  the  office  until 
his  death.  Works  :  27  graduals  ;  17  masses  ; 
4  Requiems ;  Offertories,  motets,  hymns, 
psalms,  and  litanies ;  Sonatas,  variations, 
and  marches  for  pianoforte  ;  Orchestral  sj'm- 
phony ;  Music  to  Kotzebue's  Die  Ki-euzfah- 
rer  ;  Liederspiel,  Des  Dichters  Geburtsfest ; 
Italian  terzettos,  vocal  quartets,  cantatas, 
songs,  and  other  compositions,  numbering 
altogether  2 IC— Mendel  ;  Wurzbach  ;  Fe- 
tis ;  Grove. 

GANZ,  ADOLF,  born  in  Mainz,  Oct.  14, 
1790,  died  in  London,  Nov.  11,  1SG9.  Vio- 
linist, pupil  of  Sebastian  Hollbuseh.  He 
became  conductor  at  Mainz  in  1819,  Ka- 
pellmeister to  the  Grand  Duke  of  Hesse 
Darmstadt  in  1825,  and  in  1845  musical 
director  of  a  German  opera  company  in 
London.  Works  :  Melodrama  ;  ISIarches  ; 
Overtures  ;  Songs.  Eduard  Ganz,  his  son 
(1827-G7),  was  a  pianist,  pupil  of  Thalberg. 
Wilhelm,  another  son  (born,  1833),  is  a  j^ia-  ^ 
nist  and  organist  in  London.  He  has  pub- 
lished pianoforte  music  and  songs. — Allgem. 
d.  Biogr.,  viii.  36G  ;  Fi'tis  ;  IMendel. 

GANZ,  LEOPOLD,  born  in  Mainz,  Nov. 
28,  1810,  died  in  Berl-n,  June  15,  18G9. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  hijr^'father  and  of  his 
brother  Adolf  Ganz,  and  of  Biirwolf.  He 
made  concert  tours  with  his  brother  Moritz, 
became  a  member  of  the  Berlin  coui-t  band 
in  1827,  and  received  in  1836  the  title,  and 
in  1840  the  place,  of  Conzertmeister.  His 
reputation  is  due  chiefly  to  his  jilaying  with 
his  brother.  Works:  Duos  for  violin  and 
violoncello,  published  with  his  brother. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.;  Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Grove. 

GANZ,  MORITZ,  born  in  Mainz,  Sept. 
10,  180G,  died  in  Berlin,  Jan.  22,  1868. 
Violoncellist,  brother  of  the  preceding,  pu- 


pil of  his  father,  of  Stiastny,  and  in  theory 
of  G.  Weber.  He  joined  the  Berlin  court 
band  in  1827  ;  made  concert  tours  with  his 
brother  Leopold,  visiting  London  in  1837, 
and  again  in  1856.  Works  :  Concertos  for 
violoncello  and  orchestra  ;  Fantasias,  duets, 
trios,  transcriijtions,  songs,  and  other  pieces. 
• — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.;  Mendel ;  Fotis  ;  Grove. 

GARA,  LA  (The  Competition),  Itahan 
oj)eretta  iu  one  act,  test  by  Metastasio,  mu- 
sic by  Georg  Reutter,  represented  at  the 
Imperial  Court,  Vienna,  1755,  in  honour  of 
the  Archduchess  INIaria  Antonia,  afterwards 
Mai'ie  Antoinette,  Queen  of  France.  Char- 
acters represented  :  Serenissima  arcidu- 
chessa  ;  Dama  prima  ;  Dama  seconda. 

GARAT,  PIERRE  JEAN,  born  at  Us- 
taritz,  A25ril  25,  1764,  died  in  Paris,  JIarch 
1,  1823.  Singer  and  comijoser,  pupil  in 
Bayonne  of  Lamberti,  and  in  Bordeaux  of 
Francois  Beck.  Sent  to  Paris  to  finish  the 
study  of  law,  when  the  struggle  between  the 
Gluckists  and  Piccinnists  was  at  its  height, 
he  became  drawn  into  it,  and  determined  to 
make  music  his  profession.  After  a  strug- 
gle with  poverty",  the  Comte  d'Artois  made 
him  his  private  secretary,  and  ])resented 
him  to  Marie  Antoinette,  whose  musical 
favourite  he  became  from  1785  to  1789.  At 
the  time  of  the  Revolution  he  went  with 
Rode  to  Hamburg,  but  returned  to  Havre 
in  1794,  and  sang  at  the  Feydeau  concerts 
in  1795,  where  his  success  was  overwhelm- 
ing. He  possessed  a  voice  of  wonderful 
compass,  including  both  baritone  and  tenor 
registers,  and  sang  all  styles  of  music 
well.  Until  he  lost  his  voice,  at  the  age  of 
fifty,  he  was  the  most  popular  singer  in 
Europe.  He  was  made  professor  of  sing- 
ing at  the  Conservatoire,  at  the  time  of  its 
institvition,  about  1795,  and  had  many  cele- 
brated pupils.  He  was  the  author  of  several 
popular  romances :  Belisaire,  Je  t'aime  tant, 
Le  menestrel  exile,  Firmin  et  son  chien,  etc., 
which  owed  their  celebrity  chiefly  to  his 
stj'le  of  singing  them. — Fetis  ;  Larousse. 

GARAUD15,  ALEXIS  DE,  born  in  Nancy, 
March  21,  1779,  died  in  Paris,  March  23, 


lis 


GARCIA 


1852.  Pupil  of  Cambini  and  Eeicha,  and 
influenced  by  Crescentiui  and  Garat ;  sang 
in  the  Imperial  and  Royal  Chapel  of  Paris 
in  1808-30  ;  and  professor  of  singing  and 
harmony  in  the  Conservatoire  in  181G-il. 
Works :  Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  and  other 
chamber  music  ;  Songs  and  duets  ;  Music 
for  violin,  violoncello,  and  other  instruments. 
He  was  the  author  also  of  Muthode  du  chant 
(1800),  and  other  didactic  works.  His  son, 
Alexis  Albert  Gauthier  Garaudo  (1821-54), 
was  accompanist  at  the  Opora  Comique  and 
published  i)iauoforte  music. — Fotis  ;  Men- 
del. 

GAECIA,  Don  FRANCISCO  SAVERIO, 
surnamed  Lo  Sjjagnoletto,  born  at  Nalda, 
Spain,  in  1731,  died  at  Saragossa,  Feb.  26, 
1809.  Church  comjioser,  first  studied  in 
Spain,  then  in  Rome,  where  he  lived  as 
vocal  teacher  until  175(5,  when  he  became 
maestro  de  capilla  of  the  cathedral  at  Sara- 
gossa. He  greatly  influenced  church  music 
in  Spain,  banishing  the  then  prevailing 
fugued  style.  His  numerous  compositions, 
consisting  of  masses,  and  motets  for  all  the 
feasts  of  the  year,  are  written  almost  ex- 
clusively for  eight  voices  in  two  choruses. 
— Fetis  ;  Riemann. 

GARCIA,  MANUEL  DEL-POPOLO- 
VICENTE,  born  in  Seville,  Spain,  Jan.  22, 
1775,  died  in  Paris,  June  2,  1832.  Dra- 
matic composer,  chorister  of  the  cathedral 
at  Seville  at  the  age  of  six,  pupil  of  Don 
Antonio  Eipa  and  Juan  Almarcha.  "When 
seventeen  he  was  well  known  as  a  singer, 
composer,  and  orchestra  conductor.  After 
making  a  reputation  at  home  and  produc- 
ing several  operas,  he  made  his  debut  in 
Italian  opera  at  the  Opera  Bouife,  Paris,  in 
1808  ;  brouglit  out  and  sang  in  his  Spanish 
operas  in  1809,  and  was  rapturously  re- 
ceived in  them,  this  style  of  music  being 
new  to  Paris.  In  1811  he  went  to  Italy, 
and  sang  in  Turin,  Naples,  and  Rome  ;  and 
in  1812  he  was  appointed  first  tenor  in 
Murat's  chapel.  About  the  end  of  1816  he 
went  to  England,  and  thence  to  Paris,  made 
his  debut  at  the  Theatre  Italien,  singing  iu 


his  own  and  in  several  Italian  operas.  Iu 
1817  he  went  to  England,  and  sang  there 
very  successfull}',  returning  in  1819  to 
Paris,  where  he  remained  until  1823, 
bringing  out  many  works  of  his  own, 
besides  singing  in  all  the  well-known  Ital- 
ian operas.  He  returned  to  London  as  first 
tenor  of  the  King's  Theatre  in  1823  and 
founded  there  a  school  for  singing,  which 
became  famous.  In  1823-25  he  alternated 
between  Paris  and  London,  producing  op- 
eras in  both  cities  and  devoting  much  of 
his  time  to  teaching.  In  1825  his  daughter 
Maria,  afterwards  the  celebrated  Mme  Mali- 
bran  de  Bi'riot,  made  her  debut  iu  London, 
and  he  set  about  the  realization  of  a  project 
he  had  formed  of  establishing  Italian  oj)- 
era  iu  New  York.  Taking  with  him  a  com- 
pany consisting  of  himself  and  the  younger 
Crivelli,  tenors  ;  his  son,  Manuel  Garcia, 
and  Angrisani,  bassi  cantanti ;  Rosich,  buflib 
caricato ;  Mme  Barbieri  and  Mme  Garcia, 
soprani ;  and  Maria  Garcia  (Mahbran),  con- 
tralto, he  made  his  first  appearance  before 
an  American  audience  at  the  Park  Theatre, 
New  York,  Nov.  29,  1825,  in  II  Barbiere. 
Between  this  and  Sept.  30,  182G,  the  date 
of  his  last  performance,  he  gave  seventy- 
nine  representations,  partly  at  the  Park  and 
partly  at  the  Bowery  Theatre,  including 
Otello,  Romeo  e  Giulietta,  II  Turco  in  Italia, 
Semiramide,  Don  Giovanni,  Taucredi,  La 
Cenerentola,  and  two  of  his  own  operas, 
L'  amante  astuto  and  La  figlia  dell'  aria. 
In  1827  he  went  to  Mexico,  brought  out 
eight  operas  there  with  success,  and  after 
a  stay  of  eighteen  months  set  out  on  his 
return,  but  was  robbed  by  brigands  near 
Vera  Cruz  of  all  his  earnings.  He  returned 
to  Paris,  appeared  again  in  ojiera,  but  de- 
voted himself  mainly  to  teaching  until  his 
death.  His  princif)al  pupils,  besides  his 
daughters  Mme  Malibrau  and  Pauline  (Mme 
Viardot),  were  :  Jlmes  Rimbault,  Ruiz-Gar- 
cia,  Meric-Lalaude,  Favelli,  and  Countess 
Merlin  ;  Adolphe  Nourrit,  Geraldy,  and  his 
son  Manuel  Garcia.  AVorks — Sjaanish  op- 
eras :  El  preso  por  amor,  given  at  Malaga, 


119 


GARCIA 


1803  ;  El  posadero,  Madrid  ;  Qnicu  poifia 
muclio  alcanza,  El  poeta  calculista,  ib., 
1805  ;  El  reloj  do  Madera  ;  El  criado  fin- 
gido,  El  cautiverio  apareute,  Los  ripios  del 
maestro  Adan,  El  hablador,  Florinda,  ib., 
about  1805  ;  Abufar,  Semiramis,  Acendi, 
El  gitano  por  amor,  Los  maridos  solteros, 
Xaira,  Mexico,  1828.  Italian  operas :  II , 
Califo  di  Bagdad,  Naples,  1812  ;  La  selva 
nera,  ballet,  Milan ;  II  fazzoletto,  Paris,  | 
1823  ;  Astuzie  e  prudeuza,  Loudon,  1825  ; ' 
L'  amante  astuto,  La  figlia  dell'  aria,  H  lupo 
d'  Ostenda,  I  bauditi,  La  buoua  famiglia, 
Don  Chisciotte,  La  gioventii  d'  Enrico  V.,  | 
Le  tre  sultane.  New  York,  1827 ;  ITu'  ora  di 
matrimouio,  Zemira  e  Azor,  Mexico,  1827. 
French  Operas :  Le  prince  d'occasion,  Paris, 
Opc'ra  Comique,  1817;  La  mort  du  Tasse, 
ib.,  Opura,  1821  ;  Elorestau,  ib.,  1822  ;  La 
meuniere,  ib.,  Gymnase  Drainatique,  1823  ; 
Les  deux  coutrats,  ib.,  Opura  Comique, 
1824.— Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Eitter,  Mu- 
sic in  America,  18G  ;  Schilling,  Supplement. 

GARCLV,  MARIANO,  bom  at  Aoiz,  Na- 
varre, July  26,  1809,  still  hving,  1889. 
Church  composer,  at  first  choir-boy  in  the 
Cathedral  of  Pampeluua,  where  he  was  in- 
structed by  Mateo  Gimenez,  then  studied 
the  violin  and,  under  Jose  Guelbenzu,  har- 
mony and  composition.  Within  a  few  yeai-s 
after,  he  was  made  professor  in  the  chajiel 
of  the  cathedral,  and  later  on  became  di- 
rector of  the  school  of  music  in  his  native 
town.  He  has  written  a  great  number  of 
sacred  compositions,  distinguished  for  clear- 
ness and  elegance  of  ideas,  facility  of  execu- 
tion, and  pure  taste. — Fetis,  Suj^ijlement,  i. 
363. 

GARCIN,  JULES  AUGUSTE  SALO- 
MON, called,  born  at  Bourges,  July  11, 
1830.  Violinist,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoire, 
Paris,  of  Clavel  and  of  Alard  on  the  vioUn, 
of  Bazin  in  harmony,  and  of  Adam  in  com- 
position ;  took  the  2d  prize  for  \'iolin  in 
1851  and  the  first  in  1853  ;  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Opera  orchestra,  of  which  he  is 
now  3d  chef  d'orchestre  and  first  solo  vio- 
lin.    Besides  a  concertino  for  viola,  he  has 


written  various  compositions  for  his  instru- 
ment.— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  363. 

GARDEZ-VOUS  DE  LA  JALOUSIE. 
See  Euphrosine  et  Coradin. 

GAEDI,  FRANCESCO,  born  in  Italy 
about  the  middle  of  the  18th  century, 
died  (?).  Dramatic  comjsoser,  known  by 
the  following  operas  :  L'  incautesimo  senza 
magia,  1784 ;  La  muta  per  amore,  La  donna 
ve  la  fa,  1785  ;  La  bella  Lauretta,  1786  ; 
Euea  nel  Lazio,  Modena,  1786  ;  Un  buco 
nella  porta,  1787  ;  H  convito  di  pietra,  ossia 
il  Don  Giovanni,  Venice,  1787  ;  L'  Ameri- 
cana, 1788 ;  La  fata  capricciosa,  Venice, 
1789  ;  Teodolinda,  ib.,  1790  ;  La  bottega 
di  caffe,  1790  ;  II  nuovo  convitato  di  pietra, 
Bologna,  1791.  His  oratorio  Abrahami  sac- 
rificium  passed  for  his  finest  work,  and  ob- 
tained great  success  at  the  close  of  the  18th 
century. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GARIBALDI,  GIUSEPPE,  contempo- 
rary. Flutist,  born  in  Italy,  and  lived  in 
France,  where  he  published  a  large  immber 
of  compositions  for  his  instrument,  and 
wrote  the  operas-comiques  :  Au  clair  de  la 
lune  and  La  jeunesse  de  Hoche,  both  given 
at  Versailles,  September,  1872,  and  the  oper- 
etta, Lc  reve  d'un  ecolier,  given  at  a  concert, 
1868.— Fetis,  Supijle'ment,  i.  363  ;  Mendel, 
Ergiinz.,  118. 

GARNIER,  FRANCOIS  JOSEPH,  born 
at  Lauris  (Vaucluse)  in  1759,  died  there  iu 
1825.  Virtuoso  on  the  oboe,  pupil  of  Sal- 
leutiu  ;  in  1778  he  became  second,  and  in 
1786  first,  oboist  in  the  orchestra  of  the 
OjJera,  Paris,  and  from  1783  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  king's  chamber  music.  At  the 
outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he  lost  these 
positions,  but  secured  au  ajipointment  as 
commissaire  ordonuateur  in  the  Army  of  the 
Rhine  ;  at  Frankfort  he  appeared  with  great 
success  in  a  concert  given  by  Kreutzer  ; 
afterwards  attached  to  an  army  corps  in 
Italy,  he  visited  Rome  and  Najjles,  and  on 
leaving  the  army  retired  to  his  native  vil- 
lage. He  published  concertos,  and  duos 
for  his  instrument,  duos  for  oboe  and  vio- 
lin, trios  for  oboe,  flute,  and  bassoon,  and  a 


l-JO 


GARRETT 


method  for  oboe.  His  brother  Joseph, 
called  Garnier  the  younger,  was  oboist,  and 
afterwards  flutist,  iu  the  orchestra  of  the 
Opera,  1789-1814,  and  composed  a  concerto 
for  flute,  trios  for  flute,  horn,  and  bassoon, 
duos  for  flute,  and  etudes  and  a  method  for 
flute. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

GAEEETT,  GEOEGE  MUESELL,  born 
in  Winchester,  Eng- 
land, June  8,  1834, 
still  living,  1889.  Or- 
ganist, ijupil  of  S.  S. 
Wesley,  whose  assist- 
ant at  the  organ  he 
was  iu  1851-54  ;  then 
organist  successively 
of  Madras  Cathedral, 
1854-56,  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge, 
18G7  ;  University,  1873. 


bridge,  1857  ;  Mus.  Doc. 


Mus.  Bac,  Cam- 
ib.,  18G7  ;  univer- 


sity lecturer,  1883  ;  examiner  in  music  for 
University  of  Cambridge.  Works :  The  Shu- 
namite,  oratorio,  1882  ;  The  Deliverance  of 
St.  Peter,  sacred  cantata  ;  The  Triumph  of 
Love,  secular  cantata  ;  Church  services  ; 
Anthems,  part-songs,  and  songs. 

GAETH,  JOHN,  English  composer  of 
the  last  half  of  the  18th  century.  He 
probably  lived  in  London  as  an  organist. 
Works  :  6  sonatas  for  harpsichord,  two  vio- 
lins, and  violoncello  (17G8) ;  6  organ  volun- 
taries ;  30  collects  set  to  music.  He  pub- 
lished, also:  "The  First  Fifty  Psalms,  set 
to  music  by  Benedetto  Marcello  "  (Loudon, 
8  vols.,  1757).— Mendel. 

G.ARTNEE,  JOHANN,  born  ou  the 
Petersberg,  near  Fulda,  in  1740,  died  in 
Fulda  in  1789.  Flutist,  pupil  in  Mannheim 
of  Wendling  ;  travelled  over  Germany,  and 
then  settled  down  as  first  flute  of  the  court 
chapel  of  the  abbot  Prince  of  Fulda,  who 
had  been  his  patron.  W^orks  :  Operettas  ; 
Flute  solos  ;  Cantatas. — Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

G.A.SCOGNE  (Gascongne,  Gaseoine,  Gas- 
cong),  MATHIEU,  French  composer  of  the 
beginning  of  the  16th  century.  His  motets 
are  found  in  Attaignant's  collection  of  1534, 


and  in  Salblinger's  collection  of  1545.  Bai- 
ni  mentions  his  masses,  written  ou  French 
chansons,  as  preserved  in  the  archives  of 
the  Pontifical  Chapel.  Under  the  name  of 
Gascoug  his  masses  in  MS.  are  found  in 
the  royal  library  at  Munich  ;  others  are  in 
the  pulilic  library  at  Cambrai  among  the 
MSS.  of  the  16th  century.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GASPAR  VAN  WERBECKE  (Weerbeke), 
born  in  Audenarde,  Flanders,  about  1440, 
died  after  1509.  He  was  singing  master  to 
the  house  of  Sforza  in  Milan  until  1490, 
when  he  returned  to  his  native  town. 
Works  :  Misser  (sic)  Gaspar,  5  masses  (pub- 
lished by  Petrucci,  Venice,  1509)  ;  3  parts 
of  masses  in  Fragmenta  missarum  (ib., 
1509) ;  a  mass  in  Missarum  diversorum  auc- 
torum  liber  primus  (1508) ;  Sevei'al  motets 
and  lamentations  in  Petrucci's  diflerent  col- 
lections ;  Manuscript  masses  in  library  of 
Pontifical  Chapel. — Fetis  ;  Eiemann  ;  Am- 
bros,  iii.  246. 

GASPAEI,  GAETANO,  born  in  Bologna, 
March  14,  1807,  died  there,  March  31,  1881. 
Church  composer,  p)upil  of  Benedetto  Do- 
nelli  at  the  Lyceo,  where  he  won  several 
important  prizes.  He  became  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  church  at  Cento  in  1828, 
and  of  the  cathedral  at  Imola  in  1836-39, 
when  he  was  called  to  assist  Donelli  at  the 
Lyceo  in  Bologna.  He  became  librarian  of 
the  musical  library  of  the  Lyceo  in  1856, 
and  maestro  of  S.  Petrouio  in  1857.  A 
clever  contrapuntist,  he  wrote  church  com- 
positions, chiefly  Miserere  and  masses.  He 
published,  also :  ]\Iemorie  risguardanti  la 
storia  dell'  arte  musicals  in  Bologna  al  xvi 
secolo. — Fetis,  iii.  413  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i. 
364  ;  Mendel ;  Eiemann. 

GASPAEINI  (Guasparini),  FRANCES- 
CO, born  at  Camajore,  near  Lucca,  March 
5,  1668,  died  iu  Eome,  April,  1727.  Dra- 
matic comjjoser,  pupil  in  Eome  of  Corelli 
and  Pasquini.  He  was  maestro  di  coro  at 
the  Ospedale  della  Pieta,  Venice,  and  mem- 
ber of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica.  In  1725 
he  was  elected  maestro  by  the  chapter  of  S. 
Giovanni  iu  Laterano,  Rome,  with  Girolamo 


121 


GAsrARmi 


Cbiti  as  bis  coadjutor,  but  ill-bealtb  com- 
pelled bim  soou  after  to  retire  ou  balf-pay. 
He  wrote  equally  well  for  tbe  stage  and 
tbe  cbureb,  but  tbe  work  by  wbicb  be  is 
best  remembered  is  bis  treatise  ou  accom- 
paniment entitled,  "  L'  armonico  prattico 
al  cembalo,"  etc.  (Venice,  1G83 ;  7tb  ed., 
1802),  wbicb  bas  maintained  its  position 
in  Italy,  even  since  tbe  appearance  of  tbe 
clearer  and  better-arranged  treatise  by 
Feuaroli.  Works  :  Tiberio,  imperatore 
d'  Oriente,  given  in  Venice,  Teatro  Saut'  Au- 
giolo,  1702  ;  Amor  della  patria,  Imenei 
stabiliti  dal  caso,  II  priucipe  tra  i  vassali, 
Rome,  1703  ;  II  miglior  d'  ogni  amore  per 
il  peggior  d'  ogni  odio,  Venice,  Teatro  San 
Cassiano,  1703  ;  Fedc  tradita  e  vendicata. 
La  mascbera  levata  al  vizio,  Rome,  1704  ; 
Amleto,  Antioco,  Fredegouda,  ib.,  1705 ; 
II  principato  custodito  dalla  fraude,  Statira, 
Venice,  Teatro  San  Cassiano,  1705  ;  Jaicou, 
re  della  China,  Rome,  1706  ;  Amor  gene- 
roso,  Anfitrioue,  ib.,  1707 ;  Flavio  Anicio 
Olibrio,  ib.,  1708 ;  L'  Alcide,  o  violenza  d' 
amore,  Engelberta,  ib.,  1709  ;  Laprincipessa 
fedele,  Sesostri,  re  d'  Egitto,  Tamerlano, 
La  ninfa  Apollo,  Venice,  Teatro  San  Cas- 
siano, 1710  ;  Costautiuo,  La  pazzia  amo- 
rosa,  ib.,  1711  ;  Mcrope,  ib.,  1712  ;  La  ve- 
rita  neir  iugauuo,  ib.,  1713  ;  Bajazette,  ib., 
1711) ;  II  Pirro,  H  trace  in  catena,  Rome, 
1717  ;  Lucio  Vero,  Astianatte,  ib.,  1719  ;  11 
Faramoudo,  Amore  e  Maestu,  ib.,  1720  ;  La 
Zoe,  ovvero  il  comandononinteso,  ib.,  1721  ; 
Gli  equivoci  d'  amore  e  d'  iunocenza,  La 
fede  in  cimento,  Venice,  1730  ;  Mose  liber- 
ate dal  Nilo,  oratorio. — Fetis ;  Grove  ;  Men- 
del ;  Riemann  ;  Scbilling. 

GASPARINI,  MICHELE  ANGELO,  born 
at  Lucca,  died  in  Venice  in  1732.  Dra- 
matic composer  and  contralto  singer,  pujjil 
of  Lotti.  He  founded  in  Venice  a  cele- 
brated school  of  singing,  where  many  well- 
known  singers  were  formed,  among  otbers 
Faustina  Bordoni.  Works — Operas  :  II 
principe  selvaggio,  given  in  Venice,  1695  ; 
II  Rodomonte,  ib.,  171-t; ;  Ai'sace,  ib.,  1715  ; 
Lamano,    ib.,    1719  ;    II   piii    fedel   tra   gli 


amici,  ib.,  1721. — Fc'tis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iv. 
526  ;  Mendel. 

GASPARINI,  QUIEINO,  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  to  tbe  Iving  of  Sardinia,  Turin,  in 
1749-70.  He  was  a  virtuoso  violoncellist 
and  composed  motets,  a  Stabat  Mater,  and 
trios  for  two  violins  and  violoncello,  which 
last  were  published  in  London. — Fetis; 
Mendel. 

GASSE,  FERDINAND,  born  in  Naples, 
March,  1788,  died  (?).  Violinist  and  dra- 
matic composer ;  pupil  at  tbe  Paris  Con- 
servatoire of  Kreiitzer,  Catel,  and  Gossec. 
He  won  the  1st  violin  prize  in  1801 ;  tbe 
2d  grand  prix  in  1801,  and  tbe  grand  pri.x: 
de  Rome  in  1805.  He  was  violinist  in  tbe 
orchestra  of  tbe  Opera,  Paris,  in  1812-35. 
Works— Operas  :  La  linta  Ziugara,  opera 
buifa,  given  at  Naples,  1812  ;  Le  voyage 
incognito,  Paris,  Opera  Comique,  1819 ; 
L'  idiote,  ib.,  1820  ;  Une  unit  de  Gustave 
Wasa,  ib.,  1825  ;  Te  Deum  for  two  cbo- 
i-uses ;  Cbriste  eleison,  fugue  for  six  voices  ; 
Three  duos  for  violins,  op.  1 ;  Duos  faciles, 
2d  and  3d  book  ;  3  grand  duos  coiicertants  ; 
3  duos  faciles  ;  3  sonatas  for  violin  and  vio- 
loncello.-— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GASSMANN,  FLORLVN  LEOPOLD, 
born  at  Briix,  Bohemia,  May  4,  1723,  died 
in  Vienna,  Jan.  21,  1774.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, ran  away  from  home  when  thirteen 
years  old,  and,  supporting  himself  by  play- 
ing the  harp,  worked  bis  way  to  Bologna 
and  became  the  pupil  of  Padre  Martini, 
who  established  bim  as  organist  of  a  church 
in  Venice.  He  entered  the  service  of  Count 
Leonardo  Veneri,  and  soon  began  to  attract 
attention  by  bis  comijositions.  In  1762  the 
Emperor  Francis  I.  called  him  to  Vienna 
as  composer  for  the  theatre,  and  Jose^jb  II. 
subsequently  ajipointed  him  Hoflcapellmeis- 
ter  and  librarian  of  the  imperial  musical 
library.  He  founded  the  Society  for  tbe 
widows  and  orphans  of  Vienna  musicians, 
which  in  1862  was  reorganized  under  the 
name  of  Haydn  Society.  His  most  distin- 
guished pupil  was  Salicri.  He  composed  a 
great  deal  of  church  music,  which  Mozart 


GASSNER 


tliouglit  more  of  than  of  his  operas,  among 
which  are  :  A  Mass,  for  chorus  and  orches- 
tra, and  a  very  fine  Dies  irpe ;  Psalms,  hymns, 
offertories,  and  an  oratorio,  Betulia  liberata, 
which  had  a  briUiant  success.  Works — 
Operas  :  Slerope,  given  in  Italy,  about  1759  ; 
Issipile,  ib.,  ab.  17G0  ;  Catone  in  Utica,  ib., 
ab.  17G1  ;  Ezio  (two  different  settings),  ib., 
ab.  17G1  ;  Olimpiade,  Vienna,  17G4 ;  II 
mondo  nella  luna,  Venice,  1765  ;  II  trion- 
fo  d'  Amore,  ib.,  17G7  ;  Gli  uccellatori,  Vi- 
enna, rewritten  for  Venice,  17G8  ;  II  filosofo 
innamorato,  ib.,  17G8  ;  do.  (new  music,  Vi- 
enna, 1771) ;  Un  pazzo  ne  f;i  cento,  ib., 
17G9  ;  I  viaggiatori  ridicoli,  Vienna,  17G9  ; 
L'  Amor  artigiano,  ib.,  17G9,  Milan,  1770  ; 
La  pescatrice,  Vienna,  1771  ;  I  rovinati, 
La  casa  di  campagna,  Amore  e  Venere,  ib., 
1772.  Two  German  operas  :  Die  jiiuge  Gri'i- 
fin,  Berlin,  about  17G9  ;  Die  Liebe  unter 
den  Handwerlisleuten.  Instrumental  mu- 
sic :  Symphonies  for  orchestra  ;  G  quartets 
for  flute,  viola,  and  bass  ;  G  quintets  for  2 
violins,  2  violas,  and  bass  ;  G  quartets  for  2 
violins,  viola,  and  violoncello  (Amsterdam). 
— Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Wurz- 
bach. 

GASSNER,  FERDINAND  SIMON,  born 
in  Vienna,  Jan.  G,  179S,  died  in  Carlsruhe, 
Feb.  25,  1851.  Violinist,  went  early  to 
Carlsruhe,  where  he  studied  the  violin  while 
attending  the  gymnasium  ;  entered  the 
court  orchestra,  and  in  ISIG  became  violinist 
of  the  new  Nationaltlieatcr  in  Mainz  and 
soon  after  Correpetitor  and  vice  music  di- 
rector, being  influenced  by  Gottfried  Weber. 
In  1818  he  was  university  music  director  in 
Giessen,  received  in  1819  the  degree  of  doc- 
tor, and  authority  to  lecture  on  music  ;  re- 
turned to  the  Carlsruhe  orchestra  in  182G, 
and  was  later  singing  teacher  and  music 
director  of  the  court  theatre  there.  Com- 
posed operas,  ballets,  cantatas,  and  other 
music,  edited  musical  journals,  and  wrote 
several  books.  Works  :  Der  Scliifflsrueh, 
opera  ;  Das  Stiindchen,  do.  ;  Die  Jliiller, 
ballet  ;  Several  other  ballets  ;  Die  Aufer- 
weckung  des  Junglings  von  Nain,  cantata  ; 


Songs  and  male  choruses. — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  viii.  40G  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Weech, 
Badische  Biogr.,  i.  277  ;  Wurzbach. 

GASTINEL,  LEON  GUST  AVE  CY- 
PRIEN,  born  at  Villers  -  les  -  Pots  (Cote 
d'Or),  France,  Aug.  15,  182.3,  still  living, 
1889.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Halevy, 
won  in  18J:G  the  grand  prix  de  Rome  for 
his  cantata  Velasquez.  Several  of  his  ope- 
ras-comiques  have  been  successful.  Works 
— Operas  :  Le  miroir,  given  in  Paris,  Jan. 
19,  1853  ;  L'opera  aux  fenetres,  1857  ; 
Titus  et  Berenice,  18G0  ;  Le  buisson  vert, 
18G1  ;  Bianca  Capello  ;  La  Kermesse  ;  Les 
dames  des  pres  ;  La  tulips  bleue  ;  Le  roi 
barde  (the  last  five  unrepresented).  Orato- 
rios :  Le  dernier  jour,  1853  ;  Les  sept  pa- 
roles ;  Saiil  ;  La  fee  des  eaux  ;  Mexico,  can- 
tata, 18G3  ;  3  grand  masses  ;  3  symphonies  ; 
Concerto  for  two  violins  with  orchestra  ;  2 
overtures  ;  Chamber  music  ;  Songs.— Fetis  ; 
do..  Supplement,  i.  3G5  ;  Mendel. 

GASTOLDI,  GIOVANNI  GLICOMO, 
born  at  Caravaggio,  Italy,  about  the  middle 
of  the  IGth  centurj',  died  after  159G.  Maes- 
tro di  cappella  in  Mantua,  and  in  1592  in 
Milan.  His  Balletti  da  suonare,  cantare  e 
ballare  are  said  to  have  served  Morley  as 
models  for  his  Ballets  or  Fa-las.  Two  of 
tliem  are  well  known  to  English  amateurs  : 
Maiden  fair,  of  Mantua  city,  and.  Soldiers, 
brave  and  gallant  be.  He  was  a  prolific 
writer  of  canzonets  and  madrigals.  Thei'e 
were  published  five  or  more  books  of  his 
madrigals  for  five,  six,  eight,  and  nine 
voices,  8  books  of  canzonets  for  three,  four, 
and  five  voices,  besides  books  of  masses, 
psalms,  vespers,  etc.,  published  in  Venice, 
Mantua,  Milan,  and  Antwerp,  between  1581 
and  IGll.  He  was  one  of  the  composers 
who  dedicated  a  collection  of  psalms  for 
five  voices  to  Palestrina  in  1592  (Martini). 
His  madrigals  are  found  in  a  collection  j)ub- 
lished  at  Antwerp  by  Andre  Peveruage  in 
1593  with  the  title,  Harmonie  celesti  di  di- 
versi  excel,  mus.  They  are  also  in  the  col- 
lection Trionfo  di  Dori  (Venice,  1596)  ;  in 
IMadrigali  a  otto  voci  (Phalesius,  Antwerp, 


12.3 


GASTEITZ 


1596)  ;  and  in  many  other  collections  of  that 
time. — Fetis  ;  Grove,  Mendel  ;  Kiemann. 

GASTEITZ  (Castritz,  Castricius,  Castri- 
tius),  ]\L\TTHTAS,  German  eomj)Oser  of 
the  IGth  century.  He  was  organist  in  Am- 
berg,  Upper  Palatinate,  about  1571  ;  wrote 
Latin  and  German  songs,  and  particularly 
the  melody  to  Herzlich  lieb  hab'  ich  dich,  o 
Herr.  He  is  sometimes  called  erroneously 
Iilichael  Gastritz. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.  ;  Mo- 
natshefte  fiir  Musik-Geschichte,  v.  123  ;  vi. 
26  ;  Mendel. 

GATAYES,  F£LIX,  born  in  Paris,  1809, 
still  living,  1889  (?).  Pianist,  self-taught, 
afterwards  received  a  few  lessons  from 
Liszt ;  he  improvised  with  rare  facility,  and 
won  great  applause  on  his  concert  tours, 
which  led  him  for  twenty  years  through 
Europe,  Ameiica,  and  Australia.  His  sym- 
phonies and  overtures  for  orchestra  are  es- 
teemed by  critics.  For  jjccuniary  reasons 
he  devoted  himself  later  to  compositions  for 
military  band. — Fetis. 

GATAYES,  GLTLLAUME  PIERRE  AN- 
TOINE,  born  in  Paris,  Dec.  20,  1774,  died 
there,  October,  1846.  An  illegitimate  son 
of  the  Prince  de  Conti  and  the  Marquise 
de  Silly,  he  ran  away  from  the  theological 
seminary  where  he  had  been  placed  and  was 
befriended  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution  by 
Marat,  who  was  attracted  by  his  singing  and 
guitar  playing.  His  romances,  especially 
Mon  delire,  which  was  sung  throughout 
France,  soon  won  him  popularity  and  he 
became  noted  as  a  guitar  and  harp  virtuoso. 
His  guitar  method  (1790)  was  for  a  long 
time  the  only  one  used  in  France.  He  pub- 
lished trios  for  guitar,  flute,  and  violin  ; 
duos  for  two  guitars,  for  guitar  and  piano- 
forte, for  guitar  and  violin  or  flute,  and  for 
harp  and  horn  ;  and  solos  for  guitar  and  for 
harp.  His  son,  Joseph  Leon  Gataj-es  (1805- 
1877),  was  a  harp  virtuoso  and  composer. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Larousse  ;  Riemann. 

GATTI,  Abbate  LUIGI,  born  in  Mantua, 
Italy,  about  1750,  died('?).  Dramatic  com- 
poser ;  maestro  di  cappeUa  at  Salzburg  in 
1790.     Works— Operas  :  L'  Olimpiade,  Pia- 


cenza,  1784 ;  La  Nitteti,  Lucca,  1786 ; 
Demofoonte,  Mantua,  1787.  The  Death  of 
Abel,  oratorio,  1788  ;  Church  music  in  MS. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GATTI,  SIMONE,  born  in  Venice  about 
the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  died  (?). 
Composer  of  several  religious  dramas  or 
mysteries  written  for  the  Duke  Albert  of 
Bavaria,  in  whose  chapel  he  was  musician, 
after  serving  in  the  same  capacity  in  that  of 
the  Archduke  Charles  of  Austria. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

GATTI,  TEOB.ALDO  DI,  born  in  Flor- 
ence about  1650,  died  in  Paris,  1727.  Dra- 
matic composer.  He  heard  Lulli's  music 
in  Italy  and  went  to  Pai-is  to  join  him, 
served  in  his  orchestra  at  the  Opera,  and  re- 
mained there  fifty  years.  Works  :  Coronis, 
pastorale,  given  in  Paris,  Opera,  1691  ; 
Sylla,  ojiera,  ib.,  1701  ;  Twelve  Italian  arias 
(Paris,  1696).— Fetis  ;  Hawkins,  Hist.,  v. 
45  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

GATTY,  ALFRED  SCOTT,  born  at  Ec- 
clesfield,  England,  April  25,  1847,  still  liv- 
ing, 1889.  Vocal  composer,  studied  at 
Marlborough  and  Christ's  College,  Cam- 
bridge. Appointed,  1880,  Rouge  Dragon, 
Pursuivant  of  Arms,  Heralds'  College, 
London.  Works  :  Sandford  and  Merton's 
Christmas  Party,  operetta,  1880  ;  Songs  ; 
Pianoforte  music. 

GAUCQUIER  (du  Gaucquier,  Nuceus), 
ALARD  DUNOYER,  born  at  Lille,  Flan- 
ders, first  half  of  the  16th  centurj'.  He  was 
tenor  in  1564,  and  second  maitre  de  chapelle, 
in  1567-76,  to  the  Archdukes  of  Austria 
Ferdinand  I.,  Maximilian  H.,  and  Matthias. 
Works :  Magnificat,  4-6  voc.  (1547)  ;  Qua- 
tuor  missse  5,  6  et  8  vocum  (Antwerp,  1581). 
— Fetis  ;  Van  der  Straeten,  iii.  150  ;  v.  103  ; 
Mendel  ;  Ambros,  iii.  325. 

GAUDE,  THEODOR,  born  at  Wesel-on- 
the-Ehine,  June  3,  1782,  died  (?).  He  fin- 
ished his  musical  education  in  Paris,  where 
he  made  a  reputation  as  a  guitar  virtuoso 
and  teacher.  In  1814  he  started  on  a  con- 
cert tour  for  St.  Petersburg,  but  was  taken 
sick  in  Hamburg,  and  on  recovering  settled 


GAUDEAMUS 


there  as  a  teacher  of  his  instrument,  for 
which  he  composed  and  pubUshed  about 
80  works. — Mendel ;  SchilHng  ;  do.,  Sup- 
plement, 162. 

GAUDEAMUS  IGITUE,  Humoreske  for 
orchestra,  soli,  and  chorus,  by  Franz  Liszt, 
op.  10.  Published,  score  and  parts  ;  also 
for  i^ianoforte  (2  and  -i  hands),  Schuberth. 

GAUL,  ALFKED  (EOBEET),  born  in 
Norwich,  England, 
April  30,  1837,  'still  liv- 
ing, 1888.  He  was  a 
cathedral  boy  at  Nor- 
wich, from  nine  until 
fifteen  years  old,  when 
he  was  articled  to  Dr. 
Zachariah  Buck,  or- 
ganist of  the  cathedral. 
In  1851-59  he  was  or- 
ganist at  Fakenham,  Norfolk,  and  in  the 
latter  year  he  became  organist  of  St.  Augus- 
tine's, Edgebaston,  Birmingham,  a  jiosition 
he  still  holds.  He  is  also  teacher  of  harmony 
and  counterpoint  at  the  Midland  Institute 
and  conductor  of  the  Sunday  School  Union 
Choral  Society,  Birmingham.  Mus.  Bac, 
Cambridge,  18G2.  Works  :  Hezekiah,  ora- 
torio, 18G0  ;  1st  Psalm,  cantata  ;  9Gth  Psalm, 
for  solo  voices  and  8-part  chorus  ;  Kuth, 
cantata,  1881  ;  The  Holy  City,  do.,  Bir- 
mingham Festival,  1882  ;  Passion  Service, 
do.  ;  Joan  of  Arc,  historical  cantata,  text 
by  Frederick  Enoch,  Birmingham  Festival, 
1887  ;  Offertory  Sentences  ;  Anthems  ; 
Glees ;  Songs  and  part-songs.  His  Holy 
Citj'  is  often  sung  in  the  United  States  ;  his 
Passion  Service  was  sung  for  the  first  time 
in  America  at  Chickering  Hall,  New  York, 
Dec.  15,  1885  ;  and  his  Euth,  ib.,  Feb.  14, 
1887. 

GAULTTEE ,  French  dramatic  com- 
poser in  the  last  part  of  the  18th  century. 
He  wrote  the  following  operas  for  the  The- 
atre des  Jeunes  Artistes,  Paris  :  Pheuix,  ou 
I'ile  des  vieilles,  1796  ;  Zephyr  et  Flore,  ou 
rose  d' Amour,  1797 ;  Le  dodit,  1798  ;  Le 
nid  d'Amours,  1798  ;  Vert- Vert,  ou  le  per- 
roquet  de   Nevers,    1800  ;   Frosiue,    ou   la 


negresse,  1801  ;  Le  petit  Poucet,  ou  I'or- 
phelin  de  la  forct ;  Josejih. — Fotis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  367  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  119. 

GAULTIEE,  DENIS,  born  at  Marseilles 
between  1600  and  1010,  died  in  Paris  be- 
fore or  in  1664  Celebrated  virtuoso  on 
the  lute,  went  early  in  life  to  Paris,  where 
he  studied  law,  and  about  1637  was  already 
famous  as  a  lute  player.  In  1647-48  he  es- 
tablished, with  his  cousin  Jacques  Gaultier, 
the  Paris  school  of  the  lute,  where  they  con- 
jointly formed  many  pupils.  In  1056  he 
became  lieutenant-general  of  the  bailiwick 
at  Clermont,  and  after  1660  lived  again  in 
Paris.  He  was  equally  great  as  a  virtuoso 
and  composer,  and  looked  upon  by  his  con- 
temporaries as  the  most  distinguished  rep- 
lesentative  of  lute  music  in  general.  Of  his 
compositions  two  j)rinted  collections  are 
preserved  :  Pieces  de  luth  (1660),  and  Livre 
de  tablature,  besides  the  Codex  Hamilton, 
containing  La  rhetorique  des  dieux,  a  col- 
lection of  62  pieces  in  manuscript  (1650- 
55  '?),  now  in  the  cabinet  of  engravings  at 
the  Berlin  Museum. — Vierteljahrsschrift  fiir 
Musikwissenschaft,  ii.  (1886)  1-180. 

GAULTIEE,  JACQUES  (Gautier  le 
vieux?),  called  Gautier  d'Angleterre,  born 
(at  Lyons  ?)  about  1600,  died  in  Paris  be- 
fore 1671.  Virtuoso  on  the  lute,  pupil  of 
Mesangeau  ;  was  royal  lutist  in  London, 
1017-47,  had  won  reputation  in  1622,  and 
settled  in  Paris,  1647,  where  he  formed 
many  pupils  of  note,  with  his  cousin  Denis 
Gaultier.  He  is  probably  identical  with 
Gautier  le  vieux,  Sieur  de  Neiie,  of  Lyons. 
Some  of  his  compositions  are  preserved  in 
the  Codex  Milleran  in  the  library  of  the 
Conservatoire,  Paris.  —  Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir  Musikwissenschaft,  ii.  2-11. 

GAULTIEE,  PIEEEE,  born  at  La  Ciotat, 
Provence,  in  1642,  died  in  the  harbor  of 
Cette  in  1697.  Dramatic  composer  in  the 
style  of  LuUi,  of  whom  he  bought,  in  1685, 
for  Marseilles,  his  patent  to  give  operas, 
and  brought  out  with  great  success  his 
opera  Le  triomphe  de  la  paix,  March  22, 
1687.     He  then  played  with  his  company 


125 


GAUNTLETT 


alternately  at  Marseilles,  Montpellicr,  ami 
Lyons,  and  on  embarking  in  1097  for  Mar- 
seilles was  shipwrecked  and  lost  with  his 
entire  troupe.  He  published  also  a  collec- 
tion of  duos  and  trios  for  violin  and  flute, 
and  left  other  instrumental  music  in  MS. 
— Vierteljahrsschrift  f.  Musikwissenschaft, 
ii.  28. 

GAUNTLETT,  HENRY  JOHN,  born  at 
Wellington,  Shropshire,  England,  in  1806, 
died  in  London,  Feb.  11,  1876.  Organist, 
studied  law  and  music ;  practised  law  in 
1831-42  ;  organist  in  1827-47  of  St.  Olave's, 
Southwark,  and  afterwards  of  several  other 
churches.  Mus.  Doc,  Lambeth,  1842.  In 
1846  he  was  chosen  by  Mendelssohn  to  play 
the  organ  part  in  Elijah,  on  its  jiroduction 
at  Birmingham.  Works  :  Hymns  for  Mat- 
ins and  Evensong  (1844)  ;  Church  Hymnal 
and  Tune  Book,  with  W.  J.  Blew  (1844-51) ; 
Cantus  melodici  (1845)  ;  The  Congrega- 
tional Psalmist,  with  Dr.  Allon  (1851)  ; 
Hymns  and  Glorias ;  Tunes  new  and  old 
(1868) ;  Anthems  ;  Songs  and  glees  ;  Organ 
music. — Grove  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  110. 

G.\USSOIN,  AUGUSTS  LOUIS,  born  in 
Brussels,  July  4,  1814,  died  there,  Jan.  11, 
1846.  Composer,  professor  at  the  Brus- 
sels Conservatoire.  Pnpil  of  Masset,  Snel, 
Hanssens,  and  Ft'tis.  In  1837  he  insti- 
tuted people's  concerts  in  Brussels,  and  free 
choral  schools  for  workmen.  Works  :  Ser- 
enade for  orchestra  ;  Le  poMe  mourant, 
cantata  ;  La  mort  du  contrebandier,  do.  ; 
Overture  for  grand  orchestra ;  La  chute 
des  feuilles,  elogie  ;  Album  lyrique  ;  Album 
de  chant. — Fetis,  Sujiplement,  i.  307  ;  Men- 
del, Ergiinz.,  119. 

GAUTIER  (Gautier  le  vieux,  or  I'aneien), 
DENIS,  Sieur  de  Neiie,  born  about  1620, 
died  in  1678-80.  Lutist  at  the  French 
court ;  published  a  Livre  de  tablature  de 
pieces  de  luth  sur  ditferents  modes  (Paris, 
1664),  and  other  music. — Ft'tis  ;  Mendel. 

GAUTIER,  JEAN  FRAN^'OIS  EUGENE, 
born  at  Vaugirard,  near  Paris,  Feb.  27, 
1822,  died  there,  April  3,  1878.  Violinist, 
pupil  of  Habeneck  and  Halevy  at  the  Con- 


servatoire, Paris  ;  won  the  1st  violin  prize 
in  1838)  and  the  2d  grand  prix  in  1842. 
He  became  in  1848  second  chef  d'orchestre 
at  the  Lyrique,  in  1864  chef  de  chant  at  the 
Theatre  Italien,  and  in  the  same  year  pro- 
fessor of  harmony  at  the  Conservatoire  for 
the  female  classes  and  afterwards  of  the  class 
in  musical  history.  He  was  also  for  several 
years  maitre  de  chapelle  of  the  Church  of 
Saint-Eugi'ue,  Paris.  Works — Operas  :  L'an- 
neau  de  Marie,  given  at  Versailles,  1845  ; 
Les  baiTicades  (with  Pilati),  Paris,  1848  ; 
Le  marin  de  la  garde,  ib.,  1849  ;  Murdock 
le  bandit,  ib.,  1851 ;  Flore  et  Zophire, 
Choisy  le  Roi,  ib.,  1852  ;  Schahabaham  H., 
ib.,  1854 ;  Le  mariage  extravagant,  ib., 
1857  ;  Le  docteur  Mirobolan,  ib.,  1860  ;  La 
bacchante,  Jocrisse,  ib.,  1802  ;  Le  trc'sor  de 
Pierrot,  ib.,  1864  ;  La  clef  d'or  ;  La  mort 
de  Josus,  oratorio  ;  Lo  15  aoftt,  cantata, 
1801  ;  Ave  Maria,  1848.— Fetis;  do.,  Sup- 
lik'raent,  i.  368  :  Mendel ;  do.,  Ergiinz,  120  ; 
Riemann. 

GAVEAUX,  PIERRE,  born  at  Beziers 
(Herault),  France,  August,  1761,  died  in  the 
hospital  for  insane  atCharenton  (Paris),  Feb. 
5,  1825.  At  the  age  of  six  he  became  choir- 
boy at  the  cathedral  in  his  native  town.  He 
was  destined  for  the  church,  and  studied 
Latin  and  philosophj-.  In  1778  ho  purposed 
going  to  Najjles  to  complete  his  musical 
studies,  but  was  prevented  by  the  Bishop 
of  Beziers  offering  him  a  benefice.  On  the 
death  of  this  prelate,  however,  he  accepted 
the  position  of  first  tenor  at  the  Church  of 
Saint-Severin  at  Bordeaux,  where  he  also 
studied  composition  under  F.  Beck.  After 
the  successful  production  of  several  compo- 
sitions, he  determined  to  make  music  his 
vocation ;  so  he  quitted  the  cloth,  and  en- 
tered the  company  at  the  Bordeaux  theatre 
as  tenor.  In  1788  he  went  to  Montpellier, 
and  in  1789  to  Paris,  where  he  was  made 
leading  tenor  at  the  Theatre  de  Monsieur, 
which  was  then  at  the  Tuileries.  When  the 
Feydeau  was  opened,  on  Jan.  6,  1791,  this 
company  was  joined  with  the  Italian  troupe 
of  the  foire  Saint-Germain,  and  from  that 


GAVINIES 


time  Gaveaux  never  sang  at  any  other  thea- 
tre. In  1801  the  companies  of  the  The:'itre 
Favart  and  the  Feydeau  were  united,  and 
Gaveaux  was  made  a  member  of  the  new 
combination,  but  no  longer  as  first  tenor. 
His  compositions,  too,  began  to  atti-act  less 
attention  than  formerly,  and  his  singing 
could  not  vie  with  that  of  Elleviou  and 
Martin.  In  1812  an  attack  of  insanity 
forced  him  to  quit  the  stage.  He  recovered 
a  few  months  later,  but  in  1810  his  insanity 
returned,  and  he  was  sent  to  Charenton, 
where  he  remained  until  his  death.  Ga- 
veaux wrote  many  operas  for  the  Feydeau, 
in  which  his  graceful,  facile  style  almost 
made  up  for  a  certain  lack  of  melodic 
originality ;  but  for  a  time  his  works  were 
very  popular.  Works :  Le  paria,  ou  la 
chaumicre  indienue,  given  at  the  ThOutre 
Feydeau,  1792  ;  Les  deux  Suisses,  ib.  (after 
the  events  of  Aug.  10th,  entitled  L'amour 
filial,  ou  la  jambe  de  bois)  ;  Les  deux 
ermites.  La  famille  indigente.  La  partie 
carroe,  1793  ;  Sophronime,  1791:  ;  Le  petit 
matelot,  Lise  et  Colin,  1795  ;  Tout  par 
hasard,  Celiane,  Delmon  et  Nadine,  La 
gasconnade,  1796  ;  Le  traitu  nul,  Sophie  et 
Moncars,  ou  I'intrigue  portugaise,  1797  ; 
Lconore,  ou  l'amour  conjugal  (his  best 
work,  subject  identical  with  Beethoven's 
Fidelio),  1798  ;  Les  noms  supposc's,  1798  ; 
Les  deux  jockeys,  1799  ;  Owinska,  Le  trom- 
peur  trompe,  1800  ;  Le  locataire.  Theatre 
Favart,  1800  ;  Avis  aux  femmes,  Un  quart 
d'heure  de  silence.  Theatre  Feydeau,  1804  ; 
Le  diable  couleur  de  rose,  ou  le  bonhomme 
Misere,  Le  boufl'e  et  le  tailleur,  Trop  tut, 
Le  manage  inattendu.  Theatre  Montansier, 
1804 ;  L'amour  a  Cythere,  Opera,  1805  ; 
Monsieur  Deschalumeaux,  Theatre  Feydeau, 
1805  ;  Le  diable  en  vacance.  Theatre  Mon- 
tansier, 1805  ;  L'echelle  de  sole.  Theatre  Fey- 
deau, 1808  ;  La  rose  blanche  et  la  rose  rouge, 
1809;  L'eufant  prodigue,  1811;  Une  nuit 
au  bois,  ou  le  muet  de  cireonstance,  1818. 
— Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  369  ;  Mendel. 
GAVINIES,  PIERRE,  born  in  Bordeaux, 
May  26,  1726,  died  in  Paris,  Sept.  9,  1800. 


I  Violinist,  considered  in  France  the  founder 
of  the  French  school  ;  mostly  self-taught, 
forming  his  style  chiefly  after  that  of  the 
great  Italian  violinists.  He  made  his  debut 
in  1741,  at  one  of  the  Concerts  Spirituels, 
and  after  that  resided  chiefly  in  Paris, 
where  he  soon  won  the  reputation  of  being- 
one  of  the  greatest  violinists  of  his  age. 
His  Romance  de  Gavinies,  played  at  his 
concerts,  is  said  to  have  always  moved 
his  hearers  to  teai's.  He  became  director 
of  the  Concerts  Spirituels  with  Gossec  in 
1773,  and  professor  of  violin  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire in  1795.  Among  his  pupils  were 
Capron,  Robineau,  Le  Due  aiue,  Paisible, 
Imbault,  Baudran,  and  Verdiguies.  Works  ; 
Le  pretendu,  opura-comique,  played  at  the 
Comedie  Italienne,  1760 ;  Les  vingt-quatre 
matinees  (1794)  ;  6  sonatas  for  violin  with 
bass ;  6  do.,  op.  3  ;  6  concertos  for  violin 
and  bass  ;  3  sonatas  for  violin  solo  (Nader- 
man,  Paris,  1801). — Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Hart, 
The  Violin,  285  ;  Larousse  ;  Fayolle,  No- 
tices sur  Corelli,  Tartini,  Gavinies  et  Viotti 
(1810). 

GAYER,  JOHANN  JOSEPH  GEORG, 
born  at  Engelhaus,  Bohemia,  April  17, 
1748,  died  in  Homburg  in  1811.  Violinist, 
pupil  in  Prague  of  Pichl,  and  in  composi- 
tion of  Loos.  He  made  a  concert  tour  to 
Darmstadt,  and  in  1774  became  Conzert- 
meister  in  Homburg.  His  compositions  in- 
clude symphonies,  church  music,  concertos 
for  the  violin,  horn,  and  other  instruments. 
—Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

GAZTAMBIDE,  JOAQUIN,  born  at  Tu- 
dela,  Navarre,  Spain,  Feb.  7,  1822,  died  in 
Madrid,  March  18,  1870.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Jose  Guelbenzu,  an  organist 
of  Pampeluna,  on  the  pianoforte  and  in  com- 
position, and  later,  at  the  Madrid  Conser- 
vatorio,  of  Albeniz  and  Carnicer.  When 
leader  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Teatro  del 
Principe,  Madrid,  he  brought  out  his  first 
zarzuela,  and  in  the  twenty-five  years  fol- 
lowing he  wrote  upwards  of  forty,  some  of 
which  were  verj'  jjopular.  He  became  di- 
rector  of  the  theatre   and  of   the  Conser- 


127 


(iAZZA 


vatoi'io  concerts  for  tlie  Society  for  Mutual 
Helj),  Chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Charles 
HL,  Commander  of  that  of  Isabella  la 
Catolica,  and  honorary  professor  of  the 
Couservatorio  of  Madrid.  Works  — Op- 
eras :  Escenas  de  Chamberi  (with  Bar- 
bieri,  Hernando,  and  Oudrid),  1850  ;  La 
picaresca  (with  Barbieri),  1851  ;  Por  seguii- 
a  una  mujer  (with  Barbieri,  luzenga,  and 
Oudrid),  1851  ;  El  Valle  de  Andorra,  1852  ; 
Don  Simplicio  Bobadilla  (with  Barbieri, 
Hernando,  and  Inzenga)  1853  ;  Uu  dia 
de  reinado  (with  Barbieri),  1851: ;  Cata- 
lina,  1851 ;  El  sarjento  Federico  (with 
Barbieri),  1855  ;  Eutre  dos  aguas,  1856 ; 
La  zarzuela  (with  Arrieta  and  Barbieri), 
1855  ;  Los  Magyares,  played  over  one  hun- 
dred times,  1857  ;  Amor  sin  conocer  (with 
Barbieri),  1858  ;  El  jm-amento,  1858  ;  Una 
Vieja,  1860  ;  En  las  astas  del  torre,  1862  ; 
Al  Amanecer  ;  Anarquia  conjugal  ;  Casado 
y  soltero  ;  El  amor  y  el  almuerzo  ;  El  es- 
treno  de  un  artista  ;  El  laucero  ;  La  cotor- 
ra ;  La  nina  ;  La  edad  en  la  boca  ;  Una 
historia  en  un  meson  ;  Un  plcito  ;  Tribula- 
ciones  ;  La  hija  del  pueblo  ;  Las  sefias  del 
archiduque  ;  Del  palacio  ii  la  tabei-na  ;  El 
diablo  las  carga  ;  La  mensajera  ;  Esteba- 
nillo ;  El  sueno  de  una  noche  de  verano  ; 
La  cisterua  encaiitada ;  La  conquista  do  Ma- 
drid ;  Las  hijas  dc  Eva  ;  Los  comuueros ; 
Matilde  y  Malek-Adel ;  El  secreto  de  la 
reina.  A  kinsman,  Xavier  Gaztambide, 
was  leader  of  orchestra  at  a  Madrid  theatre 
in  186G,  and  the  author  of  several  dramatic 
comijositions. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  370  ; 
Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  120. 

GAZZA  LADRA,  LA  (The  Thieving  Mag- 
pie), Italian  comic  ojDera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Gherardini,  music  by  Rossini,  first  rep- 
resented at  La  Scala,  Milan,  May  31,  1817  ; 
given  in  Loudon,  King's  Theatre,  March  10, 
1821,  and  in  Paris,  Theatre  Italien,  Sept. 
18,  1821.  It  was  first  produced  in  New 
York,  in  the  new  opera-house  in  Church 
Street,  Nov.  18,  1833.  The  libretto  is 
founded  on  a  French  melodrama,  "  La  jjie 
voleuse,"  which,   with  Mile   Jenny  Vertpre 


in  the  princijial  chai-acter,  had  a  long  and 
successful  run  at  the  Porte  Saint-Martin, 
Paris,  in  1815.  Paer,  seeing  its  operatic 
capabilities,  sent  the  play,  with  marginal 
notes  showing  how  it  should  be  divided  for 
musical  purposes,  to  bis  librettist  at  Milan  ; 
and  the  latter,  instead  of  returning  it  to 
Paer,  offered  it  to  Rossini,  who  wrote  for  it 
one  of  his  most  brilliant  scores.  The  over- 
ture, among  the  composer's  best  orchestral 
works,  begins  with  a  duet  for  snare  drums, 
one  of  the  earliest  instances  of  the  use  of  that 
instrument  in  the  orchestra.  It  was  con- 
sidered at  the  time  such  an  innovation  that 


Violante  Camporese. 

ii  j'oung  musical  enthusiast  went  about 
armed,  with  the  avowed  purjiose  of  kill- 
ing Rossini.  The  part  of  Pippo,  too,  was 
the  first  auxiliary  part  wi-itten  for  a  con- 
tralto voice,  though  generally  sung  at  the 
time,  in  the  English  and  French  theatres, 
by  a  baritone  or  bass  ;  and  it  was  not  until 
after  this  that  a  contralto  was  considered 
an  indisjiensable  member  of  an  opera 
company,  except  for  first  parts.  The  part 
of  Ninetta,  sung  in  1821  in  London  by 
Madame  Camporese  and  in  Paris  by  IMa- 
dame  Fodor,  afterwards  became  a  favourite 
character  with  Sontag,  Malibran,  and  Grisi. 
GAZZANIGA,  GIUSEPPE  born  in  Ve- 
rona, Italy,  October,  1743,  died  at  Cremona 


GEAR 


before  1819.  Dramatic  comjioscr,  jinpil  of 
Porpora  iu  Venice  and  at  S.  Ouofrio,  Naples, 
and  in  1767-69  of  Piccinni.  He  returned 
to  Venice  about  1770,  and  becauie  tbe 
friend  of  Saccbini,  who  aided  bim  in  tbe 
production  of  bis  first  opera.  In  1779  be 
went  to  Napiles  and  remained  until  1781, 
wben  be  visited  Palermo,  to  bring  out  sev- 
eral operas  and  a  mass  composed  for  tbe 
fete  of  St.  Cecilia.  In  1791  be  became 
maestro  di  cappella  of  tbe  Catbedral  of  Cre- 
mona and  devoted  bimself  cbiefly  to  cburcb 
music.  Among  bis  operas,  II  convitato  di 
pietra,  tbe  forerunner  of  Don  Giovanni, 
bad  a  great  success  in  tbe  Italian  cities, 
and  later  iu  Loudon.  He  left  several  can- 
tatas, a  Te  Deum,  and  otber  cburcb  music. 
Works — Ojjeras  :  II  fiuto  cieco,  given  at  Vi- 
enna, 1770  ;  La  locanda,  1771  ;  II  calan- 
drino,  1771;  L' isola  d'Alcina,  1772;  Ezio, 
1772  ;  La  tromba  di  Merlino,  1772  ;  La 
donna  soldato,  1774  ;  II  ciarlatano  in  tiera, 
1771 ;  Marino  Carbonaro,  1775  ;  La  fedelta 
d'  amore  alia  prova,  1776  ;  Ai-mida,  1777  ; 
La  contessa  di  Nuova  Luna,  Dresden,  1778  ; 
Antigono,  Naj^les,  1779  ;  La  donna  cajnic- 
ciosa,  1780  ;  II  ritorno  d'  Ulisse,  Palermo, 
1781 ;  Peneloppe,  ib.,  1781 ;  La  veudemmia, 
Venice,  1783  ;  La  creduta  infedele,  Naples, 
1783  ;  II  seraglio  d'  Osmanno,  Florence  and 
Milan,  1785  ;  Circe,  Venice,  17SG  ;  Le  douue 
fanaticbe,  ib.,  178G  ;  La  dama  incognita, 
1787  ;  La  cameriera  di  spirito,  Venice, 
1787  ;  La  Didone,  ib.,  1787  ;  II  couvitato 
di  pietra,  Venice,  1787  ;  L'  Italiana  in  Lou- 
dra,  Piacenza,  1789  ;  L'  amor  costante,  L'  im- 
presario in  angustie,  Ferrara,  1789 ;  La 
moglie  cappricciosa,  1789  ;  Idomeneo.  Pad- 
ua, 1790 ;  Achille  in  Sciro,  about  1790  ; 
La  donna  cbe  non  parla,  about  1790  ;  La 
disfatta  de'  Mori,  Turin,  1791  ;  H  marito 
migliore,  Milan,  1801.  He  left  also  several 
cantatas,  a  Te  Deum,  and  otber  cburcb  mu- 
sic.— Fetis,  iii.  431  ;  Supplement,  i.  371  ; 
Grove,  Larousse. 

GE.\E,  GEORGE  FREDEEICK,  born  in 
London,  May  21,  1857,  still  Hving,  1889. 
Pianist,   pupil  of  Dr.    Wylde,    and    Jobn 


Francis  Barnett  at  tbe  London  Academy  of 
Music.  Works  :  Sonatas  for  jjianoforte  ; 
String  quartet  ;  Songs  ;  Two  operettas. 

GEBADER,  ETIENNE  FRANCOIS,  bom 
at  Versailles  iu  1777,  died  in  1823.  Flu- 
tist, brotber  and  pupil  of  Micbel  Josejib 
Gebauer,  and,  ou  tbe  flute,  pupil  of  Hugot ; 
entered  tbe  orcbestra  of  tbe  Opera  Comique 
iu  1801,  became  first  flutist  in  1813,  and 
retired  iu  1822  on  account  of  feeble  bealtb. 
Among  bis  numerous  compositions  are  :  19 
works  of  duets  for  flutes  ;  Several  do.  for  2 
violins  ;  Sonatas  for  flute,  witb  bass,  op.  8, 
14  ;  More  tban  100  soli,  airs  varies,  etc., 
for  flute  ;  Airs  varies  for  clainet. — Fetis. 

GEBAUER,  FRANgOIS  RENfi,  born  in 
Versailles  iu  1773,  died  in  Paris,  July,  1845. 
Bassoonist,  jjupil  of  bis  brotber  Micbel 
Josepb  Gebauer  and  Devienne.  He  was 
bassoonist  in  tbe  Garde  Suisse  wben  fifteen, 
professor  at  tbe  Versailles  Conservatoire 
wben  twenty-tbree,  member  of  tbe  orcbestra 
of  tbe  Op)era,  Paris,  in  1801-26,  and  musician 
of  tbe  emjieror's  cbapel.  Cbevalier  of  tbe 
Legion  of  Honour,  1814.  Works  :  Sonatas  ; 
Duets ;  Trios  ;  Quartets  ;  Quintets  ;  Sympbou- 
ies  ;  Overtures. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

GEBAUER,  inCHEL  JOSEPH,  born  at 
La  Fere  (Aisue),  France,  in  1763,  died  in 
December,  1812,  during  tbe  retreat  from 
Moscow.  Tbe  sou  of  a  regimental  mu- 
sician, be  became  oboist  in  tbe  Swiss 
Guard  ;  was  also  a  singer  in  tbe  cbapel  at 
Versailles,  and  a  clever  violinist.  He  was 
a  member  of  tbe  baud  of  tbe  Garde  Na- 
tionale,  Paris,  in  1791,  aud  professor  at  tbe 
Conservatoire  in  1794-1802.  He  left  tbe 
last  position  to  become  cbef  of  tbe  con- 
sular guard  band,  subsequently  tbe  Garde 
Imix'riale.  Works  :  200  military  marcbes  ; 
2  Quartets  for  flute,  clarinet,  born,  and 
bassoon  ;  Duets  for  various  instruments. 
— Fetis,  iii.  433  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  371  ; 
Larousse  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

GEBEL,  FRANZ  XAVER,  boru  at  Fiir- 
stenau,  near  Breslau,  iu  1787,  died  iu  Mos- 
cow iu  1843.  Pupil  of  Vogler  and  Al- 
brecbtsberger.     He  was  director  of  tbeatro 


XS9 


GEEEL 


orchestras  in  Vienna,  Pestli,  and  Lemberg, 
where  he  brought  out  with  success  several 
operas  of  his  composition.  From  1817  he 
taught  the  isiauoforte  in  Moscow.  Works  : 
Mass  ;  4  symphonies  ;  Several  overtures  ; 
Quartets  and  quintets  for  strings  ;  Sonatas, 
fantasias,  etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  Preludes  for 
organ  ;  German  songs.  — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ; 
do.,  Supplement,  i.  371 ;  Riemaun. 

GEBEL,  GEOKG,  the  elder,  born  at 
Breslau  iu  1GS5,  died  there  in  1750.  Or- 
ganist, pupil  of  Tiburtius  Winkler  and  of 
Johann  Heiurich  Krause  ;  became  organist 
at  Brieg  in  1709,  where  he  was  much  iuflu- 
cnccd  by  Stulzel,  and  in  1713  went  iu  the 
same  capacity  to  Breslau.  He  was  the  in- 
ventor of  a  clavichord  with  quarter  tones, 
and  of  a  clavi-cymbalum  with  manual  and 
pedal.  He  composed  a  Passion-Oratorio  ; 
60  cantatas  ;  Mass  with  orchestra  ;  25 
psalms ;  a  collection  of  canons  (among 
which,  one  for  30  voices)  ;  70  chorals  ;  24 
concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  48  concertos  and 
other  works  for  various  instruments  ;  prel- 
udes for  organ,  etc.,  all  in  MS. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Riemaun  ;  Schilling. 

GEBEL,  GEORG,  the  yomiger,  born  at 
Brieg,  Silesia,  Oct.  25,  1709,  died  at  Rudol- 
stadt,  Sept.  24,  1753.  Organist,  son  and 
pupil  of  Georg  Gcbel  the  elder,  was  second 
organist  at  S.  M.  JMagdalena,  Breslau,  and 
at  the  same  time  Kaj^eUmeister  to  the  Duke 
of  01s.  In  1835  he  became  a  member  of 
Count  Briihl's  orchestra  in  Dresden  ;  was 
ai^pointed  royal  Kapellmeister  in  Rudolstadt 
in  1747.  Works— Operas  :  Oedipus,  1751 ; 
Medea,  1752  ;  Tarquinius  Superbus,  1752  ; 
Sophonisbe,  1753  ;  Marcus  Autouius,  1753  ; 
Serpillo  e  Melissa,  given  in  Dresden,  about 
1740  ;  Several  cantatas  ;  An  Oratorio  ;  A 
Mass  ;  More  than  100  symphonies  for  or- 
chestra ;  Concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  Church 
and  chamber  music.  His  younger  brother, 
Georg  Sigismund  (died  in  1775  in  Breslau, 
where  he  was  organist  at  St.  Elizabeth's), 
composed  fugues  and  preludes  for  the  or- 
gan.— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  viii.  452  ;  Fetis  ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 


GEBHARDI,  LUDWIG  ERNST,  born 
at  Nottleben,  Thuringia,  iu  1787,  died  in 
Erfurt,  Sejjt.  4,  18G2.  He  was  organist  at 
the  Predigerkirche  and  royal  music  director 
in  Erfurt.  He  published  several  collections 
of  organ  music. — Mendel  ;  Riemaun  ;  Fetis. 

GEBHART,  ANTON,  born  at  Sonthofen, 
Bavaria,  in  1817,  stiU  living,  1889.  Organ- 
ist, pupil  of  his  father  and  of  Anton  Schmid, 
whose  successor  he  became  as  organist  and 
music  teacher  in  Dilliugen  in  1842.  In  1858 
he  became  also  director  of  the  church  music. 
He  composed  a  mass,  a  Requiem,  a  Stabat 
Mater,  Miserere,  Pangue  lingua,  and  other 
church  music,  and  wrote  on  music. — Mendel. 

GEBT  MIR  MEINEN  JESUM  WIE- 
DER,  aria  in  G  major  for  the  bass  of  Coro 
H,  with  accompauiment  of  violin  solo, 
strings  complete,  and  continue,  in  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  Passion  nach  Matthilus, 
Part  H. 

GEDENK  AN  UNS,  jNHT  DEINER 
LIEBE,  soprano  aria  in  B  minor,  with  ac- 
companiment of  oboe,  strings  complete,  or- 
gan, and  continue,  in  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach's  cantata  Bei  der  Rathswahl  zu  Leip- 
zig, 1731,  "  Wir  danken  dir,  Gott,  wir  dan- 
keu  dir  ; "  published  separatelj-,  with  addi- 
tional accompaniments  by  Rob.  Fi'anz,  by 
F.  Wliistling,  Leipsic,  18G0. 

GEDULD  !  GEDULD  !,  aria  in  A  minor 
for  the  tenor  of  Coro  H,  with  accompani- 
ment of  violoncello  and  continue,  in  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  Passion  nach  Matthilus, 
Part  I. 

GEGRUSST,  GEGRUSST.     See  Eienzi. 

GEHOT,  JEAN,  born  in  Belgium  about 
1756.  Violinist ;  made  concert  tours  in 
England,  Germany,  and  France  ;  he  was  liv- 
ing in  London  in  1784.  He  wrote  quartets, 
trios,  and  duets  for  strings  ;  also  a  method 
for  \dolin,  and  other  musical  instruction 
books. — Jlendel ;  Fetis  ;  Wasielewski,  Die 
Violine,  284. 

GEIGER,  JOSEPH,  born  in  Lower  Aus- 
tria in  1814,  died  in  Vienna,  Dec.  30,  1861. 
Pianist,  lived  long  in  Vienna  as  a  music 
teacher,  in   favour   at  court  and  with  the 


130 


GEIJER 


public.  Works  :  Wlasta,  opera,  given  in 
Vienna,  1840  ;  Solemn  mass  for  4  voices 
and  orchestra,  op.  7  ;  O  Deus,  ergo,  gradual 
for  4  voices  and  organ,  op.  G  ;  Marches, 
caprices,  divertissements,  rondos,  etc.,  for 
jjiauoforte. — Futis,  iii.  430  ;  Mendel,  iv. 
172. 

GEI.JEE,  ERIK  GUSTAF,  born  at  Raii- 
siitter,  Wermlaud,  Sweden,  Jan.  12,  178.3, 
died  in  Upsala,  April  23,  1847.  He  was 
professor  of  history  in  the  University  of 
Upsala  from  1817.  With  Lindblad  he  made 
a  collection  of  new  Swedish  songs,  and  with 
Afzelius  made  the  valuable  compilation  of 
old  Swedish  songs.  He  comjjosed  piano- 
forte music  and  some  tasteful  songs  in  the 
style  of  his  nation. — Riemann  ;  Fetis. 

GEISLER,  PAUL,  born  at  Stolp,  Pom- 
erania,  Aug.  10,  1856,  still  living,  1880. 
Dramatic  composei-,  pupil  of  his  grand- 
father, who  was  director  of  music  atMaricn- 
burg,  and  of  Konstantin  Decker  ;  has  lived 
mostly  in  Leipsic  since  1873.  Works : 
lugeborg,  opera,  text  by  Peter  Lohmann, 
Bremen,  1884  ;  Der  Rattenfilnger  von 
Hameln,  symphonic  poem,  Magdeburg, 
1880  ;  Till  Eulenspiegel,  Mira,  Maria  Mag- 
dalena,  symphonic  poems  ;  Ejnsodes;  Mon- 
ologues ;  Songs. 

GEISSLER,  KARL,  born  at  Mulda, 
near  Frauenstein,  Saxony,  April  28,  1802, 
died  at  Bad  Elster  in  18G9.  Pupil  of  his 
father  and  of  Fischer,  cantor  in  Freiberg, 
and  prefect  of  the  chorus.  In  1822  he  be- 
came organist  and  third  teacher  in  the  city 
school  at  Zschoi)au,  and  later  was  cantor 
and  music  director.  He  composed  songs, 
pianoforte  and  organ  music,  and  edited  a 
Choralbuch. — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

GELINEK,  HERJIANN  ANTON  (called 
Cervetti),  born  at  Horzeuiowecs,  Bohemia, 
Aug.  8,  1709,  died  in  Milan,  Dec.  5,  1779. 
Organist  and  violinist,  entered  the  Premon- 
strant  Abbey  at  Seelau,  after  becoming  a 
priest,  and  was  sent  to  study  law  in  Vienna, 
but  on  his  return  found  the  life  unbearable, 
and  leaving  the  abbey  secretly,  travelled  as  a 
violinist.    He  lived  in  Najjles  under  the  name 


of  Cervetti.  His  works  comprise  concertos 
and  sonatas  for  the  violin,  church  music, 
and  some  pieces  for  the  organ. — Mendel; 
Fetis. 

GELINEK,  Abt  JOSEF,  born  at  Selcz, 
Bohemia,  Dec.  3,  1758,  died  in  Vienna,  April 
13, 1825.  Pianist,  pupil  of  Segert ;  entered 
the  seminary  of  Prague  in  1783,  and  be- 
came a  i3riest  in  178G.  On  Mozart's  recom- 
mendation he  was  ajopointed  domestic  chap- 
lain and  pianoforte  teacher  to  Count  Philipp 
Kinsky,  who  took  him  in  1795  to  Vienna, 
where  he  was  in  the  ser\ice  of  Prince  Joseph 
Kinsky  thirteen  years.  He  studied  theory 
under  Albrechtsberger,  and  became  inti- 
mate with  Mozart.  He  was  a  very  fashion- 
able teacher  until  about  1810,  and  his  com- 
positions brought  him  so  much  money  that 
he  was  able  to  leave  his  poor  relatives  42,000 
florins.  He  composed  about  1,000  pieces, 
mostly  very  shallow,  though  occasionally 
showing  an  easy  and  elegant  style.  He  was 
called  the  variation-hero,  and  Paris  dealers 
had  men  in  their  employ  writing  music  to 
be  jJublished  under  Gelinek's  name  in  the 
time  of  his  greatest  popularity.  Works  : 
About  125  themes  with  variations  ;  Trios 
and  sonatas  for  pianoforte  and  strings ; 
Fantasias,  rondos,  sonatas,  and  many  other 
pieces  for  j>ianoforte. — Wurzbach  ;  Mendel ; 
Fetis  ;  Grove. 

GELOSIE  VILLANE,  LE  (Rustic  Jeal- 
ousies), Italian  opera  buffa  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Grandi,  music  by  Sarti,  represented  at 
Venice,  177G.  Mozart  wrote  for  it,  in  1791, 
a  fine  chorus,  of  which  nothing  has  sur- 
vived but  five  measures  in  his  autograph 
catalogue  (Kochel,  G15). 

GEMINIANI,  FRiVNCESCO,  born  in 
Lucca  in  1G80,  died  in  Dublin,  Dec.  17, 
17C2.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Scarlatti,  Lonati, 
and  Corelli,  who  considered  him  his  best 
schol.ar,  and  of  whose  school  he  must  be  con- 
sidered one  of  the  foremost  representatives, 
although  his  playing  and  compositions  dif- 
fered in  style  from  those  of  his  great  master. 
He  went  in  1714  to  England,  where  he  soon 
won  reputation  as  a  virtuoso.     He  visited 


131 


GEMMINGEN 


Paris  in  1748-55,  and  on  his  return  to  Eng- 
land settled  permanently  in  London.  In 
17G1  he  went  to 
Dublin  on  a  visit, 
and  died  there.  Ge- 
iniuiaui  had  found 
the  art  of  violin 
playing  in  its  in- 
fancy on  his  arrival 
in  England,  and  lie 
did  considerable  to 
advance  it.  His 
most  valuable  con- 
tribution was  his  "  Art  of  Playing  the  Violin  " 
(London,  1740),  the  first  book  of  the  kind 
ever  published  in  England,  it  being  six  years 
earlier  than  Leopold  Mozart's  "  Violin 
School."  It  has  the  merit  of  handing  down 
to  j)Osterity  the  principles  of  the  art  of  play- 
ing the  violin  as  they  were  finally  established 
by  Corelli.  His  rules  for  holding  the  vio- 
lin and  bow  are  the  same  as  are  recognized 
in  our  day.  Works  :  12  solos,  op.  1  (Lon- 
don, 1716)  ;  G  concertos  for  seven  parts,  op. 

2  (ib.,  1732,  Paris,  1755)  ;  6  concertos,  op. 

3  (London,  Paris,  1775)  ;  12  solos,  op.  4 
(Loudon,  1739) ;  G  solos  for  violoncello,  op. 
5,  arrangements  from  violin  solos ;  6  con- 
certos, op.  G  (London,  1741)  ;  6  concertos 
for  eight  parts,  op.  7  ;  12  sonatas  for  violin, 
op.  11  (Loudon,  1758)  ;  12  trios  and  G  trios, 
the  latter  an  arrangement  of  op.  1 ;  Lessons 
for  the  harpsichord  (London).  He  pub- 
lished also  an  arrangement  of  Corelli's 
solos,  op.  5,  as  Concerti  grossi  (London). 
—Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  218  ; 
"VVasielewski,  Die  Violine,  48 ;  Dubourg, 
The  Violin,  5G. 

GEMmNGEN,  EBERHARD  FRIED- 
RICH,  Freiherr  VON,  pianist,  born  at  Heil- 
bronn,  Nov.  5,  1726,  died  in  Stuttgart,  Jan. 
19,  1791.  He  adopted  the  judicial  profes- 
sion, and  rose  to  the  dignity  of  president  of 
the  government  council  in  Stuttgart,  prac- 
tising music  as  an  amateur,  and  composing 
pianoforte  concertos  and  sonatas,  six  sym- 
phonies, chamber  and  vocal  music,  mostly 
remaining  in  MS.     He  was  also  a  poet. — 


Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  viii.  557  ;  F('tis  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

GEMMA  DI  VERGY,  Italian  opera,  text 
by  Bidera,  music  by  Donizetti,  represented 
in  i\Iilan,  1835,  and  in  Paris,  Theatre  Ita- 
lien,  Dec.  IG,  184.5.  It  was  first  produced 
in  New  York,  in  1843,  by  a  French  com- 
l^any  from  New  Orleans. 

GENAST,  EDUARD  FRANZ,  born  in 
Weimar,  July  15,  1797,  died  in  Wiesbaden, 
Aug.  3,  18GG.  Dramatic  composer,  pujiil 
of  Eberwein  and  later  of  Hiiser  in  singing. 
He  made  his  debut  at  Weimar  in  1814  un- 
der Goethe's  direction  ;  was  director  of  the 
theatre  in  Magdeburg  in  1828  ;  and  from 
1829  had  an  engagement  for  life  at  the 
Weimar  Court  Theatre,  being  pensioned  in 
18G0.  He  was  also  opera  manager  in  Wei- 
mar in  1833-51.  Works  :  Die  Sonnenmiin- 
ner,  and  Die  Verriither  in  den  Alpen, 
operas,  i^erformed  in  Weimar ;  Music  to 
Saphir's  Die  letzto  Stunde  des  Hauscs ; 
Songs.  Ho  i^ublished  his  memoirs,  Aus 
dem  Tagebuche  eiues  alteu  Schauspielers 
(Leipsic,  18G1-GG).— Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

GENEE,  RICHARD,  born  in  Dantzic, 
Feb.  7,  1823,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  i^upil  of  Stahlknecht  in  Berlin. 
In  1848-G7  ho  was  Kapellmeister  of  theatres 
in  Reval,  Riga,  Cologne,  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Diisseldorf,  Dantzic,  Mainz,  Schwerin,  Am- 
sterdam, and  Prague.  Became  Kapellmeis- 
ter of  the  Vienna  Theater  an  der  Wien  in 
18G8,  and  retired  in  1878  to  his  villa  at 
Pressbaum,  near  Vienna.  He  is  the  author 
of  most  of  his  own  librettos,  has  translated 
many,  and  has  furnished  some  to  Strauss, 
Supije,  and  Millijcker.  Works — Operas  : 
Polj-phem,  oder  eiu  Abenteuer  auf  Marti- 
nique, given  in  Dantzic,  185G  ;  Der  Geiger 
aus  Tirol,  1857  ;  Der  Musikfeind,  Die  Gen- 
eralprobe,  Schwerin,  18C2  ;  Rosita,  Mainz, 
1864  ;  Der  schwarze  Prinz,  Prague,  18GG  ; 
Am  Runenstein  (with  Flotow),  Prague, 
18G7;  Dor  Seekadett,  Vienna,  1876,  trans- 
lated into  several  languages ;  Nanon,  die 
Wirtin  vom  Goldenen  Lamm,  Vienna,  1877  ; 
Im  Wuuderlande  der  PjTamiden,  ib.,  1877  ; 


GENEKALI 


Die  letzten  Mobikaner,  Munich,  1878  ;  Nisi- 
ka,  Vienna,  1880  ;  Rosina,  ib.,  1881  ;  Songs  ; 
Choruses  for  male  voices.  —  Brockhaus  ; 
Kiemann ;  Mendel ;  Fetis,  Suj)plement,  i. 
372. 

GENERALI,  PIETRO,  bom  at  Masse- 
rano,  Piedmont,  Oct.  -i,  1783,  died  atNovara, 
Nov.  3,  1832.  Dramatic  composer,  luipil 
of  Giovanni  Massi.  His  real  name,  Mer- 
candetti,  had  been  changed  by  his  father 
on  his  banki-uptcy  and  removal  to  Rome. 
He  began  to  write  masses  and  church  mu- 
sic soon  after  finishing  his  studies,  and  pro- 
duced his  first  opera  in  1800.  In  1801-17 
he  visited  many  Italian  cities,  producing 
operas,  meeting  with  success  especially  in 
Venice,  where  most  of  his  best  works  were 
given.  His  I  baccanali  di  Roma  had  great 
success,  and  was  given  in  many  Euroj)eau 
cities.  In  1817-20  he  was  director  of  the 
Barcelona  theatre  and  gave  there  many  of 
his  works  ;  but,  his  popularity  waning  as 
Rossini  came  into  favour,  he  accepted  the 
position  of  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Ca- 
thedral of  Novara  and  devoted  himself  to 
church  music.  In  1827,  however,  he  brought 
out  an  oratorio,  II  voto  di  Jef  te  in  Florence, 
and  followed  this  with  an  opera  buffa,  II 
divorzio  persiano,  which  was  not  a  suc- 
cess. In  1829,  after  studying  Rossini's  style, 
he  gave  his  opera  Francesca  da  Rimini, 
written  for  the  opening  of  the  Fenice,  but 
it  was  badly  received.  The  precursor  of 
Rossini,  he  was  the  first  to  emploj'  certain 
harmonies  and  modulations  of  which  Ros- 
sini took  advantage,  but  he  did  not  possess 
the  genius  of  his  successor.  Works — 
Operas  :  Gli  amauti  ridicoli,  Rome,  1800  ; 
II  duca  Nottolone,  ib.,  1802  ;  La  villana  al 
cimento,  farce,  ib.,  1802  ;  Le  gelosie  di 
Giorgio,  farce,  Bologna,  1802  ;  La  Pamela 
nubile,  Venice,  1802 ;  La  calzolaja,  ib., 
1803  ;  Misantropia  e  pentimento,  Gli  effetti 
della  Somiglianza,  farces,  ib.,  1805  ;  Don 
Chisciotto,  Milan,  180.5  ;  Orgoglio  ed  umi- 
liazione,  Venice,  1806  ;  L'  idolo  Cinese,  Na- 
ples, 1807  ;  Lo  sposo  in  Bersaglio,  Flor- 
ence, 1807  ;  Le  lagrime  d'  una  vedova,  II 


ritratto  del  duca,  Venice,  1808  ;  Lo  sposo 
in  contrasto,  Vienna,  1808  ;  La  moglie  di 
tre  mariti,  Venice,  1809  ;  Amore  vince  lo 
sdegno,  Rome,  1809  ;  L'  Adelina,  La  Cec- 
china,  farces,  Venice,  1810  ;  Chi  non  risica 
non  rosiea,  Milan,  1811  ;  La  vedova  deli- 
rante,  Rome,  1811  ;  La  sciocca  per  gli  altri  e 
r  astuta  per  se,  Venice,  1811  ;  Gaulo  ed 
Ojtono,  Naples,  1812  ;  La  vedova  strava- 
gante,  Milan,  1812  ;  L'  orbo  die  ci  vede, 
Bologna,  1812  ;  Isabella,  farce,  Venice, 
1813  ;  Eginardo  e  Lisbetta,  Naples,  1813  ; 
Amor  prodotto  dall'  odio,  Milan,  1813  ;  Ba- 
jazetto,  La  contessa  di  CoUe  Erboso,  II  servo 
padrone,  Turin,  1814; ;  L'  impostore  ossia 
il  marcotondo,  Milan,  1815  ;  I  Baccanali  di 
Roma  (his  best  work),  Venice,  1815  ;  La 
Vestale,  Trieste,  1816  ;  II  trionfo  d'  Ales- 
sandro,  Bologna,  1816  ;  Elato,  ib.,  1817  ; 
Rodrigo  di  Valenza,  Milan,  1817  ;  II  divor- 
zio persiano  o  il  gran  Bazzaro  di  Bassora, 
Trieste,  1829  ;  Francesca  da  Rimini,  Ven- 
ice, 1829. — Piccoli,  Elogio  di  P.  Generali 
(Novara,  1833)  ;  Fetis,  iii.  4:15  ;  do.,  Supple- 
ment, i.  372  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel. 

GENET,  ELIAZAR  (Elziar),  surnamed 
Carpentras,  or  il  Carpentrasso,  born  at  Car- 
pieutras  (Vaucluse)  in  the  second  half  of  the 
15th  century.  Church  composer,  and  maes- 
tro di  cappella  of  the  Pontifical  Chapel, 
which  he  entered  under  Leo  X.,  who  be- 
came his  patron,  and  made  him  bishop  in 
partibus  in  1518.  He  was  sent  on  a  mis- 
sion to  Avignon  in  1521  (?),  and  having  re- 
turned to  Rome  at  the  end  of  1523  or  in 
1524,  we  know  of  his  being  again  at  Avi- 
gnon in  1527.  Works  :  Liber  primus  mis- 
sarum,  containing  5  masses  (Avignon,  1532)  ; 
Liber  Lamentationum  Hieremie  prophete 
(sic)  (ib.,  1532) ;  Liber  Hymnorum  usus  Ro- 
manre  ecclesise  (1533) ;  Liber  cantici  Mag- 
nificat, omnium  tonorum.  The  manuscript 
of  the  book  of  masses  is  in  the  Imperial 
Library,  Vienna. — Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

GENEVliiVE  DE  BRABANT,  French 
opera-bouffe  in  two  acts  and  seven  tableaux, 
text  by  Jaime  fils  and  Etienne  Trcfeu,  mu- 
sic by  Ofleubach,  first  represented  at  the 


GENISCIITA 


Theatre  des  Bouflfes  Parisiens,  Paris,  Nov. 
19,  1859.  In  1875  it  was  given  at  the  The- 
atre de  la  Gaite,  iu  five  acts,  with  text  re- 
vised hj  Hector  Cromieux  and  Trefeu,  and 
■vvith  eight  new  numbers  by  the  comjioser, 
mostly  written  for  Mile  Thorcsa. 

GEXISCHTA,  rV'AN,  born  in  Russia 
about  1810,  still  living,  1889.  Pianist  and 
violoncellist,  lived  at  Moscow,  where  he  be- 
came director  of  a  singing  society  in  1837. 
His  style  was  formed  under  the  influence 
of  Beethoven's  music.  AYorks  :  3  grand  so- 
natas for  pianoforte  and  violoncello,  or  vio- 
lin, op.  6,  7,  9  ;  Grand  sonata  for  piano- 
forte, op.  12  ;  3  nocturnes  for  violoncello, 
with  violin,  op.  10  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte 
and  violoncello,  op.  13  ;  Fantasia  for  piano- 
forte, op.  14. — Fetis. 

GENOVES  (Geuues),  TOMMASO,  born 
at  Seville  in  the  first  years  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury. Dramatic  composer  ;  went  to  Italj- 
in  183-1,  and  lived  in  Bologna,  Rome,  and 
Naples.  Works — Operas  :  La  rosa  bianca 
e  la  rosa  rossa,  given  iu  Madrid,  1831  ; 
Zelma,  Bologna,  1835  ;  La  battaglia  di  Le- 
pante,  Rome,  183G  ;  Bianca  di  Belmonte, 
Venice,  1838  ;  Iginia  d'  Asti,  Naples,  1810  ; 
Luisa  della  Valliere,  ]\Iil;ui,  1845  ;  Le  sere 
d'autunno  al  Monte  Pincio,  collection  of  ro- 
mances (Milan,  Ricordi). — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GEN0\T3VA,  German  opera  iu  foiu'  acts, 
text  by  Robert  Reiniclc,  music  by  Schu- 
mann, represented  at  the  thesitre  of  Leipsic, 
June  25,  1850.  The  libretto,  founded  on 
the  legend  of  St.  Genevieve,  follows  jsartly 
the  two  versions  of  the  story  in  the  trage- 
dies of  Tieck  and  Hebbel,  though  princi- 
pally the  latter.  Schumann,  dissatisfied  with 
Reinick's  work,  changed  it  materially  to  suit 
his  own  ideas.  The  music,  begun  iu  1847, 
was  finished  in  August,  1848,  but  its  pro- 
duction was  delayed.  Its  reception  was 
honourable  but  not  enthusiastic,  and  it  was 
withdrawn  after  three  rei^resentations.  The 
overture,  one  of  Schumann's  masterpieces, 
is  a  standard  work  in  the  concert  repertory 
all  over  Europe  and  America. — Grove,  iii. 
399 ;  Hanslick,  Moderne  Oper,  25G. 


GENST,  AUGUSTE  DE,  born  iu  Brus- 
sels, June  24,  1801,  living  in  1889.  Pianist, 
pujjil  of  Cazot.  His  compositions  for  pi- 
anoforte, numbering  about  forty,  were  pub- 
lished in  Brussels,  Holland,  and  Germanj-. 
Afterwards  he  composed  also  operas,  and 
symphonies.- — Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

GENTILI,  GIORGIO,  born  in  Venice 
about  1668,  died  (?).  VioUuist,  first  violin 
of  the  ducal  chapel  of  Venice.  "Works  :  So- 
natas and  concertos  for  violin  (Venice,  1701- 
08).— Fetis ;  Mendel ;  Gerber,  ii.  289  ;  Schil- 
ling, iii.  194. 

GENTILI,  RAFFAELE,  born  in  Rome 
about  1837,  died  there,  Aug.  7,  1867. 
Dramatic  composer.  His  operas,  Stefania, 
given  in  Rome,  1860,  Werther,  ib.,  1802, 
Rosamonda,  ib. ,  1867,  gave  signs  of  great 
promise,  cut  short  by  his  early  death.  He 
left  also  pianoforte  music  and  songs. — Fe- 
tis.  Supplement,  i.  372  ;  Mendel,  Ergiiuz., 
121. 

GENTLE  MRS,  tenor  air  iu  A  major 
with  violoncello  obligato,  of  Mathau,  in 
Handel's  Alhalia,  Part  I. 

GEPRIESEN  SEI  DIE  STUNDE.  See 
Taniihduser. 
GERBER,  ERNST  LUD"«1G,  born  in 
Sondershausen, 
Sept.  29, 1746,  died 
there,  June  30, 
1819.  Composer, 
son  and  pujjil  of 
Heinrich  Nicolaus 
Gerber,  under 
whom  he  studied 
the  pianoforte,  or- 
gan, and  violon- 
cello. He  entered 
Leipsic  University 
in  1765,  but  soon  gave  up  law  for  music  ;  re- 
turned to  Sondershausen  to  assist  his  father, 
and  succeeded  him  as  court  organist  in  1775. 
He  was  also  chamber  musician,  and  from 
1795  a  court  secretary.  He  visited  Weimar 
in  1772  and  1776,  Leipsic  in  1780,  Cassel  in 
1786,  and  other  German  cities  in  1793  and 
1797.     His  collection  of  portraits  of  musi- 


13-1 


GERBER 


cians  led  Liiii  to  think  of  writing  biogra- 
phies to  accompany  them.  This  resulted  in 
Lis  "  Historiscb-biographisches  Lexicon  der 
Tonkiinstler "  (2  vols.,  Leipsic,  1790-92). 
Receiving  corrections  and  further  informa- 
tion he  prepared  a  new  edition,  "  Neues 
historisch-biographisehes  Lexikon  der  Ton- 
kiinstler" (i  vols.,  Leipsic,  1812-14),  which 
does  not  supersede  the  older  work,  since  it 
constantly  refers  to  it.  Considering  that 
he  lived  iji  a  small  city  without  a  public 
library,  and  that  few  had  preceded  him  in 
the  same  field,  his  Lexicons  are  remarkably 
complete,  and  give  evidence  of  wonderful 
industry.  They  have  been  extensively  used 
by  all  subsequent  investigators.  He  wrote 
also  for  several  musical  papers.  The  Vi- 
enna Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde  bought 

his  books  and  music.  Works  :  Pianoforte 
sonatas  ;  Choral  preludes  for  organ,  and 
other  instrumental  pieces. — Gerber  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove  ; 
Eiemann  ;  Eochlitz,  Fiir  Freunde  der  Tou- 
kunst,  ii.  35. 

GERBEK,  HEINRICH  NICOLAUS,  born 
at  Wenigen-Ehrich,  near  Sondershausen, 
Sejit.  G,  1702,  died  at  Sondershausen,  Aug. 
G,  1775.  Organist,  pujjil  of  Johann  Sebas- 
tian Bach,  became  organist  at  Heringen  in 
1728,  and  court  organist  at  Soudershausen 
in  1731  ;  was  appointed  secretary  to  the 
court  there  in  1719,  without,  however,  re- 
signing his  musical  functions.  He  occu- 
pied himself  also  with  improvements  in  the 
mechanism  of  the  organ,  and  constructed 
a  Strohfiedel  (Xylophone)  with  keyboard. 
His  compositions,  consisting  of  concertos, 
chorals,  fugues,  ijreludes,  sonatas,  and  trios 
for  the  organ,  and  concertos,  menuets,  mur- 
kys,  suites,  and  trios  for  pianoforte,  remain 
in  MS.— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GERECHTEE  GOTT.     See  Riemi. 

GERICKE,  WILHELM,  born  in  Gratz, 
Styria,  April  18,  1845,  still  living,  in  Boston, 
1889.     The  son  of  a  merchant  in  Schwan- 


berg,  he  was  brought  up  in  that  town  un- 
til 1857,  when  he  was  sent  to  school  in 
Gratz.  In  18G2  he 
entered  the  Vienna 
C  o  n  s  e  r  V  a  t  o  r  i  u  m , 
where  he  studied  com- 
position three  years 
under  Dessoff;  many 
of  his  works  date  from 
this  period.  In  Oc- 
tober, 18G5,  he  be- 
came Kapellmeister  of 
tho  theatre  at  Linz  ; 
in  1874,  Kapellmeister  at  the  Vienna  Hof- 
oper,  conjointly  with  Hans  Richter  ;  and  in 
1880  succeeded  Brahms  as  conductor  of  the 
Gesellschaftsconzerte,  the  principal  concerts 
in  Vienna  for  the  performance  of  large  cho- 
ral works.  He  conducted  also  the  Singve- 
rein,  a  branch  society  of  the  Gesellschaft 
der  Musikfreunde.  In  1884  he  threw  up 
his  positions  in  Vienna  to  accept  the  post  of 
conductor  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orches- 
tra in  Boston,  Mass.,  which  he  has  held  ever 
since.  After  leaving  the  Conservatorium, 
during  his  three  years  at  which  he  com- 
posed almost  incessantly,  his  duties  as  Ka- 
pellmeister left  him  but  little  leisure  for 
composition.  His  works  have  been  given 
principally  in  Linz,  Vienna,  and  Boston,  ex- 
cept some  male  choruses,  which  have  made 
the  round  of  almost  all  the  singing  societies 
in  Germany.  He  is  especially  distinguished 
as  an  orchestral  and  choral  conductor,  and 
a  remarkable  score  reader ;  it  is  chietiy  ow- 
ing to  his  drilling  that  the  Boston  orchestra 
owes  its  present  high  position  among  the 
great  orchestras  of  the  world.  Shortly  be- 
fore leaving  Vienna,  in  1884,  he  was  made 
honorary  member  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde,  a  distinction  verj'  seldom 
conferred.  Works  in  MS.:  2  sonatas  for 
pianoforte  ;  2  sonatas  for  violin  and  piano- 
forte ;  Trio  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  vio- 
loncello ;  String-quartet ;  Septet ;  Recpii- 
em  ;  Little  Siugspiel ;  about  100  Lieder 
and  many  choruses  (all  written  between 
18G2   and    18G5) ;    Concert   overture   (first 


1.35 


GERKE 


given  in  Vienna,  and  later  twice  in  Boston, 
in  1885-86  and  1SS7-88,  under  the  pseudo- 
nym of  Wenzel  Ecker) ;  Sonata  for  piano- 
forte ;  Quintet  for  jjianoforte  and  strings ; 
1  movement  of  a  sonata  for  violin  and  j'ia- 
uoforte ;  Sclion  Hanucben,  operetta,  Linz, 
between  1865  and  IST^,  and  also  in  Pestb  ; 
Huldigungscbor,  given  at  a  serenade  to  tbe 
newly  married  Crown  Prince  and  Princess 
in  tbe  spring  of  1881,  and  in  Boston,  Jan. 
16,  1886  ;  Additional  accompaniments  to 
Handel's  Judas  Maccabeus,  and  to  an  An- 
tbem  ;  3  sonata  movements  by  Bacb  scored 
for  orcbestra ;  3  movements  of  a  suite  for 
orcbestra,  Boston.  Publisbed  works  :  Deut- 
scbe  Tanze,  Vienna,  Bosendorfer  ;  Weun  dii- 
Gott  eiu  Licb'  gescbenkt,  cborus  witb  tenor 
and  baritone  solos,  ib.  ;  i  Lieder,  ib.;  4 
Clavierstiicke  fiir  die  Jugeud,  for  i  bands, 
Vienna,  Scbmidt ;  4  Lieder,  ib.  ;  2  male 
choruses,  Wacb  auf,  du  scbOue  Triiumeriu, 
and,  O  Welt,  du  bist  so  wuuderscbiin,  ib. ; 
3  mixed  cboruses,  So  weit,  Muutrer  Bacb, 
and  Herbst  am  Rbein,  ib.;  3  male  cboruses, 
Marie  von  Oborlaud,  Herbst  im  Meere,  and 
Weun  der  Friibling  auf  die  Berge  steigt, 
Vienna,  Bucbbolz  ;  2  Lieder,  Bitte,  and 
Meine  Boten,  New  York,  Scbirnier. 

GERIvE,  AUGUST,  born  in  Poland  about 
1790,  died  after  1848.  Violinist,  Kapell- 
meister to  Count  Hanski  ;  travelled  with  bis 
four  precocious  musical  children  ;  in  1824 
was  attached  to  the  ducal  court  of  Dessau, 
then  returned  to  Russia  ;  in  1835  was  music 
dii-eetor  in  Cassel,  and  in  1848  occupied  a 
similar  position  in  Detmold.  Works  :  Over- 
tures ;  Polonaises  ;  Chamber  and  pianoforte 
music. — Futis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GERKE,  OTTO,  born  in  Limeburg,  July 
13,  1807,  died  at  Paderborn,  June  28,  1878. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  bis  father  and  in  Cas- 
sel of  Si)ohr  and  Hauptmann.  He  made 
concert  tours,  and  from  1837  Uved  nine 
years  in  Russia.  In  1847  be  settled  in 
Paderborn  as  a  teacher.  Works  :  Concer- 
tos, quartets,  etc.,  in  all  about  forty  works, 
for  violin  ;  Pianoforte  music. — Mendel ; 
Fetis. 


GERL  (GOrl),    FRANZ,    dramatic   com- 
poser, close  of   18th  century.     He  was  an 
actor  at  tbe  Schikaneder  Theater,  Vienna, 
before  1794,  and  after  that  time  at  tbe  Na- 
j  tional  Theatre  in  Briiun.     Works — Operet- 
I  tas  :  Die  Wiener  Zeitung,  given  at  Briinu, 
'  1790  ;  Das  Schlaraffenland,  Vienna,  1790  ; 
'  Die  dummen  Gartner,  ib.,  1794  ;  Der  Graf 
Balbaroue,    Briinn,    179G  ;   Der   Stein   der 
Weisen,  Vienna,   1797.— Mendel,   iv.    195  ; 
do.,  Ergiinz.,  121 ;  Fetis  ;  Schilling  ;  Ger- 
ber. 

GERLE,  HANS ;  two  musicians  of  this 
name  lived  in  Nuremberg  in  the  16tb  cen- 
tury, and  are  distinguished  as  the  elder  and 
the  younger.  They  were  both  makers  and 
players  of  lutes  and  violins,  but  only  tbe 
elder  one  composed  works  that  are  of 
historical  value.  Works :  Lautenpartien 
(1530) ;  Musica  Teusob,  auf  die  Instrument 
der  grossen  unnd  kleinen  Geygen,  audi 
Lautten  (Nuremberg,  1532)  ;  a  second  edi- 
tion of  same,  as  Musica  und  Tabulatur  (ib., 
1546) ;  Eyn  Newes  sehr  Kiinstlichs  Lauten- 
buch  (ib.,  1552).— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  23  ; 
Gerber;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitung,  xviii.  309, 
325  ;  Mouatsheft  fiir  Musik-Geschicbte,  iii. 
211  ;  iv.  38  ;  vii.,  Beilage,  100  ;  Fetis  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

GERLI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Italy  in 
1812,  died  at  Milan  in  May,  1885.  Dra- 
matic composer  and  basso  ;  made  his  ap- 
pearance  on  provincial  stages  in  Italy,  1832, 
attempted  to  establish  Italian  oijera  in 
Algiers,  1839,  but,  failing,  proceeded  to 
Spain,  where  he  sang  at  Pampeluna  and 
Bilbao  in  1841,  at  Cadiz  and  Santander, 
1842,  and  at  Saragossa  in  1845.  In  the 
year  following  he  was  orcbestra  conduc- 
tor of  the  Italian  theatre  in  Berlin.  Works 
I  — Operas  :  II  piocco,  opera  buffix,  I  gal- 
antuomini  falsi,  do.,  given  in  Milan, 
1834  ;  II  sogno  punitore,  Algiers,  1839,  Mi- 
lan, 1844  ;  Pelagio,  Algiers,  1840,  Barcelona, 
1845.— Fetis. 

GERNE   ^\^LL    ICH   MICH    BEQUE- 

MEN,  aria  in  G  minor  for  the  bass  of  Coro 

I II,  with  accompaniment  of  violin  and  con- 


GERNSHEIM 


tinuo,  in  Johann  Sebastian  Bacbs  Fassion 
nach  Matthiius,  Part  I. 

GERN8HEIM,  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Worms,  July  17, 
1839,  still  living, 
1889.  Pianist,  first 
instructed  by  Musik- 
director  Liebe,  then 
at  Mainz  puj)il  of 
Pauer,  at  Frankfort 
of  Rosenbain  and 
Hauff,  at  the  Conser- 
vatorium,  Leipsic,  of 
Moscheles,  Haupt- 
mauu,  Rietz,  and  Ricbter  ;  finally  studied  in 
Paris  (1855),  where  he  began  also  to  teach, 
and  was  esteemed  as  a  pianist.  In  1861  he 
became  director  of  music  at  Saarbriicken, 
in  18G5  instructor  at  the  Couservatoriuni 
of  Cologne,  where  he  conducted  three  mu- 
sical societies,  and  in  1873  the  opera  or- 
chestra ;  in  1872  he  was  made  professor  by 
the  Duke  of  Gotha,  and  in  1871  director  of 
the  Conservatorium  at  Rotterdam.  Works  : 
WYichterlied  aus  der  Neujahrsnacht  des 
Jahres  1200,  for  male  chorus  and  orchestra, 
op.  7  ;  Salamis,  Siegesgesang  der  Griechen, 
for  do.,  oj).  10  ;  lliimische  Leichenfeier,  for 
do.,  op.  1 ;  Germania,  Ein  deutsclier  Sieges- 
gesang, for  do.,  op.  24  ;  Das  Grab  im  Bu- 
sento,  for  do.,  op.  52  ;  Odina  Meeresritt,  for 
baritone  solo,  male  chorus,  and  orchestra, 
po.  48  ;  Nordische  Sommeruacht,  for  mixed 
chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  oix  21  ;  Agrip- 
pina,  scene  for  contralto  or  mezzo-soi^rauo, 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  oj).  45  ;  Salve  Regina 
for  sojirano  solo  and  female  chorus,  op.  11  ; 
4  Gesilnge  for  male  chorus,  op.  40;  Zwei 
Lieder,  for  do.,  op.  41  ;  Kriegslied,  for  do. ; 
Lied  der  Stiidte,  for  do.,  op.  43  ;  Festgruss, 
for  do.,  op.  49  ;  Auf  der  Wacht,  for  do.,  Der 
Liebesbote,  for  mixed  chorus  ;  Waldmeis- 
ter's  Brautfahrt,  overture  for  full  orchestra, 
op.  13  ;  2  symphonies  for  do.,  op.  32,  46  ; 
Concerto  for  pianoforte,  with  orchestra,  op. 
16  ;  Fautasiestiick,  for  violin  with  orchestra, 
op.  33  ;  do.  for  violin,  op.  42  ;  Elohe  nu, 
Hebrew  song  for  violoncello  with  small  or- 


chestra ;  Quintet  for  pianoforte  and  strings, 
op.  35  ;  3  quartets  for  do.,  op.  20  and  47  ; 
2  trios  for  do.,  op.  28  and  37  ;  Quintet  for 
strings,  op.  9  ;  3  quartets  for  do.,  op.  25,  31, 
and  51  ;  2  sonatas  for  pianoforte  and  violin, 
op.  4  and  50  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte  and 
violoncello,  op.  12. — Mendel ;  Mus.  Wochen- 
blatt,  i.  388,  678  ;  iii.  227  ;  is.  66  ;  xiv.  476  ; 
N.  Zeitschr.  f.  Mus.  (1868),  211 ;  (1869), 
116  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.  (1865),  34,  116, 
339,  343. 

GERO,  GIOVANNI  DE,  known  asMaistre 
Jhan,  Italian  vocal  comijoser,  maestro  di 
cai)25ella  of  the  cathedral  at  Orvieto  during 
the  first  half  of  the  16th  century.  He  was 
long  erroneously  identified  with  Jacobus 
Gallus.  Works  :  Symphonia  quatuor  modu- 
lata  vocibus  (Venice,  1543)  ;  Madrigali  a 
tre  voci,  2  books  (ib.,  1541,  1555)  ;  Madri- 
gali italiani  e  canzoui  alia  francese,  a  due 
voci,  2  books  (Orvieto,  1544,  Venice,  1552, 
1572,  1582)  ;  Many  detached  pieces  in  va- 
rious collections  of  the  time,  as  in  Motetti 
della  Simia  (Ferrara,  1539),  Selectissima) 
nee  nou  familiarissimse  cantiones  ultra  cen- 
tum (Augsburg,  1540)  ;  Cantiones  sei:)tem, 
sex  et  quiuque  vocum  (ib.,  1545);  Conceutus 
octo,  sex,  quinque  et  quatuor  vocum  omnium 
jucundissinii  (ib.,  1545),  Jacques  Moderne's 
fourth  Livre  de  motets  (Lyons,  1539). — Fc- 
tis  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemaun. 

GERSBACH,  ANTON,  born  at  Sack- 
ingen,  Baden,  Feb.  21,  1803,  died  in 
Carlsruhe,  Aug.  17,  1848.  Pupil  of  his 
brother,  Josejih  Gersbach,  also  studied  at 
Nilgeli's  Institute,  Zurich.  After  a  short 
time  spent  in  Nuremberg  and  Halle  he 
taught  the  pianoforte  in  Ziiricb,  and  in 
1831  succeeded  his  brother  in  the  seminary 
at  Carlsruhe,  where  he  taught  singing,  the 
organ,  and  harmony.  He  composed  songs 
and  pianoforte  music.  Works  :  12  varia- 
tions for  pianoforte  ;  30  studies  for  do.  ;  0 
four-part  songs  ;  29  two-part  songs  (1839) ; 
25  children's  songs  for  one  and  two  voices  ; 
12  motets  for  male  chorus ;  Songs. — Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
ix.  44. 


IS! 


GERSBACll 


GEESBACH,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Siick- 
iugen,  Dec.  22, 1787,  died  iu  Cai'lsruhe,  Dec. 
3,  1830.  He  studied  at  the  gymnasium  at 
Villiugen  in  the  Black  Forest  iu  1800-5, 
then  at  the  university  iu  Freiburg.  He 
taught  music  in  Switzerland  iu  1808-lG, 
then  in  Wiirzburg,  Yflerten,  Rastatt,  and 
Nuremberg.  In  1823  he  received  a  j)osi- 
tion  at  the  seminary  in  Carlsruhe,  where  he 
remained  until  his  death.  Works  :  Chorals 
iu  four  parts  (182(i)  ;  Wanderviiglein,  col- 
lection of  four-part  songs  (1859,  4th  ed.) ; 
SingvOglein,  30  two-part  songs  for  young 
people  (1839,  3d  ed.) ;  Singschule  (1829); 
Part-songs  for  mixed  and  male  chorus 
(1839).— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  45  ;  Mendel ; 
Fetis  ;  SchilUng. 

GERVAIS,  CHARLES  HUBERT,  born 
in  Paris,  Feb.  19,  1G71,  died  there,  Jan. 
15,  1744.  Dramatic  com2)oser.  MS.  motets 
by  him  are  iu  the  National  Library,  Paris. 
Four  of  his  operas  are  mentioned  by  Fetis, 
one  of  which,  Hypermnestre,  was  partly 
written  by  the  Regent  (1710). — Fetis  ;  La- 
rousse  ;  Hawkins,  Hist.,  v.  381 ;  Mendel. 

GERVAIS,  PIERRE  NO  EL,  born,  of 
French  parents,  in  Mannheim,  Germany, 
about  174G,  died  in  Bordeaux  about  1805. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  Iguaz  Frilnzl.  He  plajed 
at  the  Concerts  Spirituels,  Paris,  in  1785,  and 
was  first  violinist  at  the  Bordeaux  theatre 
from  1791.  His  violin  concertos  were  pub- 
lished in  Paris. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Wasielew- 
ski.  Die  VioUne,  269. 

GERVASI,  LUIGI,  Neapolitan  composer, 
pupil  at  the  Naples  Conservatorio.  Made 
his  debut  as  comj)oser  with  I  promessi 
sposi,  Rome,  Teatro  Vallc,  1834.  In  1841 
he  was  in  Odessa,  director  of  music  at  the 
Italian  opera,  where  he  brought  out  II  casino 
di  campagna. — Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

GESANGE  DER  FRUHE  (Morning 
Songs),  5  pieces  for  the  pianoforte,  by  Rob- 
ert Schumann,  op.  133,  composed  in  1853  ; 
dedicated  to  the  poetess  Bettina.  Published 
by  F.  W.  Arnold  (Hberfeld,  1855). 

'gESCHOPFE    DES    PROMETHEUS, 
DIE.     See  Uomini  di  Prometeo,  Gh. 


GESIUS  (Gese,  Goss),  B.ARTHOLO- 
MAUS,  born  in  IMiincheberg,  near  Frauk- 
fort-on-the-Oder,  about  1555,  died  in  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Oder  about  1G13.  He  lived  iu 
Wittenberg,  then  settled  in  Fraukfort-on- 
the-Oder,  where  he  was  chorister  in  1595. 
Works :  Passion  naeh  Johannes  (Witten- 
berg, 1588)  ;  Teutsche  geistliche  Lieder 
(1594)  ;  Hymni  5  vocum  (1595)  ;  Melodise  5 
vocum  (1598)  ;  Psalmodia  Choralis  (IGOO)  ; 
Teutsche  Lieder  Dr.  Lutheri  und  auderer 
frommer  Christen  (IGOl,  1G07,  1G08,  IGIG)  ; 
Hymni  patrum  cum  cautu  (1G03)  ;  Synopsis 
MusicEc  practicfo  (1G09, 1G15, 1G18) ;  Christ- 
liche  Musica  (1G05)  ;  Christlicho  Choral- 
und  Figuralgesilnge  (IGll)  ;  Opus  primum 
et  secundum  cantionum  ecclesiasticarum 
(1G13) ;  Cautioues  nuptiales  (1G14)  ;  Motet- 
ta'  Latino-Germanica;  (1G15)  ;  Fasciculus 
etlicher  deutscher  uud  lateinischer  Motetten 
auf  Hochzeiten  und  Ehrentage  (IGlG)  ;  Mis- 
sa3  5,  6  et  plurium  vocum  (1621)  ;  Vierstim- 
miges  Haudbiiehlein  (1G21)  ;  Teutsche  und 
lateinische  Hochzeitsgesiinge  (1624). — All- 
gem,  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  93  ;  Fetis  ;  Eiemann  ; 
Wiuterfeld,  Der  evaug.  Kirchengesang,  i. 
359. 

GESTEWITZ,  FRIEDRICH  CHRIS- 
TOPH,  born  at  Prieschka,  near  Meissen, 
Nov.  8,  1753,  died  in  Dresden,  Aug.  1, 
1805.  He  studied  in  Leipsic,  in  1770,  un- 
der his  brother-in-law,  J.  A.  Hiller  ;  was 
music  director  of  Bondini's  German  theatre 
in  1784,  and  iu  1790  du-ector  of  the  royal 
Italian  opera  in  Dresden.  Works :  Dio 
Liebe  ist  sinureich,  operetta  iu  one  act, 
Leipsic,  1781  ;  L'  orfanella  americana,  oper- 
etta, Dresden,  1790  ;  Church  music  ;  Pi- 
anoforte music. — AUgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  128; 
Meudel ;  Fi'tis. 

GESUALDO,  CARLO,  Principe  di  Ve- 
nosa,  born  about  the  middle  of  the  16th  cen- 
tury. Amateur  composer  of  madrigals,  pu- 
pil of  Pomponio  Nenna.  He  was  a  finished 
player  on  the  lute  and  several  other  instru- 
ments, and  entertained  several  composers, 
singers,  and  instrumentalists  at  his  court. 
He  was  one  of  the  first  to  attempt  chromat- 


iss 


GEVAERT 


ic  writing.  His  first  five  books  of  madri- 
gals were  printed  iu  separate  parts  (Genoa, 
1585).  Simone  Molinara,  maestro  of  the  ca- 
tliedral  of  that  city,  pubHshed  a  complete 
edition  of  them  with  the  title:  "Partitura 
delli  sei  libri  de'  madrigali  a  cinque  voci 
dell"  Illustrissimo  et  Eccellentissimo  Prin- 
cipe di  Venosa,  D.  Carlo  Gesiialdo  '"  (Genoa, 
1613).— Futis ;  Ambros,  iv.  23G. 

GEVAEPvT,    FPiANrOIS  AUGUSTE, 
born  at  Huysse,  near  Audenarde,  July  31, 
1828.     Dramatic  eomj)oser,  pupil  in  1841 
at  the  Ghent  Conservatoire,  where  he  stud- 
ied the  pianoforte  under  Soinmere,  winning 
the  first  ijrize  in  1843,  and  harmony  under 
Mengal.     He  became  organist  of  the  Jesuit 
church,  and  in  1846  a  Christmas  cantata  by 
him  was  performed  in  Ghent.     In  1847  he 
took  the    prize   given   by  the  Societc  des 
Beaux-Arts  for  his  cantata,  Belgie,  and  the 
grand  prix  at  the  Brussels  Concours,  and  in 
the  same   year   his   jisalm,    Super  flumina 
Babylonis,  was  played  at  the  Zangverbond. 
After  producing  two  operas  with  moderate 
success,  he  went  in  1849  to  Paris,  and  then 
to  Spain,  where  his  fantaisie,  Sobre  motivos 
espanoles,  won  him  the  Order  of  Isabella  la 
Catolica.     After  a  visit  to  Italy  he  returned 
to  Ghent  in  1852,  and  in  the  following  years 
brought  out,  principally  in  Paris,  several  suc- 
cessful ojjeras,  which  won  him  popular  favour 
in  France  as  well  as  at  home.     In  1857  he 
received  the  Order  of  Leopold  for  his  can- 
tata, De  natiouale  verjaerdag,  for  the  25th 
anniversary  of  the  reign   of   Leopold.     In 
1867  he  became  chef-de-chant  at  the  Aca- 
demic de  Musique,  Paris,  a  post  which  he 
held  until  the  Opera  was  closed  by  the  War 
of  1870.     In  1871  he  succeeded  Fetis  at  the 
Brussels  Conservatoire.     He  was  elected  in 
1873  a  member  of  the  Academie  des  Beaux- 
Arts  in  the  place  of  Mercadante.     Works 
• — Operas  :  Hugues  de  Somerghem,  given  in 
Ghent,  March  23,  1848  ;  La  comedie  de  la 
ville,  ib.,  1848  ;  Georgette,  ou  le  moulin  de 
Fontenoy,  Theatre  Lyrique,  Paris,  Nov.  27, 
1852  ;  Le  billet  de  Marguerite,  ib.,   1854  ; 
Les  lavandieres  de   Santarem,   ib.,    1855  ; 


Quentin  Durward,  Opera  Comique,  ib., 
1858  ;  Le  diablo  au  moulin,  ib.,  1859  ; 
Chateau-Trompette,  ib.,  1860  ;  La  poularde 
de  Caux,  ib.,  1861  ;  Les  deux  amours,  the- 
atre of  Baden-Baden,  1861  ;  Le  aqntaine 
Henriot,  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  1864  ;  Per- 
tinax,  1884.  Le  depart,  cantata  for  three 
voices  ;  Jerusalem,  for  double  chorus  with- 
out accompaniment ;  Chants  lyriques  de 
Saiil  ;  Lc  Lion  Flamand  ;  Jacques  Van  Arte- 
velde,  cantata  (1863)  ;  Ik  Speek  van  zoo  zel- 
den  ;  Many  Lieder  in  the  collection  Neder- 
lansche  zangstukkeu  (Ghent)  ;  Flandre  au 
Lion,    overture ;   Transcriptions   classiques 


^-^f^^^i^-^r^^r^ 


pour  petit  orchestre,  for  the  use  of  the  Con- 
servatoire ;  Vade-mecum  des  organistes, 
and  many  other  minor  works. — Clement, 
Mus.  celebres,  655  ;  Fetis,  iii.  470  ;  do., 
Supplement,  i.  375  ;  Larousse  ;  Riemann. 

GEYER,  FLODOARD,  born  in  Berlin, 
March  1,  1811,  died  there,  April  30,  1872. 
After  studying  theology  he  became  the 
pupil  of  A.  B.  Marx  in  composition,  and  in 
1842  founded  the  academic  Miinnergesang- 
verein  and  conducted  it ;  was  also  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Berlin  Tonkiinstlerverein. 
He  taught  theory  in  the  Kullak-Stern  Con- 
servatorium  in  1851-54,  and  remained  with 
Stern  after  Kullak's  departure  until  1866. 
In  1856  he  received  the  title  of  professor. 
He  composed  operas,  sj'mphonies,  songs, 
and  chamber  music,  and  was  connected 
with  the  Neue  Berliner  Musikzeitung  and 
the  Spener'sche  Zeitung  for  a  quarter  of  a 
century. — Mendel  ;  Fetis,  iii.  472  ;  Supple- 
ment, i.  376 ;  Riemann. 

GHEBART,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Pied- 
mont, Nov.  20,  1796,  died  in  Milan,  Jan.  22, 
1870.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Radicati ;  he  en- 
tered the  royal  chapel  in  Turin  in  1814,  and 
become  solo  violinist  in  1824.  From  1817 
he  directed  the  concerts  of  the  Philharmon- 
ic Academy,  iu  1832  was  conductor  of  the 
theatre  orchestra,  and  iu  1846  of  the  royal 


GHERARDESCIII 


chapel  and  cliamber  music.  Works  :  Violin 
concertos,  quartets,  and  quintets  ;  Church 
music. — Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  122  ;  Futis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  376  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violrae, 
107. 

GHERARDESCHI  (Gheradesca),  FILIP- 
PO,  born  at  Pistoja  in  1738,  died  at  Pisa 
in  1808.  Dramatic  composer  and  organist, 
pupil  of  Bosamelli,  and  subsequently  of 
Padre  Martini  in  Bologna.  His  first  opera 
buifa  was  given  in  Lucca  iu  1763  ;  one  pro- 
duced at  Pisa,  in  1769,  on  the  occasion  of 
the  visit  of  Leopold,  Grand  Duke  of  Tus- 
cany, won  him  his  nomination  of  maestro 
di  cappella  to  the  conventual  chapel  of  the 
Knights  of  Pisa,  and  the  position  of  director 
of  the  court  music  and  teacher  of  the  pi- 
anoforte to  the  ducal  family.  When  Leo- 
jiold  became  Emperor,  Gherardeschi  re- 
mained at  the  ducal  court  of  Ferdinand 
m.,  and  later  became  maestro  to  Louis  I. 
de  Bourbon,  King  of  Etruria,  for  whose 
funeral  ceremony  he  wrote  a  Requiem  mass, 
considered  one  of  his  best  works  (1803). 
"Works — Operas  :  Amor  aiiigiano,  opei-a 
buffa,  Lucca,  1703  ;  II  curioso  indiscreto, 
ib.,  1764  ;  I  visionari,  ib.,  176.5  ;  La  Con- 
tessina,  ib.,  1766 ;  L'  astuzia  felice,  ib., 
1767;  I  due  Gobbi,  Pisa,  1760.— Fetis ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GHERARDESCHI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in 
Pistoja,  Nov.  4,  17.59,  died  there  in  1815. 
Organist,  nephew  of  Pilipjio  Gherardeschi, 
pupil  of  his  father,  who  was  maestro  di  cap- 
pella of  the  cathedral  at  Pistoja,  and  of 
Sala  in  Naples ;  he  succeeded  his  father. 
He  wi'ote  much  church  music,  which  re- 
mained in  manuscript.  An  opera  L'  aj^pa- 
renza  inganna,  was  given  at  Mantua,  1782, 
and  at  Florence,  1784. — Fotis  ;  do..  Sup- 
plement, i.  376  ;  Mendel;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  122. 

GHERARDESCHI,  LIHGI,  born  at  Pis- 
toja, July  5,  1791,  died  there,  March  21, 
1871.  Cliurch  composer,  son  and  pupil  of 
Giuseppe  Gherardeschi,  then  at  the  acade- 
my of  Florence  pupil  of  Disma  Ugolini  in 
counterpoint  and  compositi(5u,  for  which 
he  carried  oflf  the  first  prize  ;  returned  to 


his  native  city,  where  he  succeeded  his 
father  as  maestro  di  cappella  at  the  cathe- 
dral. Besides  a  cantata,  Cristoforo  Colom- 
bo, performed  at  the  Academy  of  Pistoja, 
he  has  composed  a  great  number  of  masses, 
psalms,  hymns,  and  motets,  j)artly  a  cap- 
pella, partly  with  organ  or  orchestra. — Fe- 
tis, Supplement,  i.  376 ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
122. 

GHERARDI,  BLASIO,  Itsilian  composer, 
maestro  di  ca^jpella  of  the  Cathedral  of  Ve- 
rona about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century. 
Works  :  Motets  for  3,  4,  5,  6,  and  8  voices 
(Venice,  1650). — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Gerber. 

GHERSEM,  GAL'GERIC  (Gery)  DE, 
born  in  Tournay  about  1570,  died  there, 
May  25,  1630.  At  first  a  chorister  iu  the 
Cathedral  of  Tournay,  he  was  a  jnipil  of 
Georges  de  la  HMe,  who  kept  him  iu  his 
choir  when  he  became  maestro  de  capilla 
to  Philip  n.  of  Spain.  Ghersem  succeeded 
his  master  in  this  position,  but  returned 
to  Brussels  in  1604  to  become  maestro  to 
the  Governor  of  the  Netherlands.  In  1608 
he  was  made  canon  of  Sainte-Gudule  and  in 
1614  of  the  Cathedral  of  Tourn.ay.  His 
masses,  motets,  and  vilhancicos,  published 
in  Spain,  were  much  esteemed,  as  he  was  a 
fine  contrapuntist. — Van  der  Straeten,  ii.  1 ; 
v.  130;  Fetis;  Mendel,  iv.  236;  Ergiinz., 
122  ;  Gerber  ;  Schilling. 

GHEZZI,  IPPOLITO,  composer  of  mo- 
tets, oratorios,  etc.,  living  in  last  years  of 
the  17th  and  early  part  of  the  18th  centu- 
ries. He  was  maestro  di  cappella  of  tlie 
Cathedral  of  Montepulciano.  His  music 
was  published  in  Florence  and  Bologna,  in 
1699-1708.  As  a  theorist  he  is  known  by 
"II  setticlave  canoro"  (Bologna,  1709). 
—Fetis;  Mendel. 

GHINASSI,  STEFANO,  born  in  Brescia 
in  1731,  died  (?).  Dramatic  composer,  pu- 
pil of  Andrea  Labella.  He  was  accompa- 
nist at  the  Teatro  San  Samuele,  Venice, 
and  in  1784-90  was  director  of  the  Italian 
Ojiera,  Dresden.  He  was  later  accompanist 
in  Warsaw.  Works — Operas  :  II  governa- 
tore  deir  isole  Canarie,  Dresden,  1785  ;  II 


GPIIRETTI 


seraglio  cV  Osmanno,  ib.,  1787 ;  Lo  strava- 
gante  Inglese,  ib.,  1790. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ; 
Gerber;  Schilling. 

GHIEETTI,  GASPAKO,  bom  in  Naples 
in  174:7,  died  in  Parma  iu  1827.  Violinist, 
piij^il  at  the  Conservatorio  dclla  Pieta ;  be- 
came chamber  musician  to  the  Duke  of 
Parma.  Works  :  Several  books  of  sonatas, 
and  caprices  for  the  violin  ;  2  masses,  lit- 
anies, and  a  Stabat  Mater  for  3  voices.  All 
in  MS.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GHISELIN  (Ghiselain,  Ghiseling,  Ghise- 
linns),  JEAN,  Belgian  composer  of  the  15th 
and  16th  centuries.  Nothing  is  known  of 
his  histor}',  but  he  is  surmised  to  have  been 
a  native  of  the  province  of  Haiuaut.  He 
left  five  masses,  to  be  found  in  Petrucci's 
Misspe  Diversorum  (Venice,  1500),  as  many 
four-part  motets,  in  the  Ith  book  of  Motetti 
della  Corona  (1505),  and  a  five-part  song  in 
Glarean's  Dodecachordon.  —  Fetis  ;  Biog. 
nat.  Belg.,  iii.  730. 

GHIZZOLO  (Ghizzola),  GIOVANNI, 
born  in  Brescia,  second  half  of  the  16th  cen- 
tury, died  (?).  A  Franciscan  monk,  he  vpas 
maestro  di  cappella  to  Cardinal  Aldobran- 
dini  at  the  Cathedral  of  Ravenna,  and  sub- 
sequently in  Milan  and  in  Venice.  Works  : 
2  books  of  madrigals  (Venice,  1608-19)  ;  4 
books  of  motets,  canzonets,  etc.  (1609)  ; 
Masses  and  concertos  (1611) ;  Psalms  (1618); 
Masses,  psalms,  litanies  (1619)  ;  do.  (1624). 
— Fc'tis ;  Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

GHYS,  JOSEPH,  born  in  Ghent  in  1801, 
died  iu  St.  Petersburg,  Aug.  22,  1848. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  Lafont ;  was  professor 
of  music  at  Amiens,  and  then  at  Nantes,  for 
several  years.  He  was  a  most  excellent 
performer,  and  from  1832  to  1835  travelled, 
and  gave  concerts  with  Servais  the  violon- 
cellist, with  whom  he  went  to  England,  and 
from  1837  to  1848  travelled  through  Ger- 
many and  the  north  of  Europe.  Works  : 
L'orage,  grande  etude  pour  violon  seul, 
op.  5  (Berlin)  ;  Sixieme  air  varie  ;  Mouve- 
ment  perpetuel,  caprice  de  concert,  violon 
et  quatuor,  op.  36  ;  Triste  pensOe,  melodie  ; 
Pensee  fixe,  grand  agitato   pour  violon  et 


piano,  op.  37  ;  Concerto  pour  violon  et  or- 
chestre,  op.  40  (Mayence)  ;  Romances  pour 
voix  avec  accompagnement  de  piano. — Fe- 
tis ;  Biog.  nat.  Belg.,  vii.  746 ;  Wasielewski, 
Die  Violine.  386. 

GIACCHi:  jNIORIR  NON  POSSO,  con- 
tralto aria  of  Zenobia,  in  C  minor,  with  ac- 
companiment of  violins  in  unison,  viola,  and 
bass,  in  Handel's  Radaminto,  Act  II.  Pub- 
lished, with  additional  accompaniments,  by 
Robert  Franz,  Leij^sie,  Kistner. 

GIACOBBI,  GIROLAMO,  born  in  Bo- 
logna about  1575,  died  there,  Nov.  30, 
1630.  Dramatic  composer,  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Bolognese  school.  He  was 
maestro  di  cappella  of  S.  Petronio,  Bo- 
logna, and  founder  of  the  Accademia  dei 
Filomusi,  which  met  at  his  house.  His 
oj^era  Andromeda,  1610,  was  one  of  the 
first,  if  not  the  first,  given  in  Bologna.  His 
masses  and  motets,  which  were  in  Padre 
Martini's  collection  of  MS.,  now  belong  to 
the  Convent  of  S.  Francesco,  Bologna. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel  ;  Ambros,  iv.  294. 

GIACO^MELLI,  GEMINIANO,  born  at 
Parma  in  1686,  died  at  Naples,  Jan.  19, 1743. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Cajjelli ;  he 
wrote  his  first  opera  when  only  eighteen 
years  old.  The  Duke  of  Parma  became  his 
patron,  and  sent  him  to  finish  his  studies  in 
Naples  under  Scarlatti.  After  composing 
operas  for  the  principal  theatres  of  Italy, 
he  went  to  Vienna  as  chamber  musician  to 
Charles  VI.,  returning  in  1731  to  Naples. 
Works — Operas :  Ipermestra,  given  at  Par- 
ma, Teatro  Farnese,  1704  ;  Catone  iu  Utica, 
L'Arrenione,  Vienna,  about  1720  ;  Epami- 
nondas,  Naples,  1731  ;  Lucio  Papirio,  Ve- 
rona, 1734  ;  Merope,  Venice,  1734  ;  Cesare 
in  Egitto  (his  best  work),  Turin,  1735  ;  Ar- 
sace,  ib.,  173C. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemann  ; 
Schilling. 

GIAMBERTI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Rome, 
second  half  of  the  16th  century,  died  there 
in  1630.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Na- 
nini  and  of  Agostini ;  maestro  di  cappella  of 
the  Cathedral  of  Orvieto  and  subsequently 
assistant  maestro,  and  iu  1629  fall  maestro, 


GIANELLA 


of  S.  M.  Maggiore,  Rome.  He  is  best 
known  for  his  corrections  of  the  Eoman 
Antiplional  service  published  in  Rome 
twenty  years  after  his  death. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

GIANELLA,  LIHGI,  Italian  flutist,  who 
went  to  Paris  about  1800  ;  died  there  in 
1817.  Was  first  flute  at  the  Opera  Boufle, 
then  established  at  the  Theatre  de  la  laie  de 
la  Victoire.  Works :  L'argent  fait  tout, 
ballet,  La  Scala,  Milan,  1790  ;  L'ofiicier  co- 
saque, opera  (with  Dumonchau),  given  at 
the  Theatre  de  la  Porte  Saint-Martin,  1805  ; 
Acis  et  Galatee,  ballet,  Opera,  180C  ;  Three 
concertos  for  flute  and  orchestra  ;  Quintets, 
trios,  duos,  nocturnes,  for  flute  and  other 
instruments  ;  Romances,  with  pianoforte. 
— Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  377  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

GIANETTINI  (Zauettini),  ANTONIO, 
born  in  Venice  in  1049,  died  at  Modena, 
August,  1721.  Dramatic  composer,  became 
maestro  di  cappella  to  the  court  of  Modena 
in  1G8G.  He  w'as  called  to  Hamburg  to 
bring  out  some  of  his  02)eras  in  1C9;?. 
Works — Operas  :  Medea  in  Atene,  Venice, 
1676  ;  Aurora,  ib.,  1678  ;  Irene  e  Costan- 
tino,  ib.,  1G81  ;  Ermione,  Hamburg,  1G9.5  ; 
I  presagi  di  Melissa,  IModena,  1709  ;  L'in- 
gresso  alia  gioventti  di  Nerone.  Oratorios  : 
La  creazione  de'  magistrati  di  Mosl' ;  Amore 
alia  Catena  ;  L'  uomo  in  Bivio  ;  La  morte 
di  Cristo,  Vienna,  1704  ;  Jefte  ;  II  martirio 
di  Santa  Giustina  ;  Several  cantatas  ;  Salmi 
a  quattro  voci  con  stromenti  (Venice,  1717)  ; 
Kyrie  for  5  voices  and  instruments. — Fetis  ; 
Eiemann. 

GIANNETTI,  RAFFAELE,  born  at  Spo- 
leto,  April  IG,  1817,  died  in  Naples  in  Au- 
gust, 1872.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at 
the  Couservatorio,  Naples,  in  1837-4:4  ; 
studied  under  Lanza,  Spalletti,  Cimarosa  the 
younger,  Busti,  Crescentini,  Ruggi,  Parisi, 
and  Donizetti.  Published  vocal  melodies 
and  church  music.  Works  :  La  colomba 
di  Barcelona,  opera,  Naples,  1855  ;  Church 
music  ;  Songs. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  378  ; 
Meudel,  Ei-giinz.,  123. 


GLkNNI  DI  CALAIS  (Jean  de  Calais), 
opera  buffa,  text  by  Gilardoni,  music  by 
Donizetti,  first  represented  in  Naples,  1828, 
and  in  Paris,  at  the  Theatre  Italien,  Dec. 
17,  1833.  An  opera  of  the  same  title,  mu- 
sic by  Giacomo  Panizza,  was  given  at  Trieste, 
1834  ;  and  another,  music  by  Giovanni  Pa- 
cini, at  Naples,  1838. 

GIANNI  DI  PARIGI(Jean  de  Paris),  Ital- 
ian opera,  text  by  Romaui,  music  bj'  Doni- 
zetti, represented  in  Milan,  Sept.  10,  1839. 
The  libretto  is  an  adaptation  of  Jaan  de 
Paris  by  Saint-Just  and  Boieldieu  (1812). 
Romani's  version  had  been  previously  set 
to  music  by  Morlacchi,  Milan,  May  30,  1818, 
and  by  Giovanni  Antonio  Speranza,  Naples, 
August,  183G. 

GLySfNINA  E  BERNADONE,  Italian 
opera  in  two  acts,  music  by  Cimarosa,  rep- 
resented in  Venice,  1781,  in  Vienna,  1784, 
in  Naples,  1788  and  in  Paris,  July  18,  1801. 

GIANNINI,  GIO'S'ACCHINOi  born  at 
Lucca,  March  20,  1817,  died  in  Brazil  in 
18G1.  Pianist  and  organist,  pupil  of  Do- 
menico  Fauucchi  and  Marco  Santucci. 
Went  to  Brazil  in  1843  or  1844.  Works : 
Two  cantatas  for  several  voices  and  instru- 
ments ;  Several  pieces  of  church  music,  for 
two,  three,  and  four  voices,  a  cappella, 
1840-43  ;  Music  to  Mauzoui's  cantata,  II 
quinto  di  Maggio. — Fetis,  Supi)lrment,  i. 
378  ;  Mendel,  Ergiiuz.,  123. 

GL\NNINI,  SALVATORE,  born  in  Na- 
ples, Dee.  24,  1830.  Pianist,  pupil  of  Giu- 
se^jpe  Lillo.  He  wrote  an  opera,  several 
elementary  works,  and  a  number  of  piano- 
forte and  sacred  pieces. — Fetis,  Supi^le- 
ment,  i.  378  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  123. 

GIANOTTI,  PIETRO,  born  in  Lucca, 
died  in  Paris,  June  19,  17G5.  Contrabass- 
ist,  pupil  of  Rameau  ;  was  engaged  at  the 
Opera,  Paris,  in  1739-58.  He  became  cele- 
brated as  a  teacher.  Works :  6  books  of 
sonatas  for  violin  and  violoncello  ;  Duos  ; 
Trios  ;  Songs.  Author  of  "  Guide  du  com- 
positeur" (Paris,  1859),  an  instruction  book 
on  Rameau's  system. — Fetis  ;  Burney,  Hist., 
iv.  626  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 


GIANSETTl 


GIANSETTI  (Gianzetti),  GIOYANNI 
BATTISTA,  Composer  of  the  Roman 
school,  maestro  di  cappella  of  S.  Giovanni  in 
Laterauo,  Rome,  in  l(JG7-73.  He  published 
5G  motets  for  2,  3,  4,  5,  and  G  voices.  His 
reputation  rests  on  a  mass  for  48  voices  iu 
12  clioruses,  executed  at  S.  M.  sopra  Mi- 
nerva, Aug.  4,  1675. — Fi'tis  ;  Mendel. 

GIARDINI,  FELICE  DE',  born  in  Turin, 
April,  171G,  died  in  Moscow,  Dec.  17,  1796. 
Dramatic  composer  and  violinist,  chorister  in 
the  Milan  Cathedral,  pupil  in  Milan  of  Pala- 
dini  in  singing,  the  harpsichord,  and  har- 
monj',  and  in  Turin  of  Somis  on  the  violin. 
After  jjlaying  iu  the  opera  band  in  Rome  and 
iu  the  Teatro  S.  Carlo,  Naples,  he  made  a 
tour  through  Germany,  and  played  in  Paris 
in  1748-49.  In  1750  he  appeared  in  London, 
where  he  was  greatly  admired  for  the  mel- 
lowness of  his  tone  and  the  brilliancy  of  his 
execution.  In  1752  he  became  leader  at 
the  Italian  Opera  and  in  175G  undertook  its 
management,  but  met  with  pecuniary  loss. 
He  was  manager  again,  however,  in  17G3- 
65.  In  1774-80  he  was  leader  at  the  Pan- 
theon concerts,  iu  1782-83  again  at  the 
Opera,  and  in  1784  went  to  Italy  with  the 
intention  of  remaining  ;  but  in  1790  he  re- 
turned to  London  and  tried  to  establish 
there  an  Italian  Opera,  failing  in  which 
he  took  his  troupe  to  Russia,  where  he 
died.  Giardini  was  one  of  the  greatest 
violinists  of  his  time  and  had  no  rival  in 
London  until  Cramer  appeared.  His  best 
works  are  his  pieces  for  the  violin,  his  operas 
meeting  with  little  success.  He  owned  Co- 
relli's  violin  and  always  used  it  at  his  con- 
certs. Works — Operas  :  Euea  e  Laviuia, 
London,  1756  ;  Love  in  a  Village,  ib.,  1757  ; 
Rosmira,  ib.,  1757 ;  Cleonice,  ib.,  1764 ; 
Siroe,  ib.,  17G4.  Oratorio,  Ruth,  London, 
1752.  Chamber  music  :  4  sets  of  violin 
solos,  op.  1,  7,  8,  16  ;  12  solos,  op.  19  ;  G 
violin  duets,  op.  2  ;  6  sonatas  for  j)ianoforte 
and  violin,  ojd.  3  ;  12  violin  concertos,  op. 
4,  5,  15  ;  3  sets  of  trios  for  stringed  instru- 
ments, op.  6,  14,  20  ;  6  quintets  for  piano- 
forte and   string   instruments,  op.  11 ;    12 


quartets  for  string  instruments,  op.  20,  29  ; 
Songs,  catches,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling  ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  233  ; 
Burney,  History,  iv.  521  ;  Wasielewski,  Die 
Violine,  98  ;  Dubourg,  The  Violin,  81. 

GIASONE  (Jason),  Itahan  opera,  text 
by  Giacomo  Andrea  Cicognini,  music  by 
Francesco  Cavalli,  represented  in  Venice, 
1G49.  The  original  score  in  MS.  is  pre- 
served iu  the  library  of  S.  Marco,  Venice. 

GIBBONS,  CHRISTOPHER,  born  in 
1615,  died  in  Lou- 
don, Oct.  20,  1G76. 
Organist,  sou  of  Oi- 
lando  Gibbons,  pu- 
pil of  Edward  Gib- 
bons in  the  choir  of 
Exeter  Cathedral. 
He  was  organist  of 
Winchester  Cathe- 
dral iu  1G40-44; 
served  in  the  Royalist  army,  and  in  1660 
became  organist  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  pri- 
vate organist  to  Charles  II.,  and  organist  of 
Westminster  Abbey.  Mus.  Doc,  Oxford, 
July  7,  1GG4.  Works  :  Anthems  in  MS.  ; 
Hymns  in  Dering's  "Cautica  Sacra"  (1G74). 
— Grove  ;  Fotis. 

GIBBONS,  Rev.  EDWARD,  born  about 
1570,  died  after  1650.  Organist,  probably 
son  of  William  Gibbons,  one  of  the  AVaits 
of  Cambridge.  He  graduated  as  Mus.  Bac. 
at  Cambridge,  and  on  July  7,  1592,  was  in- 
corporated at  Oxford.  He  was  organist, 
priest-vicar,  sub-chanter,  and  master  of  the 
choristers  of  Bristol  Cathedral  in  1592- 
1611,  and  organist  and  custos  of  the  col- 
lege of  priest-vicars  of  Exeter  Cathedral  in 
1611—44.  Some  of  his  compositions  are  in 
the  Music  School  at  Oxford  ;  and  an  an- 
them. How  hath  the  city  sate  solitary,  with 
prelude  for  the  organ  and  accompaniment 
for  viols,  is  in  the  Trelawney  collection, 
British  Museum. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

GIBBONS,  ELLIS,  born  at  Cambridge, 
England,  second  half  of  16th  century.  Or- 
ganist, brother  of  Rev.  Edward  Gibbons. 
He  was  organist  of  Salisbury  Cathedral  at 


u-6 


GIBBONS 


the  latter  end  of  the  IGth  centuiy,  and  un- 
til about  the  year  1601.  He  contributed 
two  madrigals,  Long  live  fair  Oriana,  and 
Round  about  her  chariot,  to  "  Triumphs  of 
Oriana"  (1601).— Grove,  i.  ;  Fetis. 
GIBBONS,  ORLANDO,  born  at  Cam- 
bridge, E  n  g  - 
land,  in  1583, 
died  at  Canter- 
bury, June  5, 
1625.  Brother 
of  the  two  pre- 
ceding,  and 
the  most  fa- 
mous of  the 
family.  He 
got  his  early 
musical  education  probably  at  Cambridge, 
in  the  choirs  of  some  of  the  college  chapels. 
He  succeeded  Arthur  Cock  as  organist  at 
the  Chapel  Royal,  March  21,  1604.  In 
1610  he  published  some  three-part  fantasies 
for  viols,  the  first  musical  jjublicatiou  from 
copper  plates  in  England.  In  IGll  he  as- 
sociated himself  with  Byrd  and  Dr.  Bull  in 
compiling  and  publishing  the  "Pai-thenia." 
In  1612  ho  published  his  first  set  of  five- 
voice  madrigals  and  motets.  He  was  made 
Bachelor  and  Doctor  of  Music  at  Oxford, 
in  May,  10'^'',  at  the  request  of  Camden  the 
historian.  In  1623  he  was  appointed  to 
succeed  Parsons  as  organist  at  Westmin- 
ster Abbey.  In  1625  he  was  summoned  to 
Canterbury  to  attend  the  nuptials  of  Charles 
I.,  for  which  he  had  composed  some  music, 
and  there  he  caught  the  small-pox,  of  which 
he  soon  died.  Gibbons  was  undoubtedly 
the  finest  English  oi'ganist  of  his  time,  as 
well  as  one  of  the  greatest  composers  of 
English  birth.  His  fame  rests  mainly  on 
his  chiu'ch  music,  which  gained  him  the 
nickname  of  "  the  English  Palestriiia "  ; 
for  simple,  solemn  grandeur,  and  i3urity 
of  style  it  is  hardly  to  be  excelled.  Much 
of  it  was  printed  in  Barnard's  Church 
Music,  and  in  Boyce's  Cathedral  Music ; 
the  rest  in  a  volume  edited  by  Ouseley  in 
1873.     His  madrigals  are  among  the  best 


of  the  English  school,  and  were  reprinted 
bj- the  Musical  Antiquarian  Society  in  1811. 
Works  :  Morning  and  Evening  Service,  in 
F  ;  Te  Deum  and  Jubilate,  in  D  minor ; 
Veuite  exultemus,  in  F ;  Te  Deum  and 
Benedictus,  do. ;  Fii'st  Preces,  do.  ;  Second, 
in  G  ;  23  Anthems  ;  Hymns  ;  20  Madrigals 
and  Motets ;  9  Fantasies  in  3  parts,  for 
viols  ;  6  pieces  for  the  virginals  ;  Galiards, 
fantasias,  pavans,  etc. — Grove  ;  Fetis ; 
Athenreum  (1885),  ii.  644. 

GIBELLI,  LORENZO,  died  at  Bologna 
in  1811.  Church  composer,  one  of  the 
last  pupils  of  Padre  Martini ;  maestro  di 
cappella  of  S.  Salvatorc,  and  of  S.  Barto- 
lommeo,  and  later  at  the  church  of  the 
Theatines.  Member  of  the  Accademia  fil- 
armonica,  1743,  principe  in  1753.  His 
works  are  preserved  in  the  library  of  S. 
Bartolommeo. — Pancaldi,  Vita  di  D.  GibeUi, 
celebre  contrappuntista  e  cantore  (Bologna, 
1830). 

GIBELLmi  (GhibelUni),  ELISEO,  born 
at  Osimo,  Marches  of  Ancona,  Itah',  about 
1520.  Church  composer,  maestro  di  cajv 
pella  at  Ancona  until  1581.  He  published 
in  Venice  :  Motetta  super  piano  cantu  ( 1546) ; 
Motettorum  cum  quinque  vocibus  (1548) ; 
Madrigali  a  tre  voci  (1552)  ;  Introitus  mis- 
sarum  de  testis  per  cursum  anni  (Rome, 
15G5) ;  II  primo  libro  de'  Madrigali  a  cinque 
voci  (1581). — Fetis;  Riemann. 

GIBEIIT  (Gisbert,  Gispert),  FRANCIS- 
CO JAVIER,  born  at  Granadella,  Spain, 
second  half  of  18th  century,  died  in  Madrid, 
Feb.  27,  1848.  Pupil  of  Antonio  Sala  ; 
maesti'o  de  capilla  at  Tarazona  in  1800-08, 
then  of  the  convent  in  Madrid  where  he 
died.  Works  :  Motets  ;  Masses  ;  and  other 
church  music. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  370  ; 
Baltazar  Saldoni  in  Efemerides  de  musicos 
esiJanoles  ;  Mendel,  Ei-giinz.,  123. 

GIBERT,  PAUL  CESAR,  born  at  Ver- 
sailles in  1717,  died  in  Paris  in  1787.  Dra- 
matic composer.  Studied  music  in  Naples 
with  the  best  masters,  and  settled  in  Paris  to 
teach  music.  His  operas  were  played  at  the 
Comedie  Italienne.     The  best  known  are: 


144 


GIBSONE 


La  sibylle,  1738  ;  Le  carnaval  d'<'to,  1759  ; 
La  fortune  au  village,  1760  ;  Soliman,  ou 
les  trois  sultanas,  17G1 ;  Aj)elle  et  Cam- 
paspe,  1703.  He  wrote  also  for  the  Aca- 
demie  royale  de  Musique  Deucalion  et 
Pyrrba,  about  1770.— F6tis  ;  Meudel ; 
Schilling. 

GIBSONE,  IGNACE,  born  in  London  in 
182G  or  1827,  still  hving,  1889.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  Moscheles  ;  aj^peared  at  Brussels, 
181:5,  at  Baden,  Homburg,  Frankfort,  Wies- 
baden, Darmstadt,  Berlin,  1840,  returned  to 
London  in  1850.  Works  :  An  opera  (5IS.) ; 
Elfin  Knight,  cantata  ;  Wood  Nymphs,  do. 
for  female  voices  ;  Two  symphonies ;  Sonatas 
for  violin  and  jjianoforte  ;  Pianoforte  pieces, 
and  Songs. 

GIDE,  CASIMIR,  born  in  Paris,  July  4, 
1804,  died  there,  Feb.  18,  1868.  Dramatic 
composer,  jjupil  of  Dourleu  at  the  Paris 
Conservatoire.  Works — Ojieras  :  Les  trois 
Marie,  Tht'atre  des  Nouveautes,  1828  ;  Le  roi 
de  Sicile,  given  at  the  Opera-Comique,  1830  ; 
Les  trois  Catherine  (with  Adam),  Theatre  des 
Nouveautc'S,  1830  ;  Les  jumeaux  de  la  Ee- 
ole,  ib.,  1831  ;  L'Angelus,  OjK'ra-Comique, 
1834  ;  Beljjhegor  (unpublished) ;  Fraujoise 
de  Eimiui  (do.) ;  ballets  :  La  chatte  blanche 
(with  Adam),  Theatre  des  Nouveauti's,  1830  ; 
La  tentation  (with  Halevy),  Ojaera,  1832  ; 
L'ile  des  pirates  (with  Carliui),  ib.,  1835  ; 
Le  diable  boiteux,  ib.,  1836  ;  La  voliere, 
ib.,  1838  ;  La  tarentule,  ib.,  1839  ;  Ozai,  ib., 
1847. — Futis ;  do.,  Suijpk'ment,  i.  379  ; 
Mendel ;  do.,  Erganz.,  123. 

GIGAULT,  NICOLAS,  born  at  Claye 
(Brie),  France,  about  1645,  died  (?)  He  was 
one  of  the  best  French  organists  of  the 
17th  century,  pupil  of  Titelouze  ;  published 
organ  music  in  1685. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GIGOUT,  EUGi:NE,  born  at  Nancy, 
March  23,  1844,  still  living,  1889.  Organ- 
ist, pupil  of  Bazile  Maurice  and  Mess,  organ- 
ists of  the  cathedral  of  Nancy,  and  in  Paris 
of  Dietsch,  Saint-Saens,  and  Loret.  He  was 
professor  of  plain-chant  and  of  solfege  in 
Niedermeyer's  school  of  sacred  music,  Paris, 
and  oi-gauist  of  Saiut-Augustin  from  1863. 


He  has  written  a  great  deal  of  church  music. 
— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  379  ;  Mendel,  Er- 
ganz., 123. 

GIL,  FEANCISCO  ASSIS,  born  at  Cadiz, 
Spain,  in  1829,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  in  Brussels  of  Fetis  in  1850- 
53,  took  the  first  j)nze  in  composition,  and 
after  his  return  to  Spain  was  appointed 
professor  of  harmony  at  the  Conseiwatorio, 
Madrid.  He  wrote  a  treatise  on  harmony 
(1850),  au  elementary  treatise  on  same 
(1856),  and  composed  several  ojjeras  for  the 
theatre  at  Madrid. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Suj)ple- 
meut,  i.  380  ;  Mendel. 

GIL  Y  LLAGOSTEEA,  CAYETAN,  born 
in  Barcelona,  Spain,  Jan.  6,  1807,  still  living, 
1889  (?).  Flutist,  pupil  of  Andrevi,  Fran- 
cisco Berinij  and  Calcante.  He  played  first 
flute  in  the  orchestra  of  the  cathedral  and 
in  the  theatre  of  Barcelona  twenty-two  years. 
W'orks  :  Symphonies  ;  Masses  ;  Eequiem  ; 
Dance  music  for  orchestra  ;  Flute  music, 
etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  380  ;  Mendel, 
Ergilnz.,  124. 

GILBERT,  ALFRED,  born  in  Salisbury, 
England,  in  1828,  still  living,  1889.  Pianist, 
pupil  at  the  Eoyal  Academy  of  Music. 
Member  of  Philharmonic  Society,  and  of 
Eoyal  Society  of  Musicians  ;  do.  of  Academy 
of  St.  Cecilia,  Eome,  1884.  Works:  The 
Eival  Eoses,  dramatic  scene,  1883  ;  Trios 
for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Quintet. 

GILBEET,  ALPHONSE,  born  in  Paris, 
Feb.  2,  1805,  still  living,  1889  (?).  Violon- 
cellist and  organist,  pupil  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire from  1822  ;  won  the  2d  grand 
prix  in  1827,  for  the  cantata  Orphee.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Odeon  orchestra,  and 
organist  at  Notre  Dame  de  Lorette ;  won 
first  government  prize  for  historic  and  sa- 
cred songs,  1847.  Has  published  masses, 
motets,  cantatas,  and  organ  music. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

GILBEET,  THOMAS  BENNETT,  born 
in  Salisbury,  Oct.  22,  1833  (March  15, 
1835?),  died  in  London,  May  11,  1885. 
Instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  pupil  at 
the  Eoyal  Academy  of  Music,  1847,  and  at 


145 


GILBERT 


the  Conservatorium,  Leipsic,  of  Moscheles, 
Hauptmann,  Eicliter,  Rietz,  etc.,  1852.  Or- 
ganist of  different 
churches,  1853-67,  af- 
terward singing  teach- 
er in  London.  He 
used  sometimes  the 
names  Ernest  Bennett 
Gilbert  and  Charles 
Bennett  as  pseudo- 
nyms. Works  :  Das 
Stelldichein,  operetta, 
Leipsic,  1851  ;  A 
Night  in  Fairj-land,  do.,  Surrey  theatre,  18G1 ; 
Eamiro,  dramatic  cantata,  1879  ;  Concert 
overture,  1853  ;  Overture  to  Merry  Wives 
of  Windsor,  1854  ;  String  quartets  ;  Trio 
for  pianoforte,  violin  and  violoncello  ;  Part- 
songs,  and  songs  ;  Pianoforte  music. 

GILBERT,  WALTER  BOND,  born  of 
English  parentage  in  Exeter,  England,  April 
29,  1829,  still  living,  1889.  Organist  ;  ar- 
ticled pupil  of  Alfred  Angel,  organist  of  Ex- 
eter cathedral,  under  whom  he  studied  the 
organ,  the  pianoforte,  composition,  and 
choir-training ;  then  pupil  of  Dr.  S.  S.  Wesley, 
organist  of  Winchester  cathedral,  in  organ 
playing  and  composition,  and  afterward  of 
Sir  Henry  Bishop  in  instrumentation.  He 
was  organist  in  1847—19  at  Topsham  ; 
1849-53  at  Bideford ;  1853-58  at  Tmi- 
bridge  ;  1858-G5  at  Maidstone  ;  1865-G7,  of 
St.  INIargaret's  Church,  Loudon  ;  and  18G7- 
69  in  Boston,  Lincolnshire.  In  1869  he 
went  to  America  and  became  organist  of 
Trinitj'  Chapel,  New  York,  a  position  he 
still  holds.  lu  1854 
the  degree  of  Mus. 
B  a  c .  was  conferred 
upon  him  by  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford,  in 
1886  that  of  Mus.  Doc. 
by  the  University  of 
Toronto,  and  in  1888 
Mus.  Doc.  by  Oxford. 
He  has  been  also  a 
fellow  of  the  London  College  of  Organists 
since  its  foundation  in  1864.     Mi-.   Gilbert 


aided  in  preparing  the  historical  part  of 
Hopkins  and  Rimbault's  "  History  of  the 
Organ."  Works  :  Songs  :  Once  'twas  my 
Hope,  Never  more,  1849  ;  Madrigal,  I  had 
both  money  and  a  friend,  1854.  Piano- 
forte :  Fantasias,  1856  ;  Cecilia's  Medita- 
tion, 1856.  Organ  :  3  Pieces,  1856  ;  10 
Preludes  and  Fugues,  1876.  Oratorios : 
Saint  John,  1857  ;  Restoration  of  Israel, 
1859  ;  19  services  for  Trinity  Chapel,  New 
York,  composed  between  1870-87 ;  and 
about  25  anthems  for  the  same  church,  com- 
posed between  1870-88.  He  has  prepared 
also  the  following  collections  of  church  mu- 
sic :  Parish  Church  Manual,  1854 ;  The 
Canticles,  185G  ;  Church  Chorister,  1872 ; 
Hvmnal,  1872. 
GILCHRIST,  ^ATLLIAM  WALLACE, 
born  of  American  par- 
entage in  Jersey  City, 
New  Jersey,  Jan.  8, 
1846,  still  li'ving,  1889. 
Organist,  j^upil  at  the 
University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania of  H.  A.  Clai'ke ; 
was  for  a  time  solo 
baritone  of  Holy 
Trinity  Church,  and 
of  St.  Mark's  Church, 
Philadelphia.  In  1872  he  went  to  Cincin- 
nati and  became  choir-master  of  the  First 
New  Jerusalem  Society  of  that  city,  and  in- 
structor in  the  Cincinnati  Conservatory ; 
in  1873  he  returned  to  Philadelphia  and 
was  for  four  years  choir-master  of  St. 
Clement's  Church.  Since  1877  he  has  been 
organist  and  choir-master  of  Christ  Church, 
Germantown,  Penn.,  and  since  1882  in- 
structor in  the  Philadeljjhia  INIusical  Acad- 
emy. He  is  conductor  of  the  following 
musical  associations:  Philadelphia  Festival 
Chorus,  Amphion  Society,  The  Arcadian, 
Mendelssohn  Club,  Germantown  Choral, 
West  Philadelphia  Choral.  Works:  46th 
Psalm,  for  soli,  chorus,  orchestra,  and  organ 
(Cincinnati  Festival  prize,  1882)  ;  Song  of 
Thanksgiving,  for  chorus  and  orchestra  ; 
The     Rose,    cantata,   New    York,   Feb'.    8, 


146 


GILDEMYN 


1887  ;  3  m.ale  choruses ;  Ode  to  the  Sun  ; 
Autumn ;  Dreaming  (New  York  Mendels- 
sohn Glee  Club  prize,  1880)  ;  also  many 
pieces  of  churcli  music,  songs,  etc.,  and 
unpublished  music,  both  vocal  and  instru- 
mental. 

GILDEmN,  CHARLES  FERDINAND, 
born  in  Bruges,  Aug.  IS,  1791,  died  there, 
March  22, 185i.  Organist,  pupil  of  Govaert 
and  Thienpont,  chorister  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Bruges,  and  organist  of  that  church  from 
1807.  He  was  awarded  a  silver  medal  by 
the  Soeictc  Royale  des  Beaux-Arts  in  181G, 
for  his  cantata,  Waterloo.  His  opei-a-co- 
mique,  Edmond  et  Henriette,  was  repre- 
sented at  Bruges,  Sept.  15,  1819.  He  com- 
fiosed  church  music  also. — Fctis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  381  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  121. 

GHiES,  NATHANIEL,  born  in  Worces- 
tershire, England,  about  the  middle  of  the 
16th  century,  died  at  Windsor,  Jan.  24, 
1633.  Organist,  chorister  of  Magdalen  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  in  1559-61,  and  clerk  of  the 
same  in  1577.  In  1595  he  was  clerk,  or- 
ganist, and  master  of  the  choristers  in  St. 
George's  chapel,  Wiudsoi',  and  in  1597 
gentleman  and  master  of  the  children  of 
the  Chapel  Royal.  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford, 
1585,  Mus.  Doc,  1622.  He  contributed  to 
Leighton's  "  Teares  or  Lamentacions  of  a 
Sorrowfull  Soule  "  (1614) ;  A  service  and 
anthem  by  him  were  printed  in  Barnard's 
Church  Music  (1641),  and  other  anthems 
are  in  MS.  Hawkins  prints  a  curious 
"  Lesson  of  Descant  of  thirtie  eighte  Pro- 
portions of  sundrie  kindes,"  in  the  Apjjen- 
dix  to  his  History  of  Music. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

GILLE  ET  GILLOTIN,  opera-comique 
in  one  act,  in  verse,  text  by  Thomas  Sauvage, 
music  by  Ambroise  Thomas,  represented  at 
the  Opera  Comique,  April  22,  1874.  It  was 
written  in  1861.— Clement,  Diet.  Lyr.,  Sup- 
plement, iii. 

GILLES,  JEAN,  born  at  Tarascou  in 
1669,  died  in  1705.  Maitre  de  chapelle  at 
Aix,  Provence,  and  subsequently  at  Agde. 
Celebrated  in  the  south  of  France  for  his 
church  compositions,  he  was  called  in  1697 


to  direct  the  maitrise  of  Saint-l^tienne, 
Toulouse.  A  famous  Messe  des  Morts  by 
him,  preserved  in  the  National  Library, 
Paris,  was  plaj'ed  at  Rameau's  funeral  cere- 
monies.— Fetis  ;  Mendel,  iv.  246  ;  Ergilnz, 
124  ;  Gerber. 

GILLIERS,  JEAN  CLAUDE,  born  in 
Paris  in  1667,  died  there  in  1757.  Dra- 
matic composer,  first  vdolin  at  the  Comedie 
Franyaise,  one  of  the  first  writers  of  music 
for  vaudevilles,  divertissements,  etc.,  at  the 
Comedie  Italienne  and  the  Comedie  Fran- 
<;aise.  Works :  L'hymenee  royal,  1699  ; 
Cephale  et  Procris,  1711  ;  La  foire  de  Gui- 
bray,  Le  tombeau  de  Nostradamus,  1714  ; 
Parody  on  Telemaque,  La  ceinture  de  Ve- 
nus, 1715 ;  Les  dieux  a  la  foire,  1724 ; 
L'amante  retrouvee,  1727  ;  Sancho  Pan<;a, 
gouverneur,  ou  la  bagatelle,  Le  bouquet 
du  roi,  1730  ;  La  niece  vengee,  ou  la  dou- 
ble surprise,  1731  ;  La  fille  sauvage,  Le 
pot-pourri  comique,  Sojihie  et  Sigismoud, 
1732  ;  La  premiere  representation,  Lucas 
et  Perrette,  1734,  etc. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
i.  381  ;  Poisot,  Hist,  de  la  Mus.  en  France. 

GIMENEZ  HUGALDE,  CIRIAQUE, 
born  in  Pampeluna,  Spain,  Feb.  5,  1828, 
still  living,  1889.  Church  composei',  pupil 
at  the  Madrid  Conservatorio  of  Eslava.  He 
was  maestro  de  ca23illa  of  the  primatial 
church  of  Toledo  in  1865.  Works:  Motets ; 
Masses  ;  Psalms,  etc.  A  Miserere  by  him 
is  celebrated. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  382  ; 
Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  124. 

GIMENO,  JOAQUIN,  born  at  Santo  Do- 
mingo de  la  Calzada,  Nov.  21,  1817,  died  at 
Nivelles,  Brabant,  Nov.  29,  1849.  Church 
composer,  member  in  1834  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus,  Madrid.  On  the  suppression  of  the 
religious  orders  in  Spain  he  went  to  Bel- 
gium, and  taught  in  the  College  of  Saint- 
Michel,  Brussels.  His  church  compositions 
have  an  orchestral  as  well  as  an  organ  ac- 
companiment.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GINESTET,  (FRANCOIS  REGIS)  PROS- 
PER, Vicomte  DE,  born  at  Aix,  Provence, 
about  1796,  died  in  1860.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, served  in  the  Gardes  du  Corps  under 


GINOU^fiS 


Louis  XVnL  Works — Operas  :  L'orplic- 
lin  et  le  brigadier,  given  in  Paris,  1827  ; 
Franyois  lier  ii  Chambortl,  ib.,  1830  ;  Le 
mort  fiancL',  ib.,  1833.  Pianoforte  and  violin 
music. — Fotis,  iv.  G  ;  do..  Supplement,  i. 
382  ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel. 

GINOUVfiS,  FERDINAND,  born  at  Cay- 
enne in  18-44,  died  at  Marseilles,  August, 
1888.  Pianist,  pupil  from  185G  at  the  Mar- 
seilles Conservatoire,  wliere  Le  won  the 
pianoforte  prize  ;  became  professor  of  the 
pianoforte  in  1867.  Wrote  operas-comiques. 
Works  :  Wilfride,  grand  opera  in  five  acts, 
given  at  Mai-seilles,  1809  ;  Le  violou  de 
Stradivarius,  opera-comique,  ib.,  1877. 
Songs,  etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  382. 

GIOCONDA,  LA,  opera  in  four  acts,  text 
by  Arrigo  Boito,  music  by  Amilcare  Pon- 
cbielli,  first  represented  at  La  Scala,  Milan, 
April  8,  1876.  The  libretto  is  an  adapta- 
tion of  Victor  Hugo's  drama,  "  ^\jigelo.'" 
This  oj)cra,  one  of  the  best  of  the  modern 
Italian  school,  had  a  success  iu  Italy  ex- 
ceeded bj'  Aida  oulj-.  It  had  tlie  same  en- 
thusiastic recejjtion  at  the  Teatro  Carlo 
Felice,  Genoa,  and  the  Pagliano,  Florence, 
as  at  Milan. 

GIOEDANI,  Padre  DOMENICO  AN- 
TONIO, church  composer,  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  of  the  Cathedrals  of  Narni  and  Ilieti, 
and  of  the  church  of  the  SS.  Aj)ostoli  in 
Home  ;  became  a  monk  in  the  convent  of 
Eocca  Sinibalda.  His  ofifertories  were  pub- 
lished in  Rome  in  1724. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GIORDANI,  GIUSEPPE  (caUed  II  Gior- 
danello),  born  in  Naples  in  1744  (1753  ?), 
died  at  Fermo,  Jan.  4,  1798.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, violinist,  and  pianist,  jiupil  at  theCon- 
servatorio  of  Loreto,  where  he  was  a  fellow- 
student  of  Cimarosa  and  Zingarelli.  Joined 
his  family,  1772,  in  Loudon,  whither  they 
bad  gone  in  1762,  and  became  composer  for 
the  troupe  they  formed.  Was  also  much  in 
vogue  as  a  teacher,  and  published  a  great  deal 
of  violin  music,  lessons  for  the  hari^sichord, 
etc.,  between  1776  and  1782.  Returned  to 
Italy  and  remained  there  ten  j'ears,  produc- 
ing in  that  time  24  ojjeras,  and  oratorios  ; 


went  to  Lisbon  to  conduct  Italian  opera,  and 
iu  1791  was  called  to  Fermo,  as  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  cathedral.  Works — Operas : 
L'  astuto  in  imbroglio,  given  at  Pisa,  1771  ; 
Artaserse,  pasticcio,  London,  1772  ;  Anti- 
gone, ib.,  1773  ;  II  bacio,  opera  bufi'a,  ib., 
1774-79  ;  II  ritoruo  d'  Ulisse,  Mantua,  1782  ; 
Aeomato,  Pisa,  1783  ;  Erifile,  Bergamo, 
1783  ;  Epponinia,  Novara,  1783  ;  Elpinice, 
Bologna,  1784  ;  Tito  Maulio,  Genoa,  1784  ; 
Pizzarroneir  Indie,  Florence,  1784  ;  Osmaue, 
Bergamo,  1785  ;  La  Vestale,  Modena,  1786  ; 
Ifigenia  in  Aulide,  L'  imisegno,  ossia  chi  la 
fa'  r  asjietta,  Ferdiuaudo  nel  Messico,  Rome, 
1780  ;  I  ripieghi  fortunati,  intermezzo,  Al- 
ciade  e  Telesia,  Rome,  1787 ;  Cajo  Ostilio, 
Faenza,  1788  ;  Ariai-ate,  Turin,  1788 ;  La 
distruzioue  di  Gerusalemmo,  II  corrivo, 
Naples,  1788  ;  La  disfatta  di  Dario,  Milan, 
1788  ;  Cajo  Mario,  Venice,  1790  ;  Medonte, 
re  d'  Ejiiro,  Rome,  1791  ;  Don  IMitrillo  cou- 
trastato,  Venice,  1791  ;  Atalanta,  Turin, 
1792  ;  Demetrio.  La  morte  d'  Abele,  ora- 
torio, performed  at  lesi,  1785  ;  Le  tre  ore 
d'  agonia  di  N.  S.  Giesfi  Cristo,  do.  (MS. 
in  the  royal  library,  Berlin).  Instrumental 
music  :  0  quintets  for  jnanoforte  ;  3  quar- 
tets for  do.  ;  30  trios  ;  6  string  quartets  ;  3 
concertos  for  violin  and  orchestra  ;  besides 
chuixh  music  and  vocal  music,  including  lit- 
anies, 23salms,  5  books  of  canzonette  for  one 
voice. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

GIORD.AXI,  TOT^IMASO,  born  in  Naples 
in  1744,  died  in  Dublin  after  1816.  Singer, 
comf)osei',  and  teacher,  brother  of  Giusej)pe 
Giordani,  with  whom  he  is  often  confounded  ; 
he  was  one  of  a  family  of  opera  buffa  sing- 
ers in  Naples,  consisting  of  a  father,  two 
sons,  and  three  sisters,  who  went  to  Eng- 
land in  1762  and  played  at  the  Haymarket. 
He  went  to  Dublin  in  1779,  associated  with 
Leoui  to  establish  an  opera,  but,  failing,  set- 
tled there  as  teacher.  Works  :  Perseve- 
rance, or  the  third  time  is  the  best,  opera, 
given  at  Dublin,  1789  ;  Isaac,  oratorio  ;  5 
books  of  duos  for  flute  (London,  1775- 
1783)  ;  6  trios  for  flutes,  and  violoncello  ;  0 


148 


GIOKGETTI 


do.  for  flutes  aud  bass  ;  G  duos  for  violon- 
cellos, op.  5  ;  Songs,  Italian  and  English, 
and  jfianoforte  music. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Men- 
del. 

GIORGETTI,  FERDINANDO,  born  in 
Florence,  June  25,  179G,  died  there,  March 
23,  18G7.  Violinist,  pujnl  of  Francesco 
Giuliani.  At  tlie  age  of  fifteen  he  was  vio- 
linist in  the  band  of  the  Queen  of  Etruria. 
Illness  in  1814  making  him  an  invalid,  he 
took  up  composition  and  teaching,  studying 
harmony  under  Disma  Ugolini.  In  1839 
he  became  ijrofessor  of  the  violin  at  the 
Lyceo,  Florence,  where  he  formed  many  ex- 
cellent ijui^ils,  among  whom  were  Giuseppe 
Giovacchini,  Corazzi,  Ferroni,  and  Bruni. 
Works :  Le  turbe  nel  deserto,  oratorio  ; 
Violin  music  ;  Church  nnisic. — Fotis,  iv.  9  ; 
do.,  Supijlemeut,  i.  383  ;  Mendel,  iv.  2-18  ; 
do.,  Erganz.,  124  ;  Schilling. 

GIOEGI,  GIOVANNI,  born  about  the 
(tnd  of  the  17th  century,  died  in  January, 
1725.  Maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Chapel  of 
S.  Giovanni  in  Laterano,  Rome,  in  1719. 
Works  :  Church  music,  preserved  in  MS.  in 
S.  Giovanni  in  Laterano  and  in  S.  M.  Mag- 
giore.— Fetis,  iv.  10  ;  Mendel,  iv.  248. 

GIOEGIS,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Turin  in 
1777,  died(?).  Violinist,  pupil  of  Colla. 
He  appeared  in  Paris  as  a  virtuoso  in  1807, 
entered  the  royal  chapel  in  Cassel,  made 
concert  tours  in  1813,  and  .settled  in  1820 
in  Paris,  where,  in  1823-34,  he  was  first 
violin  at  the  Opera  Comique.  He  composed 
trios,  duets,  and  other  pieces  for  the  violin. 
— Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Vio- 
line,  131. 

GIORNO  D'  ORRORE.  See  Semira- 
m  idc. 

GIORNOVICHI  (Jarnovich),  GIOVANNI 
MANE,  bom  at  Palermo,  Sicily,  in  1745, 
died  in  St.  Petersburg,  Nov.  21,  1804. 
Violin  virtuoso,  pupil  of  Lolli,  made  his  first 
concert  tour  to  Paris  in  1770,  and  won  great 
success  in  the  Concerts  Spirituels  by  his 
elegant  style  of  playing  as  well  as  with  his 
own  compositions.  Called  to  Berlin  in  1779, 
he  belonged  to  the  orchestra  of  the  Crown 


Prince  until  1783,  when  he  started  on  a 
concert  tour,  crowned  with  brilliant  success, 
to  St.  Petersburg,  Warsaw,  Vienna  (178G), 
and  other  capitals.  In  London  he  was  with- 
out a  rival  until  1792,  when  Viotti  appeared 
there,  and  he  could  have  held  his  own 
against  this  master,  but  for  his  irregular 
life  and  arrogant  behaviour  which  made  him 
unbearable  there,  as  before  in  Paris  and 
Berlin.  In  179G  he  went  to  Hamburg, 
whence  he  visited  Berlin  again  in  179G  aud 
1802,  winning  undiminished  applause  ;  in 
1802  he  went  to  St.  Petersburg,  and  was 
the  lion  of  the  day  until  Kode's  arrival. 
Struck  by  apoplexy,  he  died  suddenly  while 
playing  at  billiards.  His  compositions,  much 
in  favour  in  their  time,  consist  of  IG  con- 
certos, 7  symphonies,  6  string  quartets,  IG 
duos  for  violins,  sonatas  for  violin  and  bass, 
aud  variations. — Fetis,  iv.  429  ;  Mendel  ; 
Schilling. 

GIORZA,  PAOLO,  born  in  Milan  in  1832, 
still  living,  1889.  The  son  of  an  organist 
and  singer,  who  gave  him  his  first  musical 
instruction,  he  is  a  composer  of  the  higher 
class  of  ballet  music  peculiar  to  Italy.  He 
has  written  more  than  forty  ballets,  some  of 
which  have  had  a  successful  run  in  many  of 
the  larger  cities  of  Europe.  His  one  opera, 
Corrado,  console  di  Milauo,  Milan,  18G0, 
was  not  successful.  He  is  the  author  also 
of  much  dance  music,  published  in  the  form 
of  albums.  During  the  war  of  18GG  he  wrote 
a  martial  hymn  for  Garibaldi  at  the  hit- 
ter's request.  Principal  ballets :  Un  fallo, 
Milan,  1853  ;  I  Bianchi  ed  i  Negri,  ib.,  1853  ; 
Un'  avventura  di  Carnevale  a  Parigi,  Genoa, 
1863  ;  Farfalletta,  London,  18G3  ;  La  mas- 
chera,  Paris,  18G4  ;  Fiammella,  Milan,  18GG  ; 
La  Cai^anna  dello  zio  Tom,  Florence  ;  Fol- 
gore  ;  La  Silfide  a  Pechino  (with  Madoglio 
and  Sarti)  ;  Un  ballo  nuovo ;  Cherubina,  o 
la  rosa  di  Posilippo  ;  Pedrilla  ;  etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  383 ;  Mendel,  Erganz. ,  124. 

GIOSA,  NICOLA  DA,  born  at  Ban,  May 
5,  1820,  died  there,  July  7,  1885.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  Naples  Consei-va- 
torio,  under  Pasquale  Bongiorno  for  flute. 


GIOVANELLT 


Ruggi  for  counterpoint,  Zingarelli  and  Don- 
izetti for  composition.  He  was  maestro 
di  capisella  at  diflereut  times  at  the  San 
Carlo,  Naples,  the  Fenice,  Venice,  and  at 
the  Italian  theatres  at  Buenos  Ayres  and  at 
Cairo.  His  iivst  opera,  produced  in  1842, 
was  fa vourabl}- received,  and  his  Don  Checco, 
his  best  work,  represented  in  1850,  had  a 
greater  success  than  any  opera  Luffa  had 
enjoyed  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century, 
and  still  holds  its  place  in  the  theatres  of 
Italy,  but  none  of  his  m.any  other  works 
met  the  popular  taste.  His  albums  of  vocal 
music,  containing  romances,  melodies,  can- 
zoui,  etc.,  more  than  twenty  of  which  were 
publi-shed  in  Naples,  had  a  groat  success. 
Among  them  are  the  following  :  La  cetra 
capricciosa,  .'5  melodies  ;  Stornelli  d'  amore, 
G  ;  Gioja  e  dolore,  G  ;  Le  canzoni  d"  Italia,  i  ; 
Serenata  di  Mergcllina,  G  ;  Eco  dell'  oceano, 
3  ;  etc.  Besides  these  ho  published  masses, 
cantatas,  and  instrumental  pieces. — Fetis, 
iv.  11  ;  do.,  Supph'mcnt,  i.  38.5  ;  Mendel, 
Ergiinz.,  125  ;  Ricmann. 

GIOVANELLI,  RUGGIERO,  born  at 
Velletri,  near 
Rome,  about 
15G0,  died  after 
1G15.  One  of 
the  best  compos- 
ers of  the  Rom.an 
school,  but  little 
is  known  of  his 
life.  Ho  was 
maestro  di  cap- 
pella  of  S.  Luigi 
de'  Francesi,  Rome,  in  1587,  and  later  of 
the  Chiesa  dell'  Anima  of  the  German  Col- 
lege, and  was  appointed  in  1594  successor 
to  Palestrina  at  St.  Peter's.  In  159!)  he  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Sistino  choir.  He 
was  living  in  1G15,  in  which  ye.ar  he  pub- 
lished the  second  volume  of  his  new  edition 
of  the  Graduale,  undertaken  at  the  request 
of  Paul  v.,  and  magnificently  printed  at 
the  Medici  press.  Works  :  3  books  of  five- 
part  madrigals  (158G,  1587,  1589)  ;  2  books, 
four-part    madrigali    sdruccioli   (1587)  ;   2 


books,  five-  and  eight-part  motets  and  three- 
part  canzonets  (1592)  ;  Villanelle  a  3  voci 
(1593)  ;  Villanelle  a  5  voci  (1G08)  ;  Masses, 
motets,  psalms  in  MS.  in  the  Vatican,  among 
them  a  Miserere  for  four  and  eight  voices 
and  a  mass  for  eight,  on  Palestrina's  madri- 
gal Vestiva  i  colli.  Other  madrigals  are  in 
the  collections  of  Scotto  and  Phalcsius  ;  and 
motets  and  psalms  in  those  of  Fabio  Con- 
stantini  and  Proske. — Fotis  ;  Grove  ;  La- 
rousse. 

GIOVANI  LIETI.     See  Nozze  di  Figaro. 

GIOVANNA  D'  ARCO  (Joan  of  Arc),  Ital- 
ian opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Solera,  mu- 
sic by  Verdi,  first  represented  at  La  Scala, 
Milan,  Feb.  15,  1845.  It  was  given  in  Paris, 
at  the  Italiens,  Jlarch  28,  1868,  with  Patti, 
Nicoliui,  and  Steller  in  the  cast,  but  with- 
out success.  The  score  contains  nuuibors 
of  great  merit,  but  the  libretto  is  weak  and 
ridiculous. — Hanslick,  222. 

GIOVENTU  DI  ENRICO  QUINTO,  LA 
(The  Youth  of  Henry  the  Fifth),  Italian 
ojiera  buffa  in  two  acts,  text  by  Landri- 
ani  tho  composer,  music  by  Herold,  repre- 
sented at  tho  Teatro  del  Fondo,  Naples, 
1815.  The  libretto  is  an  adajitation  from 
Duval's  comedy,  "  La  jcune.sse  de  Henri  V." 
The  opera,  written  in  the  third  year  of  Ho- 
rold's  residence  in  Italy  as  a  pensioner  of  the 
Acadcmie  do  France,  was  a  succes.s.  The  li- 
bretto was  printed  (Naples,  1815)  anonj-- 
mously,  but  tho  music  remains  in  MS. 
Operas  of  the  same  title  are  by  J.  Mosea, 
Palermo,  1817  ;  Carlini,  Naples  and  Milan, 
1820  ;  Pacini,  Rome,  1821 ;  Morlacchi,  Dres- 
den, 1823;  Garcia,  New  York,  1827;  and 
Mercadante,  Milan,  1834.— Grove,  i.  731. 

GIPPENBUSCH,  JACOB,,  born  in  Speyer 
in  1G12,  died  July  3,  1GG4.  Entered  the 
Order  of  Jesuits  in  1629,  taught  the  classics 
in  Cologne,  and  at  the  same  time  acted  as 
choir-master.  Published  hymns  and  mo- 
tets.— Mendel  ;  Ft'tis  ;  Gerber. 

GIPSY'S  WARNING,  THE,  English  ro- 
mantic opera,  text  by  Linley,  music  by  Ju- 
lius Benedict,  first  represented  at  tlie  Ly- 
ceum Theatre,  London,  1838.     This  work. 


150 


GIEALDA 


Benedict's  first  English  opera,  was  given 
afterwards  in  Berlin  and  other  (Tcrman  cities. 

GIBALDA,  ou  la  nouvelle  Psjche,  opcra- 
comique  in  three  acts,  test  by  Scribe,  mu- 
sic by  Adolphe  Adam,  first  represented  at 
the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  July  20,  1850. 
A  king  of  Spain,  accompanied  by  his  queen 
on  a  pilgrimage  to  Santiago  de  Compostela, 
stops  at  the  farm  of  Gines,  the  betrothed 
of  Giralda.  She  is  secretly  in  love  with  a 
cavalier  whom  she  has  met,  but  whose  face 
she  has  never  seen,  he  being  obliged  to  con- 
ceal himself  on  account  of  some  political  in- 
trigue. He  (Don  Manoi'l)  gives  farmer  Giuus 
six  hundred  ducats  to  let  him  take  his  jjlace 
at  the  altar  on  his  wedding-day,  and  so  be- 
comes the  husband  of  Giralda.  Ou  the  arri- 
val of  the  king  he  is  obliged  to  take  to  flight, 
and  during  his  absence  jjoor  Giralda  believes 
herself  in  turn  wedded  to  Gines  and  then 
to  an  old  seigneur  named  Don  Jaj^het  ;  but 
at  last  the  queeu  secures  the  pardon  of  Don 
MauoOl,  and  he  returns  to  claini  his  bride. 
This  work,  the  best  of  the  composer's  from 
a  musical  point  of  view,  was  well  interpreted 
by  Miles  Miolau  and  Meyer,  and  by  Messrs. 
Bussine,  Audrau,  Sainte-Foy,  and  Ricquier. 
It  met  with  great  success  throughout  France 
and  in  Germany,  and  was  revived  in  Paris 
in  18G2  and  187G. — Pougin,  Adolphe  Adam, 
204  ;  Larousse,  viii.  12G7. 

GIKANEK,  ANTON,  born  in  Bohemia 
about  1712,  died  at  Dresden,  Jan.  16,  1761. 
Violinist,  lived  for  some  years  in  Prague, 
then  went  to  Warsaw,  where  he  became 
first  violinist  in  the  royal  orchestra,  after- 
wards director  of  music  in  Dresden.  He 
composed  24:  concertos  for  the  violin,  and 
several  concertos  for  pianoforte,  flute,  and 
viola  di  gamba. — Fetis  ;  Meudek 

GIRAED,  NARCISSE,  born  at  Mantes, 
France,  Jan.  27,  1797,  died  in  Paris,  Jan. 
16,  1860.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire,  from  1817,  of  Baillot 
for  violin  ;  won  the  2d  prize  in  1819  and 
the  1st  in  1820.  He  studied  counterpoint 
under  Reicha.  In  1830-82  he  was  conductor 
of  the  orchestra  at  the  Opera  Italien,  and  in 


1837-4G  at  the  Opera  Comique.  In  184G 
he  succeeded  Hnbeneck  at  the  Opera,  and  in 
1856  became  director  in  chief  there.  He 
also  became  in  1847  Habeneck's  successor 
as  professor  of  the  violin  in  the  Conserva- 
toire, and  chef  d'orchestre  of  the  Socicte 
des  Concerts.  Legion  of  Honour,  1843. 
"Works — Operas  :  Les  deux  voleurs.  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  1841  ;  Le  conseil  des  dix, 
ib.,  1842.  He  arranged  Beethoven's  Sonate 
pathetique  as  a  symphony,  and  gave  it  at  a 
concert  in  Paris  presided  over  by  Liszt  in 
1832.— Fc'tis  ;  Larousse. 

GIRAUD,  FRANgOIS  JOSEPH,  French 
composer  of  the  18th  century.  Violoncel- 
list, member  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Opera, 
Paris,  in  1752-67  musician  of  the  royal 
chapel  and  of  the  King's  chamber  music. 
Several  of  his  motets  were  played  at  the 
Concerts  Spirituels.  He  wrote  Deucalion 
et  Pyrrha  (with  Berton  pere),  1755  ;  and 
L'opera  de  sociOte,  1762.  He  published  a 
book  of  sonatas  for  the  violoncello. — Fetis, 
iv.  14  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i.  385  ;  Mendel. 

GIRBERT,  CHRISTOPH  HEINRICH, 
born  at  Frijhnstockheim,  near  Crailsheim, 
Wiirtemberg,  July  8,  1751,  died  in  Baireuth 
about  1826.  Pupil  of  his  stejj-father  in 
singing,  pianoforte,  and  organ,  then  of  Can- 
tor Stadler,  and  settled  in  Baireuth  as  a 
teacher  in  1769.  Became  music  director 
of  Schmidt's  travelling  company  in  1784, 
bringing  out  seven  of  his  operettas,  and  re- 
turned to  teaching  in  Baireuth.  Works  : 
Two  symphonies  for  8  and  10  instruments  ; 
Four  concertos  for  pianoforte ;  Eleven  for 
do.  ;  Five  quartets  for  violins. — Mendel  ; 
Fetis. 

GIR0FLT5-GIR0FLA,  opera-bouffe  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Vanloo  and  Leterrier, 
music  by  Charles  Lecocq,  first  represented 
at  the  Theatre  des  Fantaisies  Parisiennes, 
Brussels,  March  21,  1874.  The  plot  turns 
on  the  confounding  of  Girofle  and  Girofla, 
the  two  daughters  of  Don  Bolero  d'Alcara- 
zas,  one  of  whom  is  promised  in  marriage 
to  the  banker  Marasquin,  and  the  other  to 
the   Moorish  warrior   Mourzouk.      It   was 


GIEOUST 


given  in  Paris,  at  the  Theatre  cle  la  Eenais- 
sance,  Nov.  11,  187-1. 

GIllOUST,  FRANgOIS,  bom  iu  Paris, 
April  9,  1730,  died  in  Versailles,  Aug.  28, 
1799.  When  maitre  de  musique  iu  the 
metropolitan  church  in  Orleans,  his  psalm, 
Sujjer  flumina  Babylonis,  won  the  1st  prize 
in  1768  at  a  government  concours,  he  being 
awarded  also  the  2d  prize.  In  consequence 
be  was  called  to  Paris  to  become  maitre  de 
chajjelle  of  the  Church  des  Innocents,  and 
he  subsequently  held  a  similar  position  iu 
the  royal  chapel,  and  in  1775  became  super- 
intendent of  the  king's  music.  His  orato- 
rios were  jjlayed  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels, 
among  them,  Le  passage  de  la  Mer  Rouge. 
His  motets  were  composed  for  the  royal 
chajiel.  His  music  is  jsreserved  in  the 
national  library,  Paris. — Fetis ;  Larousse  ; 
Mendel. 

GIRSCHNER,  CHRISTIAN  FRIED- 
RICH  JOHANN  (or  Karl,  according  to 
Mendel),  born  at  Spaudau  in  1794,  died  at 
Libourne  (Gironde)  in  June,  1860.  Dra- 
matic and  church  composer,  studied  music 
at  Frankfort-ou-the-Oder,  and  in  1820  went 
to  Berlin,  where  he  held  a  position  as  or- 
ganist for  two  years.  Logier  arriving  then 
in  Berlin,  to  establish  a  school  for  his  new 
method  of  musical  instniction,  Girschner 
allied  himself  with  him,  and  in  1822  became 
director  of  the  Logier  Academj-,  which 
flourished,  however,  for  scarcely  ten  years. 
In  1833  he  was  editor  of  the  Berliner  mu- 
sikalische  Zeitung,  and,  having  occupied 
various  positions  at  Potsdam,  Dantzic,  Jena, 
and  Aix-la-Chapelle,  he  finally  obtained  an 
appointment  as  organist  of  the  Lutheran 
chapel  at  Brussels  in  1840,  and  was  made 
professor  of  the  organ  at  the  Conservatoire 
in  the  year  following.  His  intemperate 
habits  unfortunately  led  to  his  resignation 
from  both  positions  in  1848,  after  which  he 
lived  for  a  few  months  at  Ghent  ;  for  sev- 
eral j'ears  nothing  was  heard  of  him,  until 
1851,  when  he  appeared  as  chef  d'orchestre 
of  a  theatre  at  Rochefort,  France.  "Works  : 
Undine,  ojsera,  given  in  Berlin,  1830  ;  Die 


drei  Schulmeister,  do.,  ib.,  1834  ;  Sympho- 
nies, overtures,  psalms,  and  songs. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

GISELLE,  ou  les  Willis,  fantastic  ballet 
in  two  acts,  text  by  ThL'Oj)hile  Gautier  and 
Saint-Georges,  music  by  Adolphe  Adam, 
first  represented  at  the  Opera,  Paris,  June 
28,  1841.  Subject  derived  from  a  Slav 
legend  related  by  Heinrich  Heine  in  "  De 
I'Allemagne "  (ii.  60),  concerning  a  noc- 
turnal dance  called  in  the  Slav  countries 
the  Willi.  Willis  are  betrothed  girls,  who, 
having  died  before  their  wedding-day,  can- 
not lie  quiet  in  their  graves,  but  come  out  at 
midnight  in  their  weddmg-garments  and, 
crowned  with  roses,  dance  in  the  moon- 
light like  elves.  If  they  meet  any  young 
man,  they  foi'ce  him  to  dance  with  them 
untU  he  falls  dead.  — Pougin,  Adolphe 
Adam,  156  ;  Larousse,  viii.  1280. 

GIUDITTA  (Judith),  oratorio,  by  An- 
tonio Lotti,  written  for  Venice. 

GIUDITTA,  oratorio,  text  and  music  by 
Benedetto  Marcello,  1710. 

GKILI.\NI,  FRANCESCO,  born  in  Flor- 
ence in  17G0,  died  after  1819.  Violinist 
and  jiianist,  jiupil  of  Nardini  on  the  violin, 
and  of  Bartolommeo  Felici  in  counterpoint ; 
when  quite  young  he  became  first  violin  at 
the  Teatro  Nuovo  in  Florence.  His  violin 
music  was  j^rinted  in  Berlin,  Amsterdam, 
and  London ;  he  composed  also  vocal  mu- 
sic.-—Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GIULIANI,  GIOVANNI  DOMENICO, 
born  in  Lucca  about  1670,  died  in  1730. 
He  was  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Church 
of  San  Michele  in  Foro  of  his  native  place. 
His  masses,  motets,  and  psalms  are  still 
presei-ved  there,  and  are  occasionally  per- 
formed.— Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  125  ;  Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, i.  387. 

GIULIANI,  MAUEO,  born  iu  Bologna 
about  1780,  died  (?).  Famous  guitarist  and 
composer.  He  settled  in  Vienna  in  1807, 
was  in  Rome  iu  1821,  then  in  St.  Peters- 
burg for  several  years.  He  wrote  much 
music  for  guitar  and  orchestra,  two  guitars, 
etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 


152 


GIDLIO 


GIULIO  CESARE,  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Nicolo  Fraucesco  Hajm,  music 
by  Hamlel,  first  represented  at  the  King's 
Tlieatre,  London,  Feb.  20,  1724.     The  orig- 


/C'^   j,"*"#!*A 


inal  MS.  score,  in  the  Buckingham  Palace 
collection,  is  dated  1723.  Characters  rep- 
resented :  Giulio  Cesare,  Curio,  Cornelia, 
Sesto  Pompeo,  Cleopatra,  Tolomeo,  Achilla, 
Nireno.  Senesiuo  (Francesco  Beruardi, 
called)  created  a  profound  impression  in 
this  work  by  his  magnificent  delivery  of  the 
accompanied  recitative,  "Alma  del  gran 
Pomjjeo."  Giulio  Cesare  often  reappeared 
on  the  stage,  the  last  time  in  1787,  when 
George  HI.  attended  the  theatre.  Published 
first   by   Cluer ;    full   score,   Hiindelgesell 


. — llockstro,  Handel, 
Schalcher,   70,  90  ; 


schaft  (Leipsic,  1875 
139  ;  Eeissmanu,  92 
Chrysander,  ii.  106. 

GIULIO  SABINO,  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  lletastasio,  music  by  Giu- 
seppe )Sarti,  represented  at  the  Teatro  San 
Benedetto,  Venice,  1781.  Subject  founded 
on  the  story  of  Julius  Sabinus,  a  noble 
Gaul  who,  in  the  time  of  Vespasian,  joined 
Civilis  in  the  revolt  against  the  Roman 
yoke.  Defeated  and  forced  to  fly  for  his 
life,  he  pretended  to  burn  himself  in  his 
country  house,  but  escaped  in  the  disguise  of 
a  jDeasant  and  hid  himself  in  a  cave  in  the 
depths  of  a  forest,  where  he  lived,  attended 
by  two  servants  and  by  his  faithful  wife 
Epponina,  nine  years.  Betrayed  at  last,  he 
was  delivered  up  to  Vespasian,   who  sent 


both  to  punishment,  Ej^ponina  demanding 
to  be  permitted  to  die  with  her  husband. 
In  the  opera  the  denouement  is  changed: 
the  two  prepare  to  die  together  when  Ti- 
tus, moved  to  pity  by  Epponina's  devotion, 
pardons  Sabinus.  The  characters  are  :  Giu- 
lio Sabino,  Arminio,  Annio,  Tito,  Voadice, 
Epponina.  Although  a  work  of  the  second 
order,  Giulio  Sabino  shows  that  Sarti  was 
possessed  of  considerable  dramatic  ability. 
His  work  was  given  in  other  Italian  cities 
in  1782,  and  in  Loudon  in  1785.  The  same 
text  has  been  set  also  by  Cherubiui,  Lon- 
don, 178G  ;  and  by  Tarchi,  Turin,  1791. 
— Larousse,  xiv.  11  ;  Burney,  iv.  530. 

GIURAMENTO,  IL  (The  Oath),  lyrical 
drama  in  four  acts,  text  by  Rossi,  music 
by  Mercadante,  first  represented  at  La 
Scala,  Milan,  Dec.  26,  1837,  and  in  Paris, 
at  the  Theatre  Italien,  Nov.  22,  1858.  The 
libretto  is  an  adaptation  of  Victor  Hugo's 


Marietta  Brambilla, 


drama,  "Augelo,  tyrau  de  Padoue,"  but  the 
scene  is  changed  to  Syracuse,  and  other 
concessions  are  made  to  the  Italian  taste. 
It  is  one  of  the  best  of  Mercadante's 
scores.  It  was  sung  at  Milan  by  Carta- 
genova,  Pedrazzi,  and  Mmes  Schoberlech- 


GIUSTINO 


ner  and  Marietta  Brambilla ;  iu  Paris  by 
Francesco  ami  Lodovico  Graziani,  and 
Mines  Penco  and  Alboni. 

GIUSTINO  (Justin),  Italian  opera  in' 
three  acts,  text  by  Count  Beregoni,  music 
by  Handel,  first  represented  at  Covent  Gar- 
den Theatre,  London,  Feb.  16,  1737.  The 
MS.,  iu  Buckingham  Palace,  is  dated  at  the 
beginning  August  1-4,  1736,  and  at  the  i 
end  Oct.  20,  1736.  The  text  was  proba- , 
bly  written  for  Venice,  1683.  Characters 
represented  :  Anastasio,  Ariauna,  Leocasta, 
Amanzio,  Giustino,  Vitaliauo,  Polidarte,  La 
Fortuna,  Voce  di  dentro.  It  had  only  five 
representations.  Giustino,  whose  part  was 
sung  by  Gizziello,  engages  and  slays  a  sea- 
monster  to  the  music  of  a  descriptive  sym- 
phony, which  was  jjarodied  by  Carey  in  the 
Dragon  of  Wantley.  Originally  published 
by  "Walsh ;  full  score,  Hiludelgosellschaft 
(Leiijsic,  1883). — Schcelcher,  Handel,  185  ; 
Rockstro,  192  ;  Chrysander,  ii.  397. 

GIVE  ME  BACK  MY  DEAREST 
MASTER.  See  Gebt  mir  meinen  Jesum 
wieder. 

GLADLY  WILL  I,  ALL  RESIGNING. 
See  Gerne  will  ich  mich  bequemen. 

GLADSTONE,  FRANCIS  EDWARD, 
born  in  Oxford,  Eng- 
land, March  2,  1845, 
still  living,  1889.  Or- 
ganist, pupil  of  S.  S. 
Wesley  in  1859-64  ; 
organist  of  Llandaff 
(1860)  and  Chichester 
(1870)  Cathedrals, 
lived  in  Brighton,  1873 
-76,  and  London,  1876 
of  Norwich  Cathedral, 
1877-81,  and  since  of  Christ  Church,  Lan- 
caster Gate,  London.  Mus.  Bac,  Cam- 
bridge, 1876  ;  Mus.  Doc,  ib.,  1879.  Works 
. — Cantatas  :  Nicodemus,  London,  1880  ; 
Philippi,  1882  ;  Constance  of  Calais,  1884. 
Church  services  ;  Anthems ;  Trio  for  piano- 
forte, violin,  and  violoncello,  1876  ;  Organ- 
music  ;  A  wet  sheet  and  a  flowing  sea,  cho- 
rus with  orchestra ;  Songs. 


4 


77,  then  organist 


GLASER,  FRANZ,  born  at  Ober-Geor- 
genthal,  Bohemia,  April  19,  1798,  died  iu 
Copenhagen,  Aug.  30  (or  29?),  1861.  Dra- 
matic composer,  piq^il  iu  singing,  while  a 
choir-boy  iu  the  court  chapel  at  Dresden, 
of  Mieksch  ;  at  the  Prague  Conservatorium 
of  Pixis  on  the  violin  ;  and  in  Vienna  of 
Heydeureich  in  couuterijoiut.  He  became 
Kapellmeister  of  the  Josephstiidter  Theater, 
Vienna,  in  1817 ;  of  the  KOuigstiidtisches 
Theater,  Berlin,  iu  1830  ;  and  was  appointed 
royal  Kapellmeister  in  Copenhagen  iu  1842. 
Works — Oj)eras:  Der  Brief  an  sich  selbst, 
Sauertopfchen,  oder  der  Ritter  mit  der 
goldenen  Gans,  given  iu  Vienna,  1824 ; 
Sonderbare  Lauue,  ib.,  1825 ;  Heliodor, 
ib.,  1826  ;  Elsbeth,  oder  die  Brautschau  auf 
Kronstein,  Armida,  die  Zauberiu  im  Orient, 
ib.,  1828  ;  Die  vier  Haimons-Kinder,  ib., 
1830  ;  Des  Adlers  Horst,  Berlin,  1833 ; 
Aurora,  ib.,  1836  ;  Der  Ratteufiluger  von 
Hamelu,  ib.,  1837  ;  Das  Auge  des  Teufels, 
ib.,  1840  ;  Andrea,  ib.,  1841  ;  Die  Hochzeit 
am  Comosee,  ib.,  1848  ;  and  music  to  many 
dramas,  farces,  melodramas,  pantomimes, 
etc.;  Festival  overture,  Berlin,  1830;  Fu- 
neral cantata,  ib.,  1837. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr., 
ix.  216  ;  Fc'tis ;  Ledcbur,  Tonkihistler  Lex- 
icon Berlins,  189  ;  Mendel  ;  Wasielewski, 
354. 

GLASER,  KARL  GOTTHELF,  born  at 
Weissenfels,  Prussian  Saxony,  May  4,  1784, 
died  at  Barmen,  Rhenish  Prussia,  April 
16,  1829.  Son  and  pupil  of  Karl  Lud- 
wig  Traugott  Gliiser,  and  studied  at  the 
Thomasschule  of  Leipsic  under  J.  A. 
Hiller  and  A.  E.  Miiller  in  pianoforte  and 
harmony,  and  under  Campagnoli  in  violin. 
He  began  the  study  of  law  at  Leipsic  Uni- 
versitv',  but  became  a  teacher  and  dealer  iu 
music  in  Barmen.  He  wrote  songs,  motets, 
chorals,  music  for  pianoforte,  and  several 
elementary  works  for  musical  instruction. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  217 ;  Riemann  ; 
Mendel. 

GLASER,  KARL  LLT)WIG  TRAU- 
GOTT, bom  at  Ehrenfriedensdorf,  Sax- 
ony, iu  1747,  died  at  Weissenfels,  Jan.  31, 


GLEASOlSr 


1797.  He  was  cantor,  music  director,  and 
seminary  teacher  in  Weissoufels.  Com- 
posed much  manuscript  church  music,  and 
published  a  collection  of  minuets  and  polo- 
naises for  the  pianoforte.  His  melody  to 
Feinde  riugsum,  by  Karl  Gottlob  Cramer, 
became  widely  known,  and  to  the  same 
melody  Nonne  wrote  another  jwpular  text, 
Flamme  empor  ! — Mendel  ;  Allgoni.  d.  Bi- 
ogr.,  ix.  217  ;  Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Fctis. 

GLEASON,  FREDEIUC  GIUNT,  born, 
of  American  parentage, 
at  Middletown,  Con- 
necticut, Dec.  17, 1848, 
still  living,  1889.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil 
in  Hartford  on  the  pi- 
anoforte and  in  compo- 
sition of  Dudley  Buck, 
and  in  18G9  at  the 
Leipsic  Conserv.ato- 
riiim  on  the  pianoforte 
of  Moscheles,  Papjje- 
ritz,  and  Plaidy,  and  in  theory  and  compo- 
sition of  E.  F.  Eichter,  J.  C.  Lobo,  Pappe- 
ritz,  and  Oscar  Paul.  In  1870  he  studied 
in  Berlin  the  pianoforte  under  Oscar  Raif 
and  A.  Loeschhorn,  theory  and  composition 
under  C.  F.  Weitzmann,  and  the  organ 
under  August  Haupt  ;  and  in  London  the 
pianoforte  under  Oscar  Beringer.  Return- 
ing home  in  187.5,  he  became  organist  of 
the  Asylum  Hill  Congregational  Church  in 
Hartford,  and  in  187(5  of  the  First  Congre- 
gational Church  in  New  Britain.  In  1877 
he  became  teacher  of  the  pianoforte,  organ, 
composition,  and  orchestration  in  the  Her- 
shey  School  of  Music,  Chicago,  and  in  188-t 
examiner,  director,  and  fellow  of  the  Amer- 
ican College  of  Musicians.  He  is  also  musi- 
cal editor  of  the  Chicago  Tribune.  Works  : 
Olho  Visconti,  grand  ojicra  in  three  acts, 
op.  7  (MS.);  Montezuma,  do.  (MS.) ;  Ouver- 
ture  triomphale,  for  organ,  op.  11 ;  God  our 
Deliverer,  cantata  for  soli,  chorus,  and  or- 
chestra, op.  12  ;  3  trios  for  pianoforte,  violin, 
and  violoncello  ;  Praise  Song  to  Harmony, 
symphonic  cantata,  for  soli,  chorus,  and  or- 


chestra, op.  17  ;  Concerto  in  G  minor,  for 
pianoforte  and  orchestra,  op.  18. 

GLEISSNER,  FKANZ,  born  at  Neustadt 
an  der  Waldnab,  Bavaria,  in  17G0,  died  in 
Munich  after  1815.  Dramatic  and  instru- 
mental composer  ;  completed  his  philosophi- 
cal and  musical  studies  in  Munich,  and  be- 
came a  member  of  the  royal  chapel  there 
about  1800.  He  was  the  first  who  used 
lithography  for  printing  music,  and  estab- 
lished a  house  for  this  jnirpose  at  Offenbach 
in  1799.  Works:  Der  Pachtbrief,  opera, 
given  in  Munich,  1814  ;  Several  ballets,  ib., 
among  them,  Paul  und  Virginia;  Agnes 
Bernauerin,  melodrama,  ib.,  about  1790 ; 
Lazarus,  oratorio,  ib.,  1795  ;  Six  masses  and 
offertories,  op.  2  (Augsburg,  Lotter)  ;  Sym- 
phonies for  several  instruments,  op.  1  and 
15  ;  Quartets,  duos,  etc.;  Several  collections 
of  pianoforte  music. —  Fetis  ;  Gerber  ;  Eie- 
mann  ;  Schilling. 

GLETTLE,  JOHANN  MELCHIOR,  born 
at  Bremgarten,  Switzerland,  in  the  first  part 
of  the  17th  century.  He  was  Kapellmeister 
in  Augsburg  about  1G80,  and  one  of  the 
most  favourite  composers  of  his  time. 
Works  :  36  motets,  op.  1  (Augsburg,  1GG7) ; 
Masses  for  five  voices  and  five  instruments 
(ib.,  1GG7) ;  do.,  and  mass  for  eight  voices 
and  seven  instruments,  op.  3  (ib.,  1G70) ; 
Psalms  for  five  voices  and  five  instruments 
(ib.,  1GG7)  ;  36  motets  for  solo  voice  and 
two  violins  (ib.,  1GG7)  ;  Musica  generalis 
latino-germanica,  for  from  one  to  five  voices, 
partly  with  two  violins,  besides  2  sonatas 
and  36  Tromfieter-Stiicklein  (ib.,  1674)  ; 
do.,  2d  part,  op.  8  (ib.,  1684)  ;  18  psalms 
for  three  voices  (ib.,  1685). — Fctis;  Gerber, 
Hist.  Lex.;  Mendel. 

GLUMES,  JEAN  BAPTISTE  JULES  DE, 
born  in  Brussels,  J.an.  24,  1814,  died  there, 
Oct.  4,  1881.  Pianist,  pupil  of  Hanssens  and 
of  Fctis  at  the  Conservatoire,  Brussels,  and 
teacher  of  singing  there  in  1837-40.  He 
was  a  teacher  in  London  for  about  twenty 
years  from  1842.  Works  :  Pianoforte  mu- 
sic ;  Chamber  music  ;  Songs. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del. 


155 


GLINKA 


GLINKA,  MICH  AIL  IVANOVITCH 
DE,  born  in  the  village  of  Novo-spaskoi,  near 
Smolensk,  Russia, 
May  20  (or  June  1) 
1804  died  in  Ber- 
lin, Feb.  15,  1857. 
Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  on  the  piano- 
forte of  John  Field. 
A  Russian  of  PoUsh 
extraction,  he  first 
took  up  music  as  an 
amateur,  but  later 
adopted  it  as  a  profession.  In  1830  he 
went  to  Italy,  and  made  a  close  study 
of  the  Italian  mode  of  composition  for 
the  voice,  and  in  1833  studied  counter- 
point under  Siegfried  Wilhelm  Dehn  in 
Berlin.  In  1830  he  brought  out  in  St. 
Petersburg  an  ojjera,  Zar.skaja  skisu  (Life 
for  the  Czar),  which  had  an  immediate  suc- 
cess, and  has  always  been  popular  in  Rus- 
sia. In  1876  its  4:48th  representation  was 
celebrated,  and  the  bust  of  the  composer 
crowned.  In  1842  his  second  opera,  Rus- 
zlan  and  Ludmilla,  won  almost  an  equal 
popularity.  Glinka  became  court  con- 
ductor and  director  of  the  opera  and  of 
the  choral  performances  in  the  imperial 
churches.  In  1844  he  went  to  Paris,  in 
1845-47  he  was  in  Madrid  and  Seville, 
and,  after  living  a  while  in  Warsaw  and  St. 
Petersburg,  returned  to  Spain  in  1851. 
In  1854-55  he  lived  near  St.  Petersburg, 
engaged  on  his  autobiography  and  in 
new  opera  projects,  and  in  185G  visited 
Dehn,  his  old  master,  in  Berlin,  where  he 
died.  Works :  Zarskaja  skisu,  opera,  St. 
Petersburg,  183G  ;  Huszlan  and  Ludmilla, 
do.,  St.  I'etersburg,  1842  ;  Kamarinskaja  ; 
Symf)hony  (unfinished)  ;  Liixjola  Aragonesa  ; 


Adagio  and  Rondo  for  orchestra  ;  Septet ; 
Quartets ;  Serenades    for    several    instru- 


ments ;  Rondos  and  variations  ;  Romances 
and  other  songs. — Fctis  ;  do.,  Supplement, 
i.  387  ;  Fouque,  l5tude  sur  Glinka  ;  Men- 
del ;  Riemann  ;  Cui,  La  Musique  en  Rus- 
sie,  in  Revue  et  Gazette  musicale  de  Paris 
(1878-79)  ;  Serow,  in  Theater-  und  Musik- 
bote  (1857),  and  in  Musik  und  Theater 
(18G8)  ;  Soloviev,  in  Musikaluy  Listok 
(1872)  ;  Oscar  Comettaut,  Mus.  et  Musi- 
ciens,  414. 

GLOCKEN  DES  STRASSBURGER 
MONSTERS,  DIE  (The  Bells  of  Strasburg 
Cathedral),  cantata  for  baritone  solo,  mixed 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Franz  Liszt,  op. 
155,  WTittcn  in  1874.  Dedicated  to  Long- 
fellow, to  whose  "Golden  Legend"  in 
"  Christus "  Liszt  was  indebted  for  his 
theme.  The  cantata  deals  only  with  the 
prologue,  in  which  Lucifer  and  the  Powers 
of  the  air  attempt  to  tear  down  the  cathe- 
dral cross  during  the  night-storm.  Pub- 
lished, score,  pianoforte  score,  and  parts 
(Schuberth). — Upton,  Standard  Cantatas, 
22L 

GLOIRE  LVIMORTELLE  DE  NOS 
AIEUX.     See  Faust,  Gounod. 

GLOOMY  TYRANTS  WE  DISDAIN, 
contralto  air  in  D  minor,  of  Josabeth,  in 
Handel's  Athalia,  Part  I. 

GLORIA  ALL'  EGITTO.     See  AUa. 

GLORIOUS  APOLLO,  glee  by  Samuel 
Webbe,  composed  for  the  London  Glee 
Club  on  its  establishment  in  1787.  It  was 
the  first  glee  sung  at  every  meeting  of  the 
club  during  its  existence. — Grove,  i.  599. 

GLORREICHE  AUGENBLICK,  DER 
(The  Glorious  Moment),  cantata  for  four 
solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  text  by 
Dr.  Aloys  Weissenbach,  music  by  Beethoven, 
op.  136,  composed  in  1814  by  order  of  the 
magistracy  of  Vienna  for  the  celebration  of 
the  Congress  held  in  Vi- 
enna to  readjust  the  rela- 
tions of  Europe  after  the 
downfall  of  Napoleon  ;  per- 
formed, Nov.  29,  1814,  be- 
fore the  assembled  monarchs,  Franz  I.  of 
Austria,  Nicholas  I.  of  Russia,  and  Friedrich 


156 


GLORY 


Willielm  in.  of  Prussia,  to  whom  it  was 
dedicated.  Published  by  Hasliuger,  after 
Beethoven's  death,  under  the  title  Preis 
der  Tonkunst  (Praise  of  Music),  with  the 
original  text,  and  also  with  a  new  text  by 
Friedrich  Rochlitz.  Edition  by  Breitkoj^f 
&  Hiirtel  (Leipsic),  Beethovens  Werke, 
Cautaten,  No.  1.— Marx,  ii.  202  ;  Thayer, 
Verzeichuiss,  118 ;  Lenz,  Beethoven,  ii. 
304  ;  Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  .53. 

GLORY  TO  GOD  IN  THE  HIGHEST, 
chorus  in  D  majoi",  in  Handel's  Messiah, 
Part  I. 

GLORY  TO  THE  CALIPH.    See  Oberon. 

GLOSCH,  KARL  WILHELM,  born  in 
BerHn  in  1732,  died  there,  Oct.  21,  1809. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  his  father ; 
chamber  musician  from  17G.5  to  the  Prince 
of  Prussia  and  teacher  of  the  princess. 
Works :  La  fete  des  vertua  et  des  graces, 
Berlin,  1773  ;  Der  Bruder  Graurock  iind 
die  Pilgerin,  ib.,  1775  ;  Pianoforte  music  ; 
Flute  music. — Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

GLOVER,  CHARLES  WILLIAJI,  born  in 
London,  February,  180G,  died  there,  March 
23,  18G3.  Violinist,  pupil  of  T.  Cooke  ;  was 
engaged  at  the  Drury  Lane  and  Coveut  Gar- 
den Theatres  ;  musical  director  of  Queen's 
Theatre,  1832.  Has  composed  songs,  duets, 
and  pianoforte  music. 

GLOVER,  JOHN  "^TLLIAM,  born  in 
Dublin,  June  19,  1815, 
still  living,  1889.  Or- 
ganist, studied  in  Dub- 
lin, where  he  became 
violinist  in  the  orches- 
tra, 1830.  Established 
the  Choral  Institute  of 
Dublin,  1851.  Works : 
St.  Patrick  at  Tara, 
cantata,  London,  1870 ; 
Erin's  Matin  Song, 
Patria,  do.,  ib.,  1873  ; 
for  violin  and  orchestra  ;  Fantasia  on  Irish 
airs  for  do.  ;  Concerto  for  organ  ;  Piano- 
forte music ;  Numerous  songs.  The  De- 
serted Village,  opera,  London,  1880  ;  Two 
Italian  operas  (MS.). 


Masses  ;    Concerto 


GLOVER,  STEPHEN,  born  in  London 
in  1812,  died  there,  Dec.  7,  1870.  Brother 
of  Charles  William  Glover,  and  composer 
of  more  than  three  hundred  popular  songs 
and  duets,  most  of  which  were  publishers' 
successes.  Works :  Merry  is  the  Green- 
wood, cavatina ;  Duets,  What  are  the  wild 
waves  saying  ?,  Stars  of  the  summer  night. 
There's  a  sweet  wild  rose.  Our  bark  is  on 
the  Rhine,  The  Curfew  bell,  and  Voices  of 
the  night ;  Songs,  Annie  on  the  banks  o' 
Dee,  The  Minstrel  knight,  and  Emigrant's 
farewell ;  Trios  ;  Quartets ;  Pianoforte  tran- 
scriptions, etc. — Brown  ;  Mendel. 

GLOVER,  WILLIAM,  born  in  London, 
1822,  still  living,  1889.  Organist  at  Cam- 
bridge, 1841-42,  at  Manchester,  1842,  and 
at  Cheetham,  1846 ;  pupil  of  Walmisley. 
Works :  Jerusalem,  oratorio,  Manchester, 
1848  ;  Emmanuel,  do.,  ib.,  1851  ;  The  Cor- 
sair, cantata  (1849) ;  Chamber  music,  songs, 
and  pianoforte  music. 

GLOVER,  WILLIAM  HOWARD,  born 
at  Kilburn,  London,  June  G,  1819,  died  in 
New  York,  Oct.  28,  1875.  Dramatic  com- 
poser and  violinist.  Son  of  Mrs.  Glover  the 
actress,  pupil  on  the  violin  of  Wagstaflf, 
leader  of  the  Lyceum  band.  After  a  long 
tour  on  the  Continent  he  settled  in  London, 
where  he  taught,  conducted,  and  sang  in  op- 
era, and  was  musical  critic  for  the  Morn- 
ing Post.  He  resided  in  the  United  States 
after  1868.  Works :  The  Coquette,  opera, 
London,  about  1845  ;  Tam  O'Shauter,  can- 
tata, produced  by  the  Philharmonic  Society, 
London,  July  4,  1855  ;  Aminta,  opera.  Hay- 
market,  London,  about  1855 ;  Ruy  Bias, 
opera,  Covent  Garden,  ib.,  1861  ;  Once  too 
often,  operetta,  Drury  Lane,  ib.,  1862 ; 
Palomita,  or  The  Veiled  Songstress,  oper- 
etta ;  Overture  to  Manfred  ;  12  romances 
for  pianoforte,  in  two  books  ;  Vocal  quar- 
tets and  duets,  etc.  ;  Pianoforte  music. 
— Grove  ;  Brown. 

GLUCK,  CHRISTOPH  WILLIBALD, 
Ritter  VON,  born  at  Weidenwang,  near 
Neumarkt,  Upper  Palatinate,  July  2,  1714, 
died  in  Vienna,  Nov.  15,  1787.     His  father. 


157 


GLUCK 


Alexander,  aud  his  motber,  Walpurga,  were 
of  Prinz  Lobkowitz's  household,  and  he 
M^i'\~;\,  passed  his  childhood 

at  the  prince's  Castle 
of  Eisenberg.  lu 
172G  he  entered  the 
Jesuit  school  at  Kom- 
motau  in  Bohemia, 
where  he  studied  the 
classics,  singing,  the 
violin,  pianoforte,  and 
organ.  In  1732  be 
went  to  Prague,  where  he  studied  under 
Cernohorsky,  and  practised  the  violoncello. 
In  173G  he  went  to  Vienna,  where  he  en- 
tered the  private  baud  of  Prince  Melzi,  whom 
he  followed  to  Milan,  where  he  finished  his 
studies  in  harmony  under  G.  B.  Sammartini. 
He  soon  wrote  ojieras,  Artaserse  (17-11)  be- 
ing the  first,  for  Milan,  Venice,  and  Turin, 
all  of  which  were  well  received.  lu  1745 
he  went,  by  invitation,  to  London,  but  was 
unable  to  compete  with  Handel,  and  the 
operas  he  brought  out  were  failures.  In 
April  23,  1746,  he  appeared  at  the  Hay- 
market  as  a  performer  on  the  musical 
glasses.  He  then  visited  Paris,  where  he 
heard  Eameau's  operas,  Hamburg,  and 
Dresden,  and  arrived,  near  the  close  of  174:G, 
in  Vienna,  wliei'e  he  applied  himself  to  the 
study  of  a'sthetics,  and  of  languages  and 
literature,  frequenting  the  most  intellect- 
ual society.  His  Semiramide  riconosciuta 
(1748)  was  a  marked  advance  upon  his  pre- 
vious works.  From  1749  to  1755  he  trav- 
elled, visiting  and  producing  works  in  Co- 
penhagen, Rome,  Naples,  Schonbrunn,  and 
again  in  Rome.  The  ojierettas,  divertisse- 
ments, and  other  things  he  wrote  after  his 
return  to  Vienna,  in  1855,  showed  a  marked 
falUng  off;  but  he  was  gaining  in  facility 
of  style.  Abandoning  IMetastasio's  libretti, 
after  much  consultation  with  the  poet  Calza- 
bigi  he  set  the  latter's  Orfeo  ed  Euridice 
(given,  Oct.  5,  1762),  in  which  his  important 
reforms  in  the  operatic  style  wei-e  fully  man- 
ifest. After  this  masterpiece,  however,  he 
fell  back  again,  writing  music  in  his  former 


vein  to  libretti  by  Metastasio,  undoubtedly 
in  obedience  to  outside  pressure  from  the 
court.  It  was  probably  between  1765  and 
1770  that  he  gave  singing  and  clavecin  les- 
sons to  Marie  Antoinette.  At  length  he  re- 
turned to  Calzabigi  and  his  new  dramatic 
stj'le,  producing  Alceste  (1767)  and  Paride 
ed  Elena  (1769).  In  this  latter  year  he 
wrote  also  two  lighter  intermezzi  for  the 
court  of  Parma.  But  he  had  lost  all  faith 
in  his  older  manner,  and  his  new  style  was 
so  harshly  criticised  in  Vienna  that  he  de- 
termined to  seek  some  other  field  for  the 
practical  development  of  his  ideas.  En- 
couraged by  the  Bailli  du  Rollct,  an  attache 
of  the  French  embassy,  he  went  to  work 
upon  Iphigunie  en  Aulide,  which,  when  com- 
pleted, he  took  to  Paris,  after  a  few  futile 
rehearsals  in  Vienna  iu  1772.  It  was 
brought  out  triumphantly  in  Paris  in  1774, 
and  marked  the  opening  of  a  new  era  in 
the  French  Ij-ric  drama,  as  Orfeo  had  in  the 
history  of  the  whole  lyric  stage.  It  began 
very  much  the  same  revolution  in  the  French 
tragedie-lyrique  that  had  been  brought 
about  in  the  oprra-comique  by  Philidor, 
Mousigny,  and  Grt'try.  Still  Glnck  had  to 
!  rely  upon  no  little  dijilomacy,  pamphleteer- 
ing, and,  above  all,  uj)on  the  influence  of 
JNIarie  Antoinette,  now  queen,  to  have  his 
work  performed.  Orphee,  a  revised  version 
of  his  Orfeo,  and  a  new  arrangement  of  his 
Alceste  (1774  and  1776)  soon  followed.  In 
spite  of  the  success  of  these  works,  their 
novel,  intensely  dramatic,  and  severe  style 
met  with  no  little  opposition  ;  when  Gluek 
had  set  to  work  on  his  Armide,  Piccinni  had 
already  been  invited  to  Paris,  and  was  hard 
at  work  with  IMarmontel  on  his  Roland. 
Armide  was  brought  out,  Sept.  23,  1777  ; 
Roland,  Jan.  17,  1778.  The  war  between 
the  Gluckist  and  Piccinnist  factions  bvirst 
forth  with  even  more  fury  than  that  which, 
years  before,  had  raged  in  London  between 
the  Handel  and  Bononcini  parties.  That 
Gluck  came  out  victorious  in  the  end  with 
his  Iphigenie  en  Tauride  (May  18,  1779)  is 
well  known  ;  Piccinni's  opera,  on  the  same 


I 


158 


GLUCK 


169 


GLUCK 


subject  (Jan.  23,  1781),  was  too  inferior  to 
keej)  up  the  contest.  Gluck  brouglit  out 
(Sept.  21,  1779)  liis  Echo  et  Narcisse,  which 
was  not  so  successful  as  his  Iphigenie,  al- 
though it  was  revived  a  year  later.  He  had 
set  to  work  on  Les  Danaides,  intending  it 
to  be  his  last  opera,  but  an  apojilectic  at- 
tack forced  him  to  give  up  this  task,  and  he 
gave  the  libretto  to  Salieri.  He  soon  re- 
turned to  Vienna,  where  he  passed  his  last 
years ;  his  fame  and  fortune  were  alike 
great.  He  died  of  a  second  stroke  of  apo- 
plexy. Gluck  is,  apart  from  his  great  ge- 
nius, consj)icuous  in  the  history  of  the  lyric 
drama  as  being  the  first  man  avowedly  to 
return  to  the  original  general  a'sthetic  j^rin- 
ciples  of  the  opera,  virtually  as  they  were 
set  forth  by  the  Florentine  music-reformers 
of  the  17th  century,  and  first  embodied  in 
the  works  of  Cacciui  and  Peri.  Such  a  re- 
turn to  first  2)rinciples  has  been  made  only 
twice,  first  by  Gluck,  then  by  Wagner.  The 
unquestionable  difference  in  form  and  char- 
acter of  the  music  of  Peri,  Gluck,  and  Wag- 
ner, brought  about  by  the  gradual  musical 
evolution  of  over  one  and  two  centuries  re- 
spectively, should  not  blind  our  eyes  to  its 
absolute  identity  of  artistic  aim  ;  namely,  its 
entire  subservience  to  the  di'amatic  spirit  of 
the  text.  Of  all  the  many  reactionaries  and 
reformers  in  the  history  of  the  lyric  drama, 
Gluck  and  Wagner  have  been  the  only  radi- 
cal ones.  Of  Gluck's  operas,  Orph^e  and 
Armide  have  had  the  widest  and  most  last- 
ing popularity  ;  Alccste  comes  next,  but  it 
is  probable  that  none  of  his  French  operas 
have  permanently  passed  from  the  stage  ;  a 
revival  of  any  of  them  would  not  be  a  mat- 
ter of  surprise.  The  best  portrait  of  Gluck 
is  the  one  by  Duplessis  (1775)  in  the  Vi- 
enna Gallery.  It  has  been  engraved  by 
Unger  and  Schilling  and  etched  by  Le  Rat. 
A  replica,  decidedly  finer  in  the  head,  but 
inferior  in  other  portions,  in  the  library  of 
the  Harvard  Musical  Association,  Boston, 
Mass.,  has  been  etched  for  this  Cyclopedia. 
Another  portrait,  by  HoudeviUe,  has  been  en- 
graved by  Phihppeaux ;  Houdou's  famous 


bust  has  been  engraved  by  Saint-Aubin. 
Cavelier's  statue  is  in  the  Opera  in  Paris. 
Works — Operas,  intermezzos,  and  ballets  : 
Artaserse,  given  at  Milan,  1741  ;  Demo- 
foonte,  ib.,  171:2  ;  Demetrio,  Venice  (under 
the  title  Cleonice),  1742  ;  Ipermestra,  ib., 
1742  ;  Ai-tamene,  Cremona,  1743  ;  Si/ace, 
INIilan,  1743  ;  Fetba,  ib.,  1744  ;  Alessandro 
neU'  Indie,  Turin  (under  the  title  Poro), 
1745  ;  La  caduta  de'  giganti,  Loudon,  1746  ; 
Ai'tameue  (remodelled),  ib.,  1746  ;  Piramo  e 
Tisbe,  pasticcio,  ib.,  1746  ;  La  Semiraniide 
riconosciuta,  Vienna,  1748  ;  Filide,  serenade 
in  2  acts,  Copenhagen,  1749  ;  Tekmacco, 
Eome,  1750  ;  La  demenza  di  Tito,  Naples, 
1751 ;  L'  eroe  Cinese,  Schonbruun,  near  Vi- 
enna, 1755  ;  II  trioufo  di  Camillo,  Antigono, 
Rome,  1754  ;  La  Danza,  Laxenburg,  near 
Vienna,  1755  ;  Les  amours  champctres,  Vi- 
enna, 1755  ;  L'  innocenza  giustificata,  II  re 
pastore,  ib.,  1756 ;  Le  Chinois  poll  en 
France,  Laxenburg,  1756  ;  Le  deguiscment 
pastoral,  Schimbrunu,  1756  ;  L'ile  de  Mer- 
lin, ib.,  1758  ;  La  fausse  esclave,  Vienna, 
1758 ;  Cyth6re  assiegee,  ib.,  1759 ;  L'i- 
vrogne  corrige,  ib.,  1760  ;  Tetide,  ib.,  1760 ; 
Le  cadi  dupe,  ib.,  1761 ;  Don  Juan,  ballet, 
1761  ;  On  ue  s'avise  jamais  de  tout,  L'arbre 
euchautu,  ib.,  1762  ;  R  IrionJ'u  di  Clclia,  Bo- 
logna, 1762  ;  Oifeo  ed  Euridice,  Vienna, 
17G2  ;  Ezio,  ib.,  1763  ;  La  rencontre  impre- 
vue,  Vienna  (also  in  German  as  Die  Pilgrime 
von  Mekka),  1764  ;  R  Parnasso  confuso, 
performed  by  the  imperial  family,  Schon- 
brunn,  1765 ;  Telemacco  (remodelled).  La 
Corona  (by  the  imperial  family),  Vienna, 
1765  ;  Alceste,  ib.,  1766  ;  I'aride  ed  Elena, 
ib.,  1769  ;  Le  feste  d'  Apollo,  Bauci  e  File- 
mone,  Ai'isteo,  Parma,  1769  ;  Iphigenie  en 
Aulide,  Orphce  et  Eiirydice  (rearranged), 
Paris,     1774;    Alceste     (remodelled),    ib., 


1776  ;  Armide,  ib.,  1777  ;  Iphigenie  en  Tau- 
ride,  £cho  et  Nai-cisse,   ib.,  1779.     Other 


160 


GLtJCK 


works:  G  symphonies  for  2  violins,  viola, 
bass,  and  2  horns  ;  De  j^rofundis,  for  chorus 
and  orchestra  ;  The  eighth  psalm,  a  cap- 
pella  ;  8  odes  of  Klopstock,  for  a  voice  and 
pianoforte ;  Part  of  a  cantata,  The  Last 
Judgment,  which  was  finished  by  Salieri. — 
Clement,  Mus.  celcbres,  88  ;  Futis ;  do.,  Sup- 
jilement,  i. ;  Mi'inoires  pour  servir  a  I'histoire 
de  la  revolution  opi'ree  dans  la  musique  par 
M.  le  chevalier  Gluck  (Paris  and  Naples, 
1781)  ;  Siegmeyer,  Ueber  den  Eitter  Gluck 
und  seine  Werke  (Berlin,  1825)  ;  Riedel, 
Ueber  die  Musik  des  Ritters  Christoph  von 
Gluck  (Vienna,  1775)  ;  Miel,  Notice  sur  Chr. 
G.  (Paris,  1840)  ;  Solie,  Etudes  biogra- 
phiques,  etc.  (Annecy,  1853)  ;  Schmid,  Chr. 
W.  Eitter  von  Gluck,  etc.  (Leipsic,  1854)  ; 
Desnoiresterres,  Gluck  et  Piccinui  (Paris, 
1872). 

GLUCK  VON  EDENHALL,  DAS  (The 
Luck  of  Edenhall),  ballad  by  Uliland,  music, 
for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  by  Robert 
Schumann,  op.  143,  composed  in  1853. 
The  Luck  of  Edenhall  is  a  goblet  left  by 
the  fairies  on  St.  Cuthbert's  well  at  Eden- 
hall, and  the  superstition  is  that  there  will 
be  no  more  luck  in  the  family  if  the  goblet 
be  lost  or  broken.  Longfellow  has  trans- 
lated the  poem. 

GLUCKSRITTER,  DEE,  operetta,  text 
by  Genee  and  Mannstiidt,  music  by  Alfons 
Czibulka,  represented  at  the  Carl  Theater, 
Vienna,  Dec.  22,  1887.     It  was  a  success. 

GNECCO,  FRANCESCO,  born  in  Genoa 
in  17G9,  died  in  Milan  in  1810.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of  Mariani,  of  the  Sistine 
Chapel,  and  the  Cathedral  of  Savona. 
Works — Operas  :  Lo  sposo  di  tre,  marito 
di  nessuna,  Milan,  1793  ;  Gli  Bramini,  Italy, 
about  1794  ;  Argete,  Naples,  about  1794  ; 
Le  nozze  de'  Sanniti,  Turin,  about  179G  ; 
Le  nozze  di  Lauretta,  ib.,  about  1797  ;  La 
prova  d'  uu  opera  seria,  Italy,  about  179G, 
Paris,  1806  ;  Carolina  e  Filaiulro,  Italy, 
about  1798  ;  II  pignattaro,   Naples,   about 

1799  ;    La    scena   senza   scena,    ib.,   about 

1800  ;  Gli  ultimi  due  giorni  di  Carnevale, 
Venice,  about  1800  ;  Arsace  e  Semiramide, 


about  1808  ;  I  falsi  galantuomini,  Milan, 
Teatro  Carcano,  1809  ;  Gli  amanti  filarmo- 
nici,  Italy,  about  1810  ;  Adelaide  e  Gues- 
clino  ;  II  nuovo  podesta  ;  La  testa  riscal- 
data. — Potis  ;  Mendel. 

GO,  BAFFLED  COWARD,  duet  in  A 
minor  for  tenor  and  bass,  between  Samson 
and  Harapha,  in  Handel's  Samson,  Part  11. 

GOBATI  (Gobatti),  STEFANO,  born  at 
Bergantino,  Veuetia,  July  5,  1852,  still  liv- 
ing, 1889.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at 
Mantua  of  Campioni,  at  Bologna  of  Giu- 
seppe Busi,  and  at  Parma  of  Lauro  Eossi, 
whom  he  followed  to  Naples.  His  first  op- 
era, I  Goti,  brought  out  at  Bologna,  Nov. 
30,  1873,  was  a  success  and  was  repeated 
on  all  the  iirincijial  stages  of  Italy.  His 
second  opera.  Luce,  Bologna,  1875,  Milan, 
Scala,  1876,  was  equally  successful. — Fotis, 
Supplement,  i.  395  ;  Mendel. 

GOBBAEETS,  JEAN  LOUIS,  born  in 
Antwerp,  Sept.  28,  1835,  died  at  Saint-Gil- 
les,  April  28,  1886.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the 
Brussels  Conservatoire.  He  published, 
often  under  the  pseudonym  of  Streabbog 
(Gobbaerts  reversed),  about  1,200  numbers 
of  light  pianoforte  music,  much  of  which 
was  popular.— Works  :  Valse  des  masques, 
op.  39  ;  Nocturne,  op.  45  ;  Idylle,  op.  49  ; 
Galojo  di  bravura,  op.  56  ;  Serenade,  oj). 
84 ;  Les  jjapillons,  G  dances,  op.  108  ;  Trans- 
criptions, etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  395  ; 
Eiemann. 

GOBEL,  JOHANN  FEEDINAND,  born 
at  Baumgarten,  Silesia,  in  1817,  still  living, 
1889  (?).  Violinist,  pupil  of  Pixis  on  the 
violin,  and  of  Dionys  Weber  in  composition 
at  the  Prague  Conservatorium.  In  1840  he 
was  first  violin  in  the  theatre  orchestra  at 
Breslau,  and  in  1844  became  director  there. 
Works  :  Overtures  ;  Violin  music  ;  Songs. 
—Mendel  ;  Fctis. 

GOBEL,  KAEL,  born  in  Berlin,  March 
11,  1815,  died  at  Bromberg,  Oct.  26,  1879. 
Pianist,  Kaijellmeister  of  the  theatre  in 
Dantzie  and,  later,  director  in  Bromberg. 
He  had  the  title  of  royal  Prussian  music 
director.       Works  —  Operas  :     Chrysalide, 


GOCKEL 


about  1840  ;  Fiitbjof,  1860.  He  was  the 
author  of  a  "  Kompeiidium  tier  Klavier- 
literatur." — Meudel,  iv.  285  ;   Ergiinz.,  127. 

GOCKEL,  AUGUST,  born  at  Willibades- 
sen,  Westphalia,  in  1831,  died  tliere  in 
18G1.  Pianist,  pupil  of  Mendelssohn  and 
Plaidy  at  the  Leipsie  Couservatorium  in 
1845.  In  1853-56  he  made  a  concert  tour 
in  the  United  States. — Works  :  Pianoforte 
music  ;  Chamber  music  ;  Songs. — Men- 
del. 

GODAHD,  BENJAMIN  (LOUIS  PAUL), 
born  ill  Paris,  Aug.  18,  1849,  still  living, 
1889.  Violinist  and  dramatic  composer,  pu- 
pil of  Richard  Hammer  on  the  violin,  and 
from  1863  at  the  Conservatoire  in  composi- 
tion of  Reber,  and  on  the  violin  of  Vieux- 
temps,  whom  be  accompanied  twice  on  con- 
cert tours  to  Germany.  He  is  one  of  the 
most  noteworthy  representatives,  among 
the  younger  generation  of  French  compos- 
ers, of  the  tendency  inaugurated  by  Berlioz. 
Prix  Chartier  of  the  lustitut  de  France, 
for  his  chamber  music.  W'orks  :  Pedro  de 
Zalamea,  opera,  given  at  Antwerp,  Jan.  31, 
1884  ;  Jocelyn,  opera,  Brussels,  Feb.  25, 
1888  ;  Dante  et  Beatrice,  Paris,  1888 ;  Les 
Guelfes,  do.  (MS.)  ;  Diane  ct  Acteou,  lyric 
scene  ;  Le  Tasse,  dramatic  symphony,  op. 
39  (prize  of  city  of  Paris,  1878)  ;  Symph- 
onic gothique,  op.  23 ;  Symphonie  orieu- 
tale,  op.  84  ;  Sijmplwiiie  k'gendau'e,  Paris, 
Chatelet,  188G-87  ;  Scenes  j)oetiques,  suite 
for  orchestra,  op.  46  ;  Solitude  for  do.  ;  2 
valses  for  do.  ;  Concerto  for  pianoforte  with 
orchestra,  op.  31  ;  Introduction  et  Allegro, 
for  do.,  op.  49;  Concerto  romantique,  for 
violin  and  orchestra,  op.  35  ;  2  quartets  for 
strings,  op.  33  and  37  ;  2  trios  for  piano- 
forte and  strings,  op.  and  72  ;  4  sonatas 
for  pianoforte  and  violin,  op.  1,  2,  9,  and 
12  ;  Legende  et  Scherzo,  for  do.,  op.  3  ;  6 
duettini,  for  2  violins  with  pianoforte,  op. 
18  ;  Deux  morceaux,  for  violoncello,  with 
do.,  op.  36  ;  Suite  de  trois  morceaux,  for 
violin,  with  do.,  op.  78  ;  Pianoforte  music 
and  many  songs. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
395 ;  Riemann. 


GODECHAELE  (Godcbalk),  EUGENE 
CHARLES  JEAN,  born  in  Brussels,  Jan.  15, 
1742,  died  there  about  1814.  Violinist, 
sou  of  Jacques  Autoine  Godecharle,  singer 
in  the  royal  chapel  (1712).  He  was  edu- 
cated a  chorister  of  the  chapel,  and  was  sent 
to  Paris  to  study  the  violin  ;  on  his  return, 
in  1773,  to  Brussels  he  became  violin  player 
in  the  chajiel,  and  in  1788  iirst  violin.  He 
was  also  maitre  de  chapelle  of  the  Church 
of  Saint-Gery,  from  1776  until  his  death. 
Most  of  his  compositions  are  in  MS.,  but 
some  were  i)ublished  in  Brussels  and  Paris 
(1765).— Fetis ;  Van  der  Straeten,  ii.  231  ; 
iv.  320  ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  319  ;  Mendel ; 
Wasielewski,  Die  Violine,  284. 

GODEFROID,  (DIEUDONNE  JOSEPH 
GUILLAU^LE)  FELIX,  born  at  Namur, 
July  24,  1818,  still  living,  1889.  Harp  vir- 
tuoso, pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
from  1832  of  Nadermann  on  the  harj),  for 
which  be  won  in  1835  the  2d  prize.  A 
clever  performer  also  on  the  pianoforte,  he 
wrote  before  he  was  nineteen  years  old  a 
trio  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  violoncello, 
one  of  his  best  works.  By  constant  jirac- 
tice  he  became  as  expert  with  his  left  as 
with  his  right  hand,  and  has  been  called 
the  Pagauiui  of  the  harp.  In  1839  he  went 
to  Germany  and  afterwards  to  London,  and 
he  has  since  made  successful  concert  tours 
in  the  principal  countries  of  Europe.  In 
1856  he  j)articipated,  in  Brussels,  in  the 
twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  accession  of 
Leopold  I.,  and  was  awarded  the  cross  of 
the  Order  of  Lt'opold.  Works  :  La  harpe 
d'or,  opera-comique,  given  at  the  Theatre 
Lyrique,  Paris,  1858  ;  La  dernicre  bataille, 
operetta,  Pai'is,  1861  ;  La  lille  de  Saiil, 
opera,  Boulogne,  1883  ;  Le  reve,  etude  me- 
lodi(iue,  oj).  23  ;  La  melancolie,  op.  24  ;  Les 
reves  de  la  Plata  ;  La  danse  des  Sylphes  ; 
Souvenir  castellan  ;  Danse  indienne  ;  Me- 
lodies de  Schubert  ;  Rondo  russe,  etc.  He 
wrote  also  in  1869  the  cantata  for  the  in- 
auguration of  the  statue  of  Leopold  I.  in 
Namur. — Fetis,  iv.  43  ;  do..  Supplement,  L 
396. 


GODEFROID 


GODEFROID,  JULES  JOSEPH,  boiu 
at  Namur,  Feb.  23,  1811,  died  in  Paris, 
Feb.  27,  1840.  Harp  virtuoso,  brother  of 
the  preceding  ;  pujiil  of  Nadermanu  on  the 
harp,  for  which  he  won  the  2d  prize  in 
1828,  and  of  Lesueur  in  composition.  He 
lived  chiefly  in  Boulogne  as  teacher  of  the 
harp  and  composer.  In  1837  he  made  a 
concert  tour  through  Belgium.  Works  : 
Le  diadeste,  opera-comique,  given  in  Paris, 
1836  ;  La  chasse-roj'ale,  opcra-comique  in 
two  acts,  Paris,  1839  ;  Harp  music  ;  Piano- 
forte music  ;  Songs. — Fetis;  Larousse. 

GODFREY,  ADOLPHUS  FREDERICK, 
born  in  London  in  1837,  died  there,  Aug. 
28,  1882.  Bandmaster  and  composer,  son 
of  Charles  Godfrey,  pupil  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music.  Li  18G3  he  succeeded 
his  father  as  bandmaster  of  the  Coldstream 
Guards.  He  was  a  jJi'olific  writer  of  lan- 
cers, quadrilles,  galops,  jMlkas,  and  other 
dance  music. 

GODFREY,  CHARLES,  born  at  King- 
ston, Surrey,  England,  Nov.  22,  1790,  died 
in  London,  Dec.  12,  18G3.  Bassoonist,  for 
fifty  years  bandmaster  of  the  Coldstream 
Guards  ;  appointed  in  1831  musician  in  or- 
dinary to  the  King.  He  composed  and  ar- 
ranged much  music  for  military  bands  and 
was  the  editor  of  "  Jullien's  Military  Band 
Journal,"  the  first  journal  of  military  music 
published  in  England.  His  three  sons, 
Daniel,  Adolphus  Frederick,  and  Charles, 
Jr.,  are  all  noted  in  the  same  profession. 

GODFREY,  CHARLES,  JR.,  born  in 
London,  Jan.  17,  1839,  still  living,  1889. 
Bandmaster  and  comjwser,  son  of  Charles 
Godfrey,  pupil  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  London.  He  was  bandmaster  of 
the  Scots  Fusiliers  in  18G0-68,  and  since 
18G9  has  held  the  same  position  in  the 
Royal  Horse  Guards.     He  is  also  professor 


of  military  music  in  the  Royal  College  of  JIus. 
Music  and  the  Guildhall  School  of  Music.    Grove. 
He   is   the   author   of    numerous    popular 
waltzes,  galops,  quadi-illes,  and  other  dance 
music,  and  is  editor  of  the  "  Orjjheus  Jour- 
nal," a  military  music  periodical.  | 


GODFREY,  DANIEL,  born  in  West- 
minster, London,  in  1831,  still  living,  1889. 
Bandmaster  and  composer,  eldest  son  of 
Charles  Godfrey,  pupil  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  London.  He  became  in 
1856  bandmaster  of  the  Grenadier  Guards, 
and  is  professor  of  military  music  at  the 
Royal  Academj-.  In  1872  he  made  with  his 
band  a  concert  tour  in  the  United  States, 
the  first  visit  there  of  an  English  military 
band  since  the  War  of  Independence.  He  is 
the  author  of  many  marches,  waltzes — Ma- 
bel, Hilda,  Guards,  etc. — and  transcriptions 
from  poj^ular  operas. — Grove  ;  Mendel ; 
Brown. 

GOD  SAVE  THE  KING,  the  English 
national  air,  author  of  text  and  music  un- 
certain. It  was  first  sung  in  j)ublic  in  Sep- 
tember, 174.'),  at  Drury  Lane  and  Covent 
Garden  Theatres,  London,  Dr.  Arne  har- 
monizing it  for  the  former  and  Dr.  Burney 
for  the  latter ;  but  there  is  some  evidence 
that  it  was  sung  in  1740  by  Henry  Carey  at 
a  tavern  in  Cornhill,  and  that  he  announced 
it  as  his  own  comj^ositiou.  Its  authorship 
has  been  attributed  also  to  Dr.  John  Bull 
and  to  others,  but  the  weight  of  authority 
seems  to  be  in  favour  of  Carej'.  It  has  been 
adojited  as  a  national  air  in  Hanover,  Bruns- 
wick, Prussia,  Saxony,  Weimar,  Sweden, 
and  in  Russia  until  1833,  when  the  new 
Russian  anthem  was  composed.  In  Switz- 
erland it  is  the  air  of  the  federal  cantons, 
"Rufst  du,  mein  Vaterland,"  and  in  Ger- 
many it  is  sung  to  the  words  "  Heil  dir  im 
Siegerkranz,"  and  also  to  "Brause,  du 
Freiheit-Sang."  Weber  introduced  it  into 
his  cantata  Kampf  und  Sieg,  and  his  Ju- 
bel-Ouvertiire,  and  Beethoven  wrote  varia- 
tions on  it  for  the  pianoforte.— Chappell, 
Popular  Music  of  Olden  Time,  ii.  691  ; 
Chrysandai',    Jahrbiicher,    i.   287 ;    London 


Times    (March    to    August,    1878) 


GOD  SAVE  THE  KING,  variations  on, 
for  the  liianoforte,  in  C  major,  by  Beet- 
hoven. Published  first  in  Vienna,  1804. 
Edition    by   Breitkopf  &  Hartel   (Leipsic), 


163 


GOES 


Variationen  fiir  das  Pianoforte,  etc.,  page 
109. — Thayer,  Verzeichniss,  58. 
GOES,  DAfflAO  DE,  born  at  Alemquer, 
Portugal,  in  1501,  died 
in  Lisbon  in  1573. 
Church  composer. 
He  was  ambassador 
successivelj'  to  France, 
Italy,  Poland,  and 
Denmark,  was  in  Rome 
several  years,  and  set- 
tled in  1542  in  Lou- 
vain.  On  his  return 
to  Portugal  he  was  made  historian  to  the 
court  and  was  otherwise  honoured.  His 
church  compositions  are  in  several  collec- 
tions of  the  time,  including  the  Dodecachor- 
don  of  Glareanus.  He  was  thrown  into  the 
prisons  of  the  Inquisition  in  1571  and  was 
killed  in  1573,  according  to  Vascoucellos, 
who  gives  a  list  of  his  w-orks. — Fetis  ;  Vas- 
concellos  ;  Mendel  ;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  127. 

GOETHE,  WM.THEE  "WOLFG.ANG 
VON,  born  in  Weimar  in  1817,  died  there, 
April  15,  1885.  A  grandson  of  the  poet, 
he  studied  music  under  Mendelssohn  and 
Weinlig  in  Leijisic,  and  under  Karl  Loewe 
in  Stettin.  He  lived  about  1850  for  some 
time  in  Vienna.  "Works — Operas  :  Ansel- 
mo  Lancia,  oder  das  Fischermi'idchen,  text 
by  Theodor  Ki'irner,  given  in  Weimar, 
1839 ;  Der  Gefangene  von  Bologna,  ib., 
1846 ;  Elfriede,  ib.,  1853.  Pianoforte  mu- 
sic ;  Songs. — Mendel  ;  N.  Zeitschr,  f.  Mus. 
(188.5),  190. 

GOETZ,  FRANZ,  born  at  Straschitz,  Bo- 
hemia, in  1755,  died  at  Olmutz,  IMoravia, 
after  1799.  Violinist,  at  first  in  the  thea- 
tre orchestra  at  Briinu,  then  made  a  con- 
cert tour  through  Bohemia  and  Silesia,  and, 
through  the  recommendation  of  Dittersdorf, 
whose  acquaintance  he  made  at  Breslau, 
was  made  Conzertmeister  in  the  ej^iscopal 
orchestra  at  Johannisberg  ;  afterwards  again 
in  Breslau,  he  went  as  conductor  of  the 
theatre  orchestra  to  Briinn,  and  soon  after 
became  Kapellmeister  to  the  Archbishop  of 
Olmutz.      He  composed   symphonies,  con- 


certos, and  sonatas  for  violin,  duos,  trios, 
etc.,  which  remain  in  manuscript. — Dlabacz, 
Kiinstl.  Lex.  fiir  Buhmeu,  481  ;  Fetis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Wurzbach. 

GOETZ,  HER]\IANN,  born  at  Konigs- 
berg,  Dec.  17,  1840,  died  at  Hottingen 
(Canton  of  Zurich),  Switzerland,  Dec.  3, 
1876.  Dramatic  composer,  first  instructed 
by  Louis  KiJhler,  on  the  pianoforte  and  in 
harmony  ;  after  completing  his  studies  at 
the  University  of  Kouigsberg,  in  1858,  he 
entered  Stern's  school,  Berlin,  where  he 
studied  the  pianoforte  under  Billow,  and 
composition  under  Ulrich.  In  1863  he  suc- 
ceeded Kirclmer  as  organist  at  Winterthur, 
where  he  also  gave  lessons,  founded  a  sing- 
ing society,  and  conducted  an  amateur  or- 
chestra. Over-exertion  bj'  travelling  be- 
tween Zurich,  whither  he  moved  in  1867, 
and  Winterthur, 
where  he  had  kept 
his  former  engage- 
ments for  over  two 
years,  undermined 
his  health,  and  his 
death  at  Hottingen, 
where  he  had  settled 
in  1870,  occurred  just 
as  fame  and  fortune 
began  to  smile  on 
him.  Like  Norbert 
Burgmidler,  Goetz  died  jirobablj-  before  his 
full  genius  had  had  time  to  develop.  He 
may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  notable 
of  the  legitimate  followers  of  Mendelssohn 
and  Schumann.  Although  he  could  not 
escape  the  musical  influences  of  his  day, 
the  general  bent  of  his  genius  was  in  the 
classic,  rather  than  the  "  future  "  direction. 
His  best-known  works  are  the  opera  Der 
Widerspenstigen  Zilhmung,  and  the  sym- 
phony in  F  major.  Works  :  Der  Wider- 
spenstigen Zidimung,  opera,  given  at  Mann- 
heim, 1874 ;  Francesca  von  Rimini,  do. 
(third  act  finished  by  Ernst  Frank),  ib.,  1877 ; 
Niinie  (Audi  das  Schi'me  muss  sterben  !,  by 
Schiller),  for  chorus  and  orchestra,  op.  10  ; 
Cantate  (Es  liegt  so  abeudstill  der  See),  for 


1C4 


GOFFIN 


male  chorus  and  orchestra  (with  tenor  or 
soprano  solo),  op.  11  ;  137th  psalm,  for 
chorus,  soprano  solo,  and  orchestra,  op.  14  ; 
Symphony  in  F,  for  full  orchestra,  oj).  9, 
Leipsic,  Gewaudhaus  Concert,  Jan.  27, 
187G ;  Friihlings-Ouvertiire,  op.  15 ;  Con- 
certo for  pianoforte,  op.  18  ;  do.  for  vio- 
lin, op.  22  ;  Trio  for  do.,  and  strings,  op. 
1  ;  Quartet  for  do.,  op.  G  ;  Quintet  for  do., 
op.  16  ;  Drei  leichte  Stiicke,  for  pianoforte 
and  violin,  op.  2  ;  Pianoforte  pieces,  op.  7, 
8,  13,  and  sonata  (1  hands),  op.  17  ;  Songs, 

op.  3,  4,  5,  12, 19  ;  Quartets  for  male  voices, 
op.  20 ;  do.  for  mixed  voices,  op.  21. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.  ix.  509  ;  Mendel ;  Mus. 
Woehenbl.,  vii.  228,  G85,  707,  722  ;  Sig- 
nale. 

GOFFIN,  DIEUDONNE,  Belgian  com- 
poser, contemporary.  He  is  honorary  di- 
rector of  the  Choral  Society  of  Verviers,  the 
oldest  in  Belgium.  Works  :  Le  pic  du  di- 
able,  comic  opera,  Verviers,  18G1 ;  Le  lever 
du  soleil,  cantata  ;  Christophe  Colomb,  do.  ; 
Les  croises,  do.  ;  Le  combat  naval,  do.,  and 
others. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  397. 

GOLD,  LEONHARD,  born  in  Odessa  in 
1818,  still  living,  1889  (?).  Violinist,  pupil 
of  Joseph  Biihrn  at  the  Vienna  Conserva- 
torium  ;  returned  to  Odes.sa  in  1836.  He 
made  a  concert  tour  in  1837-39,  and  in 
1840  became  first  violin  of  the  theatre  or- 
chestra in  his  native  town.  He  composed 
at  Vienna  and  brought  out  with  success  at 
Odessa,  1837,  an  Italian  opera.— Schilling, 
Sujjplement,  1G7  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

GOLDBECK,  ROBERT,  born,  of  German 
parentage,  in  Potsdam,  Prussia,  April  19, 
1839,  still  living,  1889.  Pianist,  pupil  on 
the  pianoforte  and  in  harmony  of  Louis 
Kohler,  his  mother's  brother  ;  then,  through 
the  influence  of  Alexander  von  Humboldt, 
a  pupil,  in  Brunswick,  of  Litolff,  in  piano- 
forte playing  and  composition.  Li  1851  he 
went  to  Paris,  and  thence,  in  185G,  to  London, 


where  he  gave  a  private  concert  in  the  pic- 
ture gallery  of  Devonshire  House.  In  18G1 
he  visited  New  York, 
where  he  wrote  most 
of  his  larger  composi- 
tion.s.  He  founded  a 
conservatory  in  Bos- 
ton, and  in  18G8  went 
to  Chicago,  and  found- 
ed there  a  second  con- 
servatory, of  which  ho 
became  director.  In 
1873  he  removed  to 
St.  Louis,  where  he 
was  for  a  time  one  of  the  directors  of  the 
Beethoven  Conservatory,  and  conductor  of 
the  St.  Louis  Harmonic  Society.  In  1885 
he  settled  in  New  York,  where  ho  is  en- 
gaged in  teaching,  giving  pianoforte  re- 
citals, and  conducting.  Works  :  The  Sol- 
dier's Return,  operetta,  text  by  composer, 
given  in  London,  1856  ;  Saratoga,  opera ; 
Newport,  opera,  1888  ;  The  Song  of  the 
Brave  Man,  cantata  ;  Biirgers  Lenore, 
Idylle,  T^legie,  and  other  compositions  for 
the  orchestra  ;  Symphony  Victoria ;  2  con- 
certos for  pianoforte  and  orchestra,  in  G 
minor,  and  in  C  ;  Sextet  for  strings  ;  Quin- 
tet for  pianoforte  an<l  strings  ;  135  compo- 
sitions for  the  pianoforte,  among  them  a 
grande  polonaise  and  a  nocturne  ;  Much 
concerted  vocal  music  and  a  number  of 
songs.  His  didactic  works  comprise  Three 
Graduating  Courses  for  pianoforte,  voice, 
and  harmony  in  G  volumes. — Mendel ;  Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  398. 

GOLDBERG,  JOHANN  GOTTLIEB 
(Gottlob  ?  Theophilus  ?),  German  compioser 
of  the  18th  century,  supposed  to  have  lived 
in  1730-GO.  Organist,  pupil  of  Sebastian 
Bach,  who  gave  him  the  highest  praise.  In 
1756  was  chamber  musician  to  Count  Briihl 
in  Dresden.  He  had  a  remarkable  power 
of  improvisation,  and  could  read  the  most 
difficult  music  at  .sight,  even  when  turned 
upside  down.  Bach's  Thirty  Variations 
were  written  for  him,  and  are  sometimes 
called  the  Goldberff  Variations.      Works  : 


105 


GOLDE 


24  polonaises  for  pianoforte  ;  2  concertos  ; 
Sonata  with  minuet  and  12  variations  for 
pianoforte  ;  G  trios  for  flute,  violin,  and 
bass  ;  Preludes  and  fugues  ;  Motet ;  Psalm. 
All  liis  compositions  are  in  MS. — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  is.  331  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Fetis  ; 
Spitta,  Bach,  ii.  72G. 

GOLDE,  ADOLF,  born  at  Erfurt,  Aug. 
22,  1830,  died  there  in  April,  1880.  Pian- 
ist, son  and  pupil  of  Josef  Golde,  an  able 
musician  and  conductor,  who  instructed 
him  on  the  clarinet  and  violin  ;  in  1851  he 
went  to  Berlin,  where  he  studied  compo- 
sition iinder  Marx,  and  the  organ  under 
Haujit  and  Hauer.  He  afterwards  taught 
the  pianoforte  at  Stern's  Conservatorium, 
and  also  appeared  in  jjublic  as  an  able  pi- 
anist ;  in  1872  he  assumed  the  direction  of 
the  Soller  Vocal  Society  at  Erfurt,  as  suc- 
cessor of  his  father.  Besides  a  symj^hony 
in  B  minor,  and  other  orchestral  works,  in 
MS.,  he  has  composed  graceful  jjioccs  de 
salon,  dances,  and  marches  for  pianoforte. 
— Mendel. 

GOLDEN  COLTOINS,  F.AIR  AND 
BRIGHT,  tenor  air  in  D  major  of  Zadock, 
in  Handel's  Solomon,  Part  HI. 

GOLDEN  LEGEND,  THE,  cantata,  by 
Dudley  Buck,  awarded  the  jirize  of  one 
thousand  dollars  offered  in  1879  by  the 
Cincinnati  j\Iay  Festival  Association  for  the 
best  work  by  a  native  compose!',  and  j^er- 
formed  at  the  Festival  of  1880.  The  text 
is  composed  of  a  prologue,  twelve  scenes, 
and  an  e2)ilogue,  from  the  "Golden  Le- 
gend "  in  Longfellow's  "  Christus."  Charac- 
ters represented  :  Elsie  ;  Prince  Henry  ; 
Lucifer  ;  Friar  Paul.  —  Upton,  Standard 
Cantatas,  100. 

GOLDEN  LEGEND,  THE,  cantata,  text 
adapted  from  Longfellow's  poem  of  "Chris- 
tus," by  Joseph  Bennet,  music  by  Sir  Ai'- 
thur  Sullivan,  first  performed  at  the  Leeds 
(England)  Festival,  Oct.  IG,  188G.  The 
libretto  comprises  a  prologue,  six  scenes, 
and  a  choral  epilogue. — Upton,  Standard 
Cantatas,  33.''). 

GOLDENE  KEEUZ,  DAS  (The  Golden 


Cross),  comic  opera  in  two  acts,  text  by 
Mosenthal,  music  by  Ignaz  Briill,  first  rep- 
resented in  Berlin,  December,  1875.  The 
libretto  is  an  adaptation  of  the  French  vau- 
deville, "  Catherine,  ou  la  croix  d'or,"  by 
Brazier  and  Melesville.  Christine,  sister  of 
Nicholas,  a  young  innkeeper  about  to  be 
raai-ried  to  Theresa,  but  whose  wedding  is 
interrupted  by  his  being  drawn  in  the  con- 
scription to  fight  iinder  Napoleon  against 
the  Russians,  offers  her  hand  in  marriage, 
after  two  years,  to  anyone  who  will  go  as 
his  substitute.  Gontran,  a  young  nobleman 
who  has  been  jilted,  accepts  her  off'er  and 
sends  Bombardon,  a  sergeant,  to  get  Chris- 
tine's pledge — the  golden  cross.  In  the 
second  act,  which  begins  three  years  later, 
Christine  and  Theresa  are  nursing  a  young 
captain,  who  has  returned  wounded.  He, 
who  turns  out  to  be  Gontran,  falls  in  love 
with  Christine,  but  she  refuses  him  out  of 
fidelity  to  her  pledge.  Gontran  declares 
his  identitj',  but  fails  to  prove  it,  as  he  has 
given  the  golden  cross  to  a  comrade  while 
lying  on  the  battle-field  in  expectation  of 
death.  Bombardon  finally  returns  and  con- 
firms his  story,  and  a  second  wedding  is  the 
result.  The  opera  was  j)layed  in  Vienna, 
187G,  and  in  an  English  dress,  libretto  by 
John  P.  Jackson,  in  London,  1878.  It  was 
given  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House, 
New  York,  Nov.  10,  188G,  with  the  follow- 
ing cast :  Christine,  Frau  Seidl-Krauss ; 
Theresa,  Frl.  Januschowsky  ;  Gontran,  Max 
Alvarj' ;  Nicholas,  von  Milde  ;  Bombardon, 
Emil  Fischer. 

GOLDMARK,  KARL,  born  at  Keszthely, 
Hungai-y,  May  18,  1832,  still  living,  1889. 
Violinist  and  dramatic  composer,  first  in- 
structed on  the  violin  in  the  Musikverein 
at  Oedenburg  (1843),  then  in  Vienna  jjupil 
of  Jansa,  and  for  a  short  time  (1847-48)  at 
the  Conservatorium  of  Bohni,  but  on  the 
whole  rather  self-taught,  especially  in  1858 
at  Pesth  by  the  study  of  Bach's,  Beethoven's, 
and  Schumann's  works.  His  overture,  Sa- 
kuntala,  and  a  scherzo  for  orchestra  first 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  musical  world. 


GOLDSCllMIDT 


wliile  his  opera,  Die  KOnigin  von  Saba 
(1875),  firmly  established  his  fame.  The 
comjjaratively  small 
number  of  his  com- 
positionsshow  a  great 
earnestness  of  pur- 
pose and  clearness  of 
form  combined  with 
true  feeling  ;  his  in- 
strumentation is  veiy 
brilliant.  Works — 
Operas  :  Die  Konigin 
von  Saba,  op.  27, 
given  in  Vienna,  1875  ;  llerlin,  ib.,  1886, 
New  York,  1887  ;  Der  Fremdling;  Sakuntala, 
concert  overture,  op.  13  ;  Die  Liindliche 
Hochzeit,  symphony,  op.  26  ;  Symphony  in 
E-flat ;  Penthesilm,  overture,  op.  31 ;  Scherzo, 
for  orchestra,  op.  19  ;  Concerto  for  violin  with 
orchestra,  op.  28  ;  2  trios  for  pianoforte  and 
strings,  op.  i  and  33  ;  Quintet  for  do.,  op. 
30  ;  Quartet  for  strings,  op.  8  ;  Quintet  for 
do.,  op.  9  ;  Suite  for  pianoforte  and  violin, 
op.  11  ;  Sonata  for  do.,  op.  25  ;  Sturm  und 
Drang,  9  characteristic  pieces  for  piano- 
forte, op.  5  ;  Drei  Stiicke,  for  do.  (4  hands), 
op.  12  ;  Tanze,  for  do.,  op.  22  ;  Zwei  Novel- 
letten,  Priiludium  und  Fuge,  for  do.,  op. 
29  ;  Regeulied,  for  mixed  chorus,  op.  10  ; 
Friihlingsnetz,  for  four  male  voices,  with 
pianoforte  and  four  horns,  op.  15  ;  Meeres- 
stille  und  gliickliche  Fahrt,  for  male  chorus 
and  horns,  op.  16  ;  4  choruses  for  male 
voices,  op.  1-t  and  17  ;  Im  Fuscherthale,  G 
songs  for  mixed  voices,  op.  24  ;  Friihlings- 
hymne,  for  chorus,  contralto  solo,  and  or- 
chestra, op.  23  ;  Songs,  op.  18,  20,  21,  32, 
34.— niustr.  Zeitg.  (1878),  ii.  250;  Mus. 
Wochenblatt,  i.  G,  277,  441  ;  ii.  500  ;  viii. 
2G9  ;  X.  519  ;  N.  Zeitschr.  f.  Mus.  (1866), 
209,  218 ;  (1867),  269,  279  ;  (1868),  452  ; 
(1870),  295  ;  (1886),  533  ;  Siguale  (1886), 
1073,  1089,  1121. 

GOLDSCHanDT,  ADALBERT  VON, 
born  in  Vienna  in  1853,  still  living,  1889. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  the  Vienna 
Conservatorium.  He  belongs  to  a  family  of 
wealthy  financiers  and  follows  music  only 


'  as  an  amateur.  Ho  is,  however,  notable  as 
virtually'  the  only  composer  who  has  thor- 
oughly followed  out  the  princij)les  of  Wag- 
nerianisni,  applying  them  practically,  with- 
out stint.  The  immense  notoriety  of  his 
Todsiinden  and  Heliauthus  seems  to  have 
been  merely  ephemeral,  and  since  1885,  lit- 
tle, or  nothing,  has  been  heard  from  him. 
Works :  Die  Sleben  Todsiinden,  oratorio, 
text  by  Robert  Hamerling  ;  Heliantlins,  op- 
'  era,  given  in  Leipsie,  1884 ;  Music  for  piano- 
forte and  orchestra  ;  Songs. — Mendel. 

GOLDSCHMmT,  OTTO,  born  in  Ham- 
burg, Aug.  21, 
1829,  still  living, 
1889.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  Jacob 
Schmitt  and  Fried- 
rich  W'.  Grand, 
and  in  1843-46  at 
the  Leij)sic  Con- 
servatorium of 
Mendelssohn.  Ho 
went  to  Paris  in 
1848  and  studied 
with  Chopin.  In  1849  he  played  in  Lon- 
don at  a  concert  with  Jenny  Lind,  and 
in  1851  went  with  her  to  America  as  con- 
ductor of  her  concerts.  He  married  her 
in  Boston,  Feb.  5,  1852,  and  the  couple 
lived  in  Dresden  in  1852-55  and  in  or 
near  London  from  1858  until  her  decease 
in  1887.  He  conducted  festivals  in  Dii.s- 
seldorf  and  Hamburg  in  1863  and  1866, 
was  vice-jjrincipal  of  the  London  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  in  1863,  and  formed  the 
Bach  Choir  in  1875.  He  became  an  honor- 
ary member  of  the  London  Philliarmonic 
Society  in  1861  and  member  of  the  Swedish 
Royal  Academy  of  Music  in  1864,  and  re- 
ceived the  royal  Order  of  Vasa  in  1876. 
Works :  liiifh,  oratorio,  first  jjerformed  at 
the  Hereford  Festival,  1867,  and  afterwards 
in  London,  Dilsseldorf,  and  Hamburg  ;  Trio 
j  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  violoncello,  op. 
12  ;  Concerto  for  pianoforte  and  orchestra, 
op.  10  ;  12  studies  for  pianoforte,  op.  13 ; 
12   songs  with  jsianoforte  accompaniment, 


GOLDSCJIMIDT 


op.  8  and  9  ;  Part-sougs,  etc. — Grove  ;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis. 

GOLDSCHMIDT,  SIGISMUND,  born  in 
Prague,  Sept.  28,  1818,  died  in  Vienna  in 
October,  1877.  Pianist,  pupil  in  Prague  of 
Tomascbek,  Dionj's  Weber,  and  Joseph 
Triebensee,  and  in  Paris  of  Dreyscbock. 
He  lived  in  the  latter  city  in  1845-49,  then 
returned  to  Prague.  He  composed  over- 
tures, sonatas,  and  songs. — Wurzbacb,  v. 
260  ;  Fotis  ;  Mendel,  iv.  294  ;  do.,  Ergauz., 
130. 

GOLD  SONG.     See  Fidelio. 

GOLDWIX,  JOHN,  boru  (?),  died  at 
Windsor,  Nov.  7,  1719.  Organist,  pupil  of 
Dr.  William  Child,  whom  he  succeeded  as 
organist  of  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor, 
in  1697  ;  became  also  master  of  the  choris- 
ters in  1703.  His  service  in  F  is  printed  in 
Arnold's  "Cathedral  Music."  Boyce  and 
Page  also  printed  some  of  his  anthems,  and 
others  remain  in  MS.  in  Tud way's  collection 
and  at  Ely  Cathedral,  where  he  is  entered  as 
Golding. — Grove  ;  Fi'tis  ;  Mendel. 

GOLINELLI,  STEF.VNO,  boru  at  Bo- 
logna, Italy,  Oct.  26,  1818,  still  living  1889. 
Pianist,  whoso  reputation  is  very  great  in 
Italy  ;  is  professor  in  the  Licco  at  Bologna, 
which  has  adopted  his  Ai  giovaui  j)ianisti, 
24  preludes,  op.  177,  as  a  study.  Works : 
5  sonatas,  op.  30,  53,  .54,  70,  40  ;  3  toccatas, 
op.  38,  48,  186  ;  2  fautaisies  romantiques, 
op.  58,  76  ;  Album,  op.  11  ;  12  etudes,  op. 
15  ;  24  preludes,  op.  23  ;  do.,  op.  69  ;  2 
etudes  de  concert,  op.  47  ;  Esquisses  pian- 
istiques,  op.  120  ;  Peusieri,  op.  155  ;  Fan- 
tasia lirica,  op.  163  ;  etc. — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  398  ;  Mendel,  Erganz.,  130. 

GOLLER,  MARTIN,  born  at  Layeu,  Ty- 
rol, Feb.  20,  1764,  died  in  Innspruck,  Jan. 
13, 1836.  Church  composer,  son  and  pupil  of 
Daniel  Goller,  an  organist ;  at  the  age  of  six- 
teen he  entered  the  Benedictine  monastery 
of  St.  Georgenberg,  near  Fiecht.  In  1811 
he  became  music  teacher  to  a  new  Musik- 
vereiu  at  Innspruck,  and  directed  the  choir 
of  the  university  church  there.  His  church 
music  was  favourably  judged  by  Michael 


Haydn.  —  Bernsdorf  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling, 
Supplement,  167  ;  Staffler,  Das  deutsche 
Tyrol,  etc.  (Innsinuick,  1847),  i.  678. 

GOLLMICK,  ADOLF,  boru  at  Fraukfort- 
on-the-Maiu,  Feb.  5,  1825,  died  in  Loudon, 
March  7,  1883.  Pianist,  sou  and  pupil  of 
Karl  Gollmick  and  pupil  of  Riefstahl,  H. 
Wolff,  and  Kessler  ;  went  to  London  in 
1844.  Works  :  Dona  Constanza,  comic  op- 
era ;  The  Oracle,  do.;  Balthasar,  do.;  Blind 
Beggar's  Daughter  of  Bethnal  Green,  oper- 
atic cantata  ;  The  Heir  of  Linne,  do. ;  Sym- 
phony for  orchestra  ;  Overture  and  marches 
for  do. ;  Pianoforte  music  and  songs. 

GOLL:\nCK,  KARL,  born  at  Dessau, 
March  19,  1790,  died  in  Frankfort-on-the 
Main,  Oct.  3, 1866.  Sou  of  the  tenor  singer 
Friedrich  Karl  GoUmick  (1774-1852),  and 
jjupil  of  SiJiudler  in  Strasburg,  where  he 
began  studying  theology,  but  left  the  uni- 
versity and  settled  in  Frankfort  as  a  teacher 
of  music  and  languages.  Spohr  engaged 
him  to  play  the  kettledrums  of  the  Frank- 
fort theatre  orchestra  iu  1818  ;  later  he  be- 
came Correpetitor,  and  was  pensioned  in 
1855.  He  wrote  songs  and  pianoforte 
music,  oj)eratic  librettos,  educational  and 
critical  musical  works,  articles  iu  musical 
journals,  a  musical  dictionary,  and  his  au- 
tobiographj'. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  345  ; 
Mendel ;  Fi'tis,  iv.  50 ;  do.,  Supplement,  i. 
398  ;  Riemann. 

GOLTERM.VNN,  GEORG  (EDUARD), 
born  at  Hanover,  Aug.  19,  1824,  still  living, 
1889.  Violoncellist,  jnipil  of  Prell  and 
Menter  on  the  violoncello  and  of  Lachner 
in  composition.  He  made  concert  tours  in 
1850-52,  became  in  1852  musical  director 
in  W^iirzburg,  and  in  1853  second,  and  iu 
1874  first.  Kapellmeister  of  the  Stadttheater 
in  Frankfort-ou-the-Main.  He  is  one  of  the 
best  of  modern  violoncellists,  and  an  emi- 
nent conductor.  Works  :  6  concertos  for 
violoncello  and  orchestra,  op.  14,  30,  51,  65, 
76,  100  ;  Symphony  for  orchestra  in  A 
minor,  op.  20  ;  2  Festspiel-Ouvertiiren,  op. 
24  and  94  ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte  and  vio- 
loncello ;  Dauses  allemandes  for  violoncello 


GOMBERT 


anil  pianoforte,  op.  42  ;  Adagio  for  violon- 
cello and  orchestra,  op.  83 ;  Morceaux  ca- 
racteristiques  for  violoncello  and  pianoforte, 
op.  41,  48,  53  ;  jSlegie  iu  C  minor  for  do., 
op.  88  ;  Songs,  etc. — Riemann  ;  Mendel ; 
Fotis,  iv.  51  ;  do.,  Suijplement,  i.  399  ; 
Grove. 

GOMBERT,  NICOLAS,  born  in  Bruges 
about  1495,  died  after  1570.  One  of  the 
most  important  composers  of  the  Flemish 
school,  pupil  of  Josquin  Des2)rcs.  Educat- 
ed for  the  church,  he  remained  true  to  his 
priestly  vows,  although  he  entered  the  ser- 
vice of  the  Emperor  Charles  V.,  and  resided 
at  Madrid  in  1530-34  as  musicus  impera- 
torius.  Through  that  sovereign's  favour  he 
was  given  a  sinecure  oifice  iu  the  Nether- 
lauds,  which  enabled  him  to  speud  his  last 
days  in  peace  in  his  native  country'.  Gom- 
bert  was  Josquin 's  best  pupil  and  the  lead- 
ing master  of  his  time,  Pctis  saj's  he  was 
a  precursor  of  the  style  of  Palestriua,  and 
Ambros  that  he  was  gifted  with  such  musi- 
cal prescience  as  should  ever  make  his  name 
respected.  He  was  particularly  renowned 
for  his  fugues  (canons),  though  his  style  is 
more  inclined  to  the  sentimental  than  to 
that  of  the  severe  contrapuntists  of  his 
time,  and  he  excelled  in  chamber  and  sec- 
ular music.  He  delighted  especially  in 
secular  music,  and  chose  pastoral  subjects, 
treating  them  much  as  Haydu  and  Mozart 
did  in  later  times.  His  music  is  descrip- 
tive and  his  style  delightfully  fresh  and  sim- 
jile.  His  love  of  nature  is  apparent  iu  the 
titles  of  his  songs  :  Eu  ce  mois  delicieux, 
joyeux  verger  ;  Le  chant  des  oiseaux  ; 
Leto  chaud  bouilloit  ;  Je  m'en  vois  au  vert 
bois  ;  etc.  His  music  is  found  in  all  the 
collections  of  the  time.  Eitner's  Biblio- 
graphie  der  Musik-Sammelwerke  (Berlin, 
1877)  gives  a  list  of  nearly  250  of  his  com- 
positions, printed  iu  ninety  different  col- 
lections between  1529  and  1573.  Fetis 
also  gives  a  long  list  of  his  works,  with  the 
names  of  the  collections  in  which  they  are 
found,  such  as  Motetti  del  Trutto  (1538- 
39) ;   Fior  di  Motetti    (Venice,  1539)  ;  Ec- 


clesiasticfe  cantionum  (AntwerjJ,  1553)  ; 
Sacrarum  cantiones  (ib.,  1554-55)  ;  Mo- 
tetti della  Simla  (1539)  ;  Attaignant's  col- 
lection of  motets  (1529)  ;  Moderuo's  (1532- 
42)  ;  etc.  His  Grande  Messe  a  quatre  voix, 
Je  suis  desheritoe,  is  iu  a  collection  of 
Masses  printed  by  Le  Roy  and  Ballard  ;  the 
Eler  collection,  iu  the  Library  of  the  Paris 
Conservatoire,  contains  nineteen  of  his 
motets  iu  MS.  His  chansons  are  in  the 
collections  of  chansons  published  by  At- 
taignaut  and  others  ;  his  Allejuja  me  faut 
chanter  is  in  the  7th  book  of  Attaignant's 
Sis  galliards,  etc.  (1529)  ;  and  the  Com- 
plaint of  Gerard  Avidius,  set  to  music  by 
Gombert,  with  the  title.  In  losquinium  a 
Prato,  etc.,  is  in  the  7th  volume  of  Chansons 
a  4,  5,  6  et  8  parties  (Susato,  Autwerji, 
1543-50).— Grove  ;  Fc'tis  ;  Buruey,  Hist, 
of  Music,  iii.  302  ;  Neues  hist,  biogr.  Lex. 
der  Touk,  ii.,  Art.  Gombertus,  col.  357  ; 
Die  Verd  der  Niedl.  in  die  Tonk.,  35 ; 
Geschicht  der  Europ.  abendltind.,  etc.,  56  ; 
Cat.  der  Samml.  alter  Mus.,  30  ;  Naumann 
(Ouseley),  i.  343,  300. 

GOjMEZ,  ANTONIO  CARLOS,  born,  of 
Portuguese  parents,  at 
Campiuas,  Brazil,  July 
11,  1839,  still  living, 
1889.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, sent  to  Europe 
by  the  Emjseror,  and 
received  his  musical  ed- 
ucation at  the  Conser- 
vatorio  of  Milan,  under 
Rossi.  Though  he  had 
previously  produced  in  Rio  Janeiro,  iu  1861, 
a  Portuguese  operetta  iu  three  acts  entitled 
A  noite  de  castello,  his  first  success  was  a 
little  piece  entitled  Se  sa  miuga,  in  the  Mi- 
lanese patois,  given  at  the  Teatro  Fossati  iu 
1807.  Its  popularity  was  largely  due  to  a 
song  on  the  ueedle-gun,  which  had  an  im- 
mense success,  coming  as  it  did  immedi- 
ately after  the  Sadowa  campaign.  His  next 
opera,  II  Guaranij,  produced  at  La  Scala 
March  19,  1870,  was  also  very  successful, 
and  was  afterwards  played  in  Genoa,  Flor- 


GOMEZ 


ence,  Komc,  and  in  London  in  1872.  His 
works  since  then  have  not  had  any  success, 
being  obviously  iudebted  for  their  inspira- 
tion to  Verdi  and  Meyerbeer,  and  having 
little  of  the  original  flavour  of  II  Guaranij. 
Later  works  :  Fosca,  Milan,  1873  ;  Salvator 
Rosa,  Genoa,  1871: ;  ]\Iaria  Tudor,  four  acts, 
text  by  Braga,  Rome,  Dec.  8,  1877  ;  II  saluto 
del  Brasile,  ode,  performed  at  the  Centen- 
ni:d  Exhibition,  Philadeljihia,  187G. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  31)9  ;  Grove. 

GOMEZ,  EUGENIO,  born  at  Alcaniz, 
Spain,  in  1802,  still  living,  1880.  Pianist 
and  organist,  chorister  in  the  cathedral,  jiu- 
pil  of  Luis  Blasco  and  Manuel  Dancha. 
When  twelve  years  old  he  was  second  organ- 
ist, and  subsecjueutly  organist,  of  the  Cathe- 
dral of  SevUlc.  Works  :  Pianoforte  music  ; 
Organ  music  ;  Repertorio  de  organistas  (3 
vols.). — Ft'tis,  Supplement,  i.  300  ;  Mendel, 
Ei-gauz.,  130. 

GOmS,  JOSEPH  MELCHIOR,  born  at 
Auteniente,  Valencia,  in  1703,  died  in  Paris, 
July  26,  183G.  He  became  professor  of 
vocal  music,  when  sixteen  years  old,  in  the 
religious  house  where  he  was  educated,  and 
when  twenty-one  chef  of  an  artillery  baud 
in  Valencia.  In  1817  he  went  to  Madrid, 
brought  out  several  ojieras,  and  was  made 
band  master  in  the  royal  guards.  In  1823 
he  went  to  Paris,  and  in  182G  to  Loudon, 
where  he  taught  singing.  Works — Ope- 
ras :  La  aldcana,  Madrid,  about  1818  ;  Le 
diable  a  Seville,  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
1831  ;  Le  revenant,  ib.,  1833  ;  Le  portefais, 
ib.,  183.5  ;  Rock-le-Barbu,  ib.,  183G.  L'in- 
verno,  quartet  for  voices,  with  orchestral 
accompaniment,  given  at  the  Philharmonic 
concerts,  London  ;  Songs  ;  Boleros. — Fetis  ; 
Larousse  ;  Mendel,  iv.  207  ;  do.,  Ergiiuz, 
130. 

GOMOLKA,  NICOLAS,  born  at  Jas- 
lowiec,  Poland,  died  in  Chorawla,  March  5, 
IGOO.  Church  composer,  studied  in  Italy, 
it  is  supposed  under  Palestrina.  He  wrote 
music  for  the  psalms  translated  into  Polish 
b_v  Kochanowski,  a  celebrated  poet  (1580). 
A  copy  of  these  psalms  is  preserved  in  the 


library  of  the  University  of  Cracow ;  they 
have  been  arranged  in  modern  notation  by 
Zandmann,  and  Sowinski  gives  five  of  them 
in  Les  Musiciens  polouais.  Other  works  by 
this  comjjoser  jaerished,  as  printing  was 
then  unknown,  and  there  were  few  maitrises 
or  collections  of  musical  works  in  the 
churches  of  Poland. — Fetis  ;  Sowinski,  Mus. 
pol.,  221  ;  Mendel,  iv.  299. 

GONZ.iLEZ  Y  RODRIGUEZ,  JOSlfi 
MARIA,  born  at  Alcala,  Spain,  Feb.  5,  1822, 
still  living,  1880.  Organist,  j)upil  in  Ma- 
drid of  Roman  Jimeno  ;  an  organist  at  the 
age  of  eighteen,  and  professor  in  1844-67 
in  the  Madrid  Conservatorio.  Works : 
Masses  ;  Motets  ;  Litanies  ;  Organ  music. 
— Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  400  ;  Mendel,  Er- 
giiuz., 130. 

GOODGROOME,  JOHN,  born  in  Eng- 
land about  1G30,  died,  June  27,  1704.  A 
chorister  of  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor, 
he  was  appointed  in  IGGO  gentleman  of  the 
Chapel  Royal,  and  in  1GG4  became  musician 
in  ordinary  to  the  king.  Some  of  his  songs 
apjseared  in  the  Treasury  of  Music  (IGGO). 
— Grove ;  Hawkins,  History,  v.  18  ;  Men- 
del. 

GOOD  SHEPHERD,  THE,  cantata,  mu- 
sic bj'  William  Smyth  Roekstro,  composed 
in  1885. 

GOPFERT,  KARL  ANDREAS,  born  at 
Rimpar,  near  Wiirzburg,  Jan.  16,  1768, 
died  in  Meiuingen,  April  11,  1818.  After 
studying  the  j^ianoforte,  organ,  and  singing, 
he  took  up  the  clarinet  under  Meissner,  and 
in  1788  became  fir.st  clarinetist  in  the  court 
orchestra  of  Meiuingen  and  soon  after  mu- 
sic director  of  the  military  corps  there.  He 
wrote  an  opera,  Der  Stern  des  Nordens, 
songs,  and  much  music  for  clariuet  and 
other  wind  instruments. — Mendel ;  Fetis  ; 
Schilling  ;  Riemaun. 

GOPFERT,  KARL  GOTTLIEB,  born  at 
Weesenstein,  near  Dresden,  in  1733,  died 
in  Weimar,  Oct.  3,  1708.  Violiu  virtuoso, 
puj)il  at  the  Kreuzschule  and  a  choir-boy 
in  Dresden  ;  studied  the  violin  while  at 
Leipsic  University,  and  was   intlueuced  in 


170 


GORDIGIANI 


1764  in  Frankfort-on-the-Maiu  by  Ditters- 
dorf.  After  playing  in  concerts  in  Leipaic 
in  17G5-69,  he  remained  in  Berlin  a  year, 
and  settled  in  Weimar  as  chamber  musi- 
cian, becoming  later  orchestral  director  and 
Conzertmeister.  His  best  pupil  was  J.  F. 
Kranz.  He  published  six  polonaises  for 
violin. — Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

GORDIGIANI,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA, 
born  in  Mantua,  Italy,  in  July,  1795,  died 
in  Prague,  March  2,  1871.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, son  and  pupil  of  Antonio  Gordigiani, 
and  pupil  also  at  the  Milan  Conservatorio. 
After  serving  in  orchestras  in  Florence  and 
teaching  in  Ratisbou  he  went  in  1822  to 
Prague,  where  he  was  maestro  of  the  Coii- 
servatorium  until  his  death.  Works  :  Pim- 
maglione,  opera,  given  in  Prague,  18-45  ; 
Consuelo,  opera,  Prague,  1846  ;  Cluirch  mu- 
sic ;  Canzonets  ;  12  cavalry  marches  ;  Songs, 
etc. — Fetis,  iv.  58  ;  do..  Supplement,  i.  401  ; 
Mendel. 

GORDIGIANI,  LUIGI,  born  in  Florence, 
June  12,  1806,  died  there,  April  30,  1860. 
Dramatic  composer,  brother  of  the  preced- 
ing ;  sometimes  called  the  Italian  Schubert. 
After  travelling  and  singing  with  his  father 
he  studied  the  pianoforte  iu  Brescia  with 
Gara,  in  Rome  with  Sirletti,  in  Pisa  with 
Benvenuti,  and  learned  accompaniment  un- 
der Romani  and  composition  under  Ugolini. 
At  the  age  of  thirteen  ho  comjiosed  a  can- 
tata, II  ratto  d'  Etruria,  which  he  dedicated 
to  the  Emperor  of  Austria.  After  the  death 
of  his  father,  in  1820,  ho  made  a  living  by 
writing  pianoforte  pieces,  under  such  pseu- 
donyms as  Zeuner  and  von  Fiir.stenberger. 
He  devoted  himself  next  to  dramatic  com- 
position and  wrote  several  operas,  some  of 
which  were  produced  at  difleront  theatres 
in  Florence.  But  he  is  best  known  for  his 
Canti  popolari  and  his  Canzonette  for  voice 
and  pianoforte,  melodies  of  a  sentimental 
and  usually  a  mournful  cast,  in  the  style  of 
or  actually  founded  on  old  Italian  national 
tunes,  and  sometimes  set  to  words  of  his 
own.  These,  of  which  there  are  more  than 
three  hundred,   have  been   translated  into 


other  languages.  They  were  published  iu 
parts  of  eight  or  ten  each,  with  characteris- 
tic titles,  such  as  :  In  cima  al  monte  ;  Le  far- 
falle  di  Firenze  ;  In  rival  al  Aruo  ;  Mosaico 
Etrusco,  etc.  He  published  also  a  collec- 
tion of  Tuscan  airs  with  accompaniment,  in 
three  books.  His  romances  :  L'  innamo- 
rata,  L'  esule,  La  gondoliera,  La  selva  ;  his 
ariettas  :  L'  amor  tranquillo  and  La  danza, 
are  perfect  of  their  kind  and  have  enjoyed 
a  wide  celebrity.  His  stornelli  are  full  of 
a  joyous  originality,  which  also  found  vent 
in  his  clever  parodies  of  Norma,  Parisina, 
Sonnambula,  etc.  Works — Operas  :  Faus- 
to,  given  at  the  Pergola,  Florence,  1837  ; 
Filippo,  text  by  Prince  Poniatowski,  and 
performed  by  him  and  his  family,  privately, 
Florence,  1840  ;  Gli  Aragonesi  in  Napoli, 
Pergola,  ib.,  1841  ;  I  ciarlatani,  Teatro  Leo- 
poldo,  Florence,  1843  ;  Una  vendetta  corsa, 
Florence,  1847  ;  Un  eredita  in  Cor.sica,  ib., 
1847.— Fetis,  iv.  58  ;  do..  Supplement,  i. 
401  ;  Grove  ;  Larousse. 

GORIA,  ALEXANDRE  I^:D0UARD,  born 
in  Paris,  Jan.  21,  1823,  died  there,  July  6, 
1860.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoire 
in  1830-39,  on  the  pianoforte  of  Laurent  and 
Zimmerman,  and  in  harmony  of  Dourlen. 
He  won  the  2d  prize  for  pianoforte  in  1834, 
and  the  1st  prize  in  1835.  After  leaving 
the  Conservatoire  he  taught  the  pianoforte 
and  comjiosed  for  it  about  one  hundred 
pieces,  such  as  caprices,  nocturnes,  solos  de 
concert,  etc.  One  of  his  best  compositions 
is  a  fautaisie  on  Schubert's  Des  Miidchen's 
Klage.— Fetis ;  Larousse. 

GOSS,  Sir  JOHN,  born  at  Fareham, 
Hants,  England,  December,  1800,  died  iu 
London,  ]May  10,  1880.  Organist,  son  of 
Joseph  Goss,  organist  of  Fareham  ;  one  of 
the  children  of  the  Chajjel  Royal  under  John 
Stafford  Smith,  iu  1811,  and  subsequently  a 
pupil  of  Atwood.  In  1824  he  became  or- 
ganist of  the  new  Church  of  St.  Luke,  Chel- 
sea, and  in  1838  he  succeeded  Atwood  as 
organist  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  He  was 
appointed  one  of  the  composers  of  the 
Chapel  Royal  to  succeed  Knyvett  in  1856  ; 


GOSSEC 


was  knighted  in  1872,  ancl  resigned  his  ap- 
pointment at  St.  Pauls  shortly  afterwards. 
Mus.  Doc,  Cambridge,  187G.  Works — An- 
thems :  If  we  believe  that  Jesus  died  (for 
funeral  of  Duke  of  Wellington,  Nov.  22, 
1852) ;  Bless  the  Lord,  0  my  soul  (bicen- 
tenary festival  of  Sons  of  the  Clergy)  ;  The 
Lord  is  my  strength,  and  a  Te  Deum  (for 
Thanksgiving  in  St.  Paul's,  Feb.  27,  1872, 
for  recovery  of  Prince  of  Wales)  ;  The  Wil- 
derness ;  O  give  thanks  unto  the  Lord  ;  Al- 
mighty and  merciful  God  ;  Blessed  is  the 
man  ;  Christ  our  Passover  ;  I  heard  a  voice 
from  heaven  ;  And  the  king  said  to  all  the 
people  ;  etc.  Church  service  in  A  ;  Burial 
service  in  E  minor  ;  Cantate  Domino  and 
Deus  misereatur  in  C  ;  Magnificat  and  Nunc 
dimittis  in  E  ;  Overtures  for  orchestra  ;  Or- 
gan music  ;  Glees  and  madrigals  ;  Songs, 
etc.  He  published  also  Parochial  Psalmody 
(London,  1827)  ;  The  Organist's  Companion 
(■4  vols.)  ;  Introduction  to  Harmony  and 
Thorough-Bass  (18:53,  many  ed.)  ;  Chants, 
ancient  and  modern  (1811). — Grove  ;  Fi'tis; 
Brown. 

GOSSEC,  FRANgOIS  JOSEPH  (prop- 
erly Gosso),  born  at 
Vergnies  in  the  Hai- 
naut,  Jan.  17,  1733, 
died  at  Passy,  Feb. 
1(5,  1829.  The  son 
of  a  small  farmer, 
he  became  in  1740 
a  choir-boy  at  the 
Antwei-j)  Cathedral, 
where  he  remained 
until  1748.  In  1751 
where  he  became  ac- 
quainted with  Rameau,  and  was  apjiointed 
by  the  fermier-gc-nural  La  Pojielinii're  to  di- 
rect his  private  orchestra.  Under  the  eyes 
of  Rameau,  then  at  the  height  of  his  fame, 
Gossec  made  his  first  appearance  before  the 
Paris  public.  The  low  condition  of  instini- 
mental  music  in  France  excited  his  am- 
bition to  lead  it  into  higher  paths,  and  he 
may  aptl}'  be  called  the  father  of  the  sym- 
phony in  France.     His  first  works  in  this 


he    went   to   Paris, 


form  were  published  in  1754,  five  years  1)0- 
fore  Haydn  wrote  his  first  symphonj'.  The 
value  of  Gossec's  symj)honies  was  not  appre- 
ciated at  first,  but  after  several  years  his 
vigorous  harmony  and  orchestration  found 
approval  in  the  ears  of  the  public,  and  the 
overtures  of  Lulli  and  Rameau  were  found 
to  be  dull  and  tame  by  comparison.  When 
Rameau,  in  his  old  age,  stopped  writing  for 
the  stage,  Gossec  entered  the  household  of 
the  Prince  de  Conti  as  conductor  of  the 
prince's  orchestra,  where  he  had  much  lei- 
sure for  composition.  His  first  quartets  ap- 
peared in  1759,  and  his  Requiem  (probably 
his  most  famous  work)  was  given  with  over- 
whelming success,  and  published  in  1760. 
In  1764  his  first  opera,  Le  Faux  Lord,  was 
given  at  the  Comedie  Italienne.  His  Les 
Pccheurs  was  given  on  April  8,  176G,  and 
ran  for  nearly  the  remainder  of  the  year. 
In  1770  Gossec  founded  the  Concert  des 
Amateurs,  the  orchestra  being  conducted 
by  the  famous  Chevalier  de  Saint-Georges. 
This,  the  first  impulse  given  to  fine  orches- 
tral playing  in  France,  is  to  be  ascribed 
mainly  to  Gossec.  But  his  greatest  service 
to  the  cause  of  music  in  France  was  his 
founding  of  the  £eole  Royale  de  Chant  (the 
first  beginning  of  the  Conservatoire),  in 
1784.  'Wlien  the  Conservatoire  itself  was 
founded,  in  1795,  Gossec  was  made  one  of 
the  inspectors.  During  the  Revolution  he 
was  conductor  of  the  band  of  the  Garde 
Nationale,  and  wrote  much  music  for  the 
public  fetes.  He  was  a  member  of  the  In- 
stitut  from  its  foundation  (1795),  and  che- 
valier of  the  Legion  of  Honour  (1812).  He 
retired  from  his  professorship  at  the  Con- 
servatoire in  1815,  but  continued  to  attend 
the  meetings  of  the  Academic  des  Beaux- 
Arts  until  1823.  Gossec  was  a  man  of  great 
talent,  perseverance,  insight,  and  enterprise 
rather  than  a  man  of  great  genius.  Bj'  hard 
and  intelligent  work  he  raised  himself  from 
a  position  of  absolute  obscurity  to  the  rank 
of  a  classic  comjjoser,  and  this,  too,  with 
hardly  any  instruction.  He  enjoyed  im- 
mense i:)opularity,  but  had  the  misfortune 


172 


CtOSWIN 


to  see  himself  surpassed  in  almost  every 
dej)artment  by  his  younger  contemporaries. 
Like  most  innovators  who  flourish  at  the 
jjoiut  of  contact  of  two  distinct  periods  in 
art,  he  saw  his  original  ideas  laid  hold  of 
and  vastly  improved  upon  by  others.  Thus 
Haydn  and  Mozart  far  surjjassed  him  in  the 
sj-mphony  and  in  sacred  composition,  as 
Grt'try  and  Gluek  did  on  the  stage.  His 
popularity,  fully  deserved  as  it  was,  was 
thus  destined  to  be  but  short-lived.  There 
is  an  oil  portrait  of  hiui  in  the  Conservatoire 
library  at  Paris,  besides  which  there  is  a 
small  engraving  by  Fremy  (after  Brun),  and 
a  bust  by  Caillouetc.  A  monument  to  his 
memory  was  erected  at  Vergnies  in  1877. 
Works — Ojjeras  :  1.  Le  faux  lord,  Paris, 
Theatre  Italien,  17C4  ;  2.  Les  pccheurs, 
ib.,  176G  ;  3.  Le  double  deguisemeut,  ib., 
1707  ;  4.  Toinon  et  Toinettc,  ib.,  June  20, 
1707  ;  5.  Sabinus,  Opera,  Feb.  22,  1773  ; 
C.  Berthe  (in  collaboration  with  Philidor 
and  Botson),  Brussels,  Jan.  IS,  1775 ;  7. 
Alexis  et  Da^^hnr,  Paris,  Opera,  Sept.  20, 
1775 ;  8.  FldU'inon  et  Baucis,  ballet,  ib., 
Sept.  2G,  1775;  9.  Hylas  et  Sylvie,  ib., 
1770  ;  10.  La  file  de  village,  ib..  May  20, 
1778 ;  11.  Thesee,  ib.,  Feb.  20,  1782  ;  12. 
Clioruses  to  Rocheforfs  "Electre,"  at  court, 
January,  1783  ;  13.  liosine,  ou  IV'pouse  aban- 
donnoe,  Opera,  July  14, 1780  ;  14.  Choruses 
to  Racine's  "  Athalie,"  Theatre  Frau(;ais, 
1791  ;  15.  L'ofirande  a  la  patrie.  Opera, 
Oct.  2,  1792  ;  10.  Le  camp  de  Grandpre,  ou 
le  triomphe  de  la  reisublique,  ib.,  Jan.  27, 
1793  ;  17.  La  reprise  de  Toulon,  ib.,  1790  ;  18. 
Les  sabots  et  le  cerisier.  Theatre  des  Jeunes 
iSleves,  Dec.  13,  1803  ;  19.  Le  Perigourdin, 
at  the  palace  of  the  Prince  de  Conti,  (?) ; 
20.  Nitocris,  unfinished.  Oratorios :  L'arche 
dalliance;  To,  Natimte  ;  Saiil.  Church  mu- 
sic :  Masses  with  orchestra ;  Mesxe  des  morts  ; 
Motets  ;  Te  Deum  ;  O  Salutaris.  Music  for 
patriotic  festivals  :  Chant  du  14  juillet  ; 
Chant  martial  ;  Hymne  a  I'Etre  supreme  ; 
do.  a  la  Nature  ;  do.  a  I'Humanite  ;  do.  a  la 
Liberte  ;  and  several  others.  Serment  re- 
publicaiu  ;  Chujurs  et  chants  pour  I'apothe- 


ose  de  Voltaire  ;  do.  do  Rousseau  ;  etc.  In- 
strumental music :  La  chasse,  and  25  other 
symphonies  for  full  orchestra  ;  3  do.  for 
wind  instruments  ;  Symphonic  concertante 
for  eleven  instruments  ;   Several  overtures  ; 


0  serenades  for  violin,  flute,  horn,  bassoon, 
viola,  and  ba.ss ;  Quartets,  trios,  and  duos 
for  strings. — Pierre  Hedouin,  Gossec,  sa  vie, 
etc.  (Valenciennes,  1852)  ;  Notice  by  Edou- 
ard  Gregoire  in  ''La  Fedt'ration "  news- 
paj)er  (Brussels,  Nov.  20,  1875) ;  Charles 
Plot,  "  Particularites  inedites  concernant  les 
ceuvres  musicales  de  Gossec  et  Philidor," 
Bulletins  de  I'Acadomie  Royale  de  Belgique, 
2d  series  (1872),  xl.  No.  1  (also  printed  sep- 
arately in  pamphlet  form)  ;  Clement,  Mus. 
ct'K'bres,  137  ;  Gregoir,  Notice  sur  G.  (1878) ; 
Fetis  ;  do.,  Sui3ijh'ment,  i.  403. 

GOSWIN,  ANTON  (Antonius  Gostuinus), 
German  composer  of  the  latter  part  of  the 
10th  century.  He  was  in  the  royal  chapel 
in  ^Munich  ;  then  became  Kapellmeister  suc- 
cessively to  the  Bishoj)s  of  Liege,  Hildes- 
heim,  and  Freising,  and  finally  to  the  Count 
Palatine,  Ernst  bei  Rhein.  He  composed 
madrigals  and  sacred  songs. — Mendel ;  Fe- 
tis  ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr. 

GOTT,  BEI  DEINEM  STARKEN 
SCHUTZEN,  bass  aria  in  G  minor,  with  ac- 
companiment of  2  oboes  and  continuo,  in 
Johanu  Sebastian  Bach's  cantata  for  Dom. 
IV.  jjost  Epij^h.,  "  Wiir'  Gott  nicht  mit  uns 
diese  Zeit  ;  "  published  separately,  with  ad- 
ditional accompaniments  by  Robert  Franz, 
by  F.  Whistling,  Leipsic,  1800. 

GOTTERDAMMERUNG  (Dusk  of  the 
Gods),  music  drama  in  a  prologue  and  three 
acts,  by  Richard  Wagner,  first  represented 
at  Bayreuth,  Aug.  17,  1870.  The  fourth 
and  last  drama  in  Der  Bing  des  Nibelungen. 
The  original  cast  was  as  follows  : 


1T3 


GOTTERDAMMERUNG 


Siegfried  (T.) Hen-  Unger. 

Gunther  (Bar.) Herr  Gura. 

Hagen  (B.) Herr  von  Eeicheuberg. 

Albericli  (Bar.) Herr  Hill. 

Briiuubilde  (S.).  .  .Fraii  Friedrich-Materna. 

Gutrune  (S.) Frl.  Weckerlin. 

Waltraute  (S.) Frau  Ja'ida. 

Siegfried  who,  at  the  close  of  the  tliird 
drama,  Siegfried,  Las  wou  Briiunbilde,  leaves 


Materna,  as  Bfunnhtlde. 

her  on  tbe  beigbts  of  tbe  Bri'mnhildensteiu, 
giving  ber  tbe  Ring  as  a  pledge  of  bis 
fidelity,  and  goes  out  in  searcb  of  new  ex- 
ploits. Arriving  at  tbe  dwelling  of  Guntber, 
tbe  Gibicbung,  be  meets  Gutrune,  bis  sister, 
and  Hagen,  bis  balf-brotber.  Hagen  is  Al- 
bericb'sson,  and  is  bent  ujwn  regaining  tbe 
Ring,  robbed  from  bis  father  (Rheingoki, 
Scene  3).  He  prepares  a  potion  which, 
handed  to  Siegfried  by  Gnti'une,  makes  the 


hero  forget  Briinnbilde,  and  love  Gutrune. 
Siegfried  sues  forthwith  for  Gutrune's 
band  ;  Guntber  promises  ber  to  him,  if  be 
will  fii'st  help  him  win  Briinnbilde  for  his 
wife.  Siegfried  consents,  and,  disguising 
himself  as  Gunther,  bj'  means  of  tbe  Tarn- 
helm,  repairs  to  tbe  Briinubildenstein, 
wrenches  tbe  Ring  from  Briinnbilde's  fin- 
ger, and  brings  ber  captive  to  Gunther.  In 
the  second  act  Siegfried,  having  doffed  the 
Tarnhelm,  appears  in  his  own  shape  ;  Briinn- 
bilde claims  him  as  her  husband,  but  he, 
still  under  the  spell  of  Hagen's  potion,  dis- 
claims all  knowledge  of  her.  She  espies  the 
Ring  on  bis  finger,  and  sees  that  it  was  he, 
and  not  Guntber,  who  brought  her  by  force 
from  the  Briinnbildenstein.  Both  Gunther 
and  Briinnbilde  think  that  Siegfried  has 
wittingly  islayed  them  false,  and,  stiU  further 
incited  thereto  by  Hagen,  they  plot  Sieg- 
fried's death.  In  the  tbinl  act  Siegfried, 
one  of  a  bunting  party,  comes  to  tbe  banks 
of  the  Rhine  ;  the  Rhine-daughters  beseech 
him  to  restore  tbe  Ring  to  them,  prophesy- 
ing bis  death  if  bo  should  keep  it,  but  he 
refuses  to  give  it  uji.  He  is  joined  by  Gun- 
ther, Hagen,  and  others,  and  during  the 
noontide  rest  Hagen  asks  him  to  tell  the 
story  of  his  life.  In  the  midst  of  the  nar- 
rative Hagen  offers  Siegfried  a  draught,  a 
counterpotion  to  the  one  given  him  in  the 
first  act  ;  tbe  young  hero,  bis  memory  now 
restored,  proceeds  to  tell  how  he  first  won 
Briinnbilde  on  the  heights  of  tbe  Briinn- 
bildenstein (Siegfried,  Act  iii.,  Sc.  3).  Gun- 
ther springs  up  in  horror ;  Wotan's  ravens 
fly  up  from  a  bush  hard  by,  and  as  Sieg- 
fried, startled  by  the  whir  of  wings,  turns 
round  to  look  after  them,  Hagen  plunges 
his  spear  into  his  back.  Siegfried  dies  with 
Briinnbilde's  name  on  his  lips  ;  the  men 
raise  his  body  upon  bis  shield,  and  bear  it 
home  in  solemn  jirocession.  On  reaching 
Gunther's  dwelling,  Hagen  and  Gunther 
quan-el,  and  the  latter  is  killed  ;  Hagen 
tries  to  take  the  Ring  from  Siegfried's  fin- 
ger, but  the  dead  arm  raises  itself  and  warns 
him  off  with  threatening  gesture.     While 


GOTT 


Gutrune  is  bewailing  lier  hero's  death, 
Brilnubilde  appears,  and  claims  liim  for  her 
owu  ;  she  orders  a  funeral  iJyre  to  be  built, 
and,  as  the  men  lift  Siegfried's  body  njion 
it,  draws  the  Ring  from  his  finger  and  jjuts 
it  on  her  owu.  She  lights  the  pyre  with  a 
torch,  and,  mounting  her  horse  Grane,  leaps 
into  the  flames.  The  Rhine  overflows  its 
banks  into  the  hall,  bearing  with  it  the 
Rhine-daughters,  who  recover  the  Ring  and 
drag  Hagen,  plunging  into  the  waves  after 
them  in  delirium,  down  to  the  depths.  A 
ruddy  glow  lights  up  the  northern  sky,  be- 
tokening the  end  of  Valhalla,  and  the  Dusk 
of  the  Gods  :  the  Ragnaruk  of  Northern 
mythology. 

Of  the  four  Nibelungen  dramas,  GOtter- 
diimmerung  is  the  one  in  which  there  is  the 
most  of  incident  and  dramatic  action.  As 
in  all  of  the  dramas  of  Wagner's  third  pe- 
riod, the  music  is  not  divided  into  distinct 
numbers,  but  is  a  continuous  working  out 
of  characteristic  Leitmotivs,  most  of  which 
have  already'  appeared  in  the  earlier  parts  of 
the  tetralogy.  The  music  after  Siegfried's 
death  has  become  familiar  in  the  concert- 
room  under  the  misnomer  of  "  Siegfried's 
Funeral  March,"  and  Briinnhilde's  last 
speech  over  the  hero's  body,  beginning, 
"Schweigt  eures  Jammers  jauchzenden 
Swall !,"  is  frequently  given  ajjart  from  the 
rest  of  the  work.  The  orchestral  interlude 
(scherzo)  between  the  Prologue  and  Act  i., 
known  as  Siegfried's  Rheiufahrt "  (S.'s  trip 
up  the  Rhine),  which  was  written  before  the 
rest  of  the  music,  is  sometimes  played  also 
at  concerts.  Gotterdilmmeruug  was  first 
given  in  America  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  New  York,  Jan.  25,  1888.— Krehbiel, 
Review  (1887-88),  87  ;  for  other  bibliog- 
raphy, see  riiuij  des  Nibelungen. 

GOTT  ERHALTE  FRANZ  DEN  KAI- 
SER (God  save  Franz  the  Emperor),  com- 
monly called  the  Emperor's  Hymn,  the 
national  anthem  of  Austria.  The  words 
were  written  by  Lorenz  Leopold  Haschka, 
in  1796,  during  the  patriotic  fervour  caused 
by  the  movements  of  the  French  army,  were 


set  to  music  for  four  voices  by  Haydn,  in 
January,  1797,  and  were  sung  first  on  the 
EmjJeror's  birthday,  Feb.  12,  1797.  Haydn 
subsequently  used  it  as  a  theme  for  varia- 
tions in  his  Kaiserquartet  (op.  7G,  No.  3). 
— A.  Schmid,  J.  Haydn  vmd  N.  Zingarelli 
(Venice,  1817). 

GOTTES  ZEIT  1ST  DIE  ALLERBESTE 
ZEIT  (God's  Time  is  the  best  of  all  Time), 
cantata  for  soli  and  chorus,  with  accomjJani- 
ment  of  two  flutes,  two  viole  da  gamba,  and 
continuo,  otherwise  called  the  Actus  Tragi- 
cus,  by  Johann  Sebastian  Bach,  written  at 
Weimar,  probably  in  memory  of  Magister 
Philipp  Grossgebauer,  rector  of  the  school 
there,  who  died  in  1711.  It  is  sometimes 
called  also  the  Mourning  Cantata.  Though 
one  of  the  composer's  j-outhful  comi^ositions, 
it  has  always  been  a  favourite  of  the  best  mu- 
sical critics.  Published,  edited  by  Robert 
Franz,  by  Leuckhart  (Leipsic,  1850). — Spit- 
ta,  i.  451 ;  Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  33. 

GOTT  F.IHRET  AUF  HOT  JAUCHZEN, 
cantata,  festo  Ascensionis  Christi,  for  soli 
and  chorus,  with  accompaniment  of  three 
trumi^ets,  drums,  two  oboes,  strings  com- 
plete, and  continuo,  by  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach  (Bachgesellschaft,  No.  43).  Publish- 
ed in  full  and  pianoforte  score,  with  ad- 
ditional accompaniments  by  Robert  Franz, 
Breslau,  Leuckart. — Sjjitta,  Bach,  ii.  550. 

GOTTH.mD,  J.  P.  (real  name  Pazdirek), 
born  at  Drahauowitz,  Moravia,  Jan.  19, 1839, 
still  living,  1889.  He  was  a  choir-boj'  at 
Altwasser,  and  finally  solo  so23rano  at  the 
cathedral  in  Olmiitz.  He  attended  the  gym- 
nasium in  Vienna,  where  he  was  the  pupil 
of  Simon  Sechter  in  composition.  He 
founded  a  musical  establishment  in  18G8  in 
Vienna.  In  his  hall  he  established  a  series 
of  concerts,  where  young  musicians  ap- 
j)eared.  Works  :  Mass  for  soli,  chorus  and 
orchestra,  op.  6G  ;  14:9th  psalm,  for  do.,  op. 
G3  ;  Oft'ertorium,  for  do.,  ojj.  G5  ;  do.  for 
soprano  and  tenor,  with  strings,  2  horns 
and  organ,  op.  G7 ;  Graduale,  for  tenor, 
with  flute,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  2  horns, 
and   double-bass,    op.   64 ;   Ave  Maria,  for 


175 


GOTT 


Tenor  solo  and  male  chorus,  with  organ, 
op.  39  ;  Liebesgliick,  song  in  dance  form, 
for  a  voice,  with  orchestra,  op.  62  ;  Con- 
cert overture,  for  orchestra  ;  Quintet  for 
jiianoforte  and  strings,  oji.  GO  ;  Andante 
ongarese,  for  string  quartet,  op.  68  ;  Cho- 
ruses for  male  voices,  op.  10,  19,  '2i,  32,  Si, 
35,  38,  41,  46,  69  ;  Pianoforte  music  and 
songs. 

GOTT  1ST  GERECHT,  bass  aria  in  B- 
flat,  with  accompaniment  of  three  oboes 
and  continuo,  in  Johauu  Sebastian  Bach's 
cantata  for  Dom.  I  post  Triuit.,  "  O  Ewig- 
keit,  du  Dounerwort "  (Bachgesellschaft, 
No.  20) ;  ijublished  sejaarately,  with  addi- 
tional accompaniments  by  Kobert  Eranz,  by 
F.  Whistling,  Leipsic,  18(;0. 

GOTTLOB!  NUN  GEHT  D.LS  J.IHR 
ZU  ENDE,  soprano  aria  in  A  minor,  with 
accompaniment  of  2  oboes,  taille,  strings 
complete,  and  continue,  in  Johann  Sebas- 
tian Bach's  cantata  for  Dom.  post  Nativ. 
Christi,  "  Gottlob  !  Nun  gcht  das  Jahr  zu 
Ende  "  (Bachgesellschaft,  No.  28) ;  published 
separately,  with  additional  acconipaniinents 
by  Robert  Franz,  by  F.  AVhistling,  Leij)sic, 
1860. 

GOTTSCHALK,  LOUIS  MOREAU,  born 
at  New  Orleans, 
Louisiana,  May  8, 
1829,  died  at  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  Dec. 
18,  18(19.  Pianist, 
I^upil  in  Paris  of 
Chai-les  Halle  and 
of  Stamaty  on  the 
pianoforte,  and  of 
M  a  1  e  d  e  n  in  har- 
mony ;  appeared 
first  in  public  in 
184.5,  then  made  a  concert  tour  through 
France,  Switzerland,  and  Spain,  meeting 
everywhere  with  brilliant  success.  Li  1853 
he  returned  to  America,  and  made  a  suc- 
cessful tour  through  the  United  States, 
Cuba,  and  South  America,  whither  he  went 
from  San  Francisco  in  1865.  Endowed 
with  a  poetic  imagination,  he  was  equally 


original  as  virtuoso  and  composer  ;  and  his 
music  has  a  colour  peculiar  to  itself.  His 
numerous  compositions,  if  not  deep,  are  full 
of  novel  accents  and  unusual  rhythmical 
combinations,  producing  an  indefinable 
charm  ;  they  are  nearly  all  so-called  charac- 
ter-pieces, and  mostly  of  a  national,  espe- 
cially Spanish  tinge,  brilliant,  and  at  times 
melancholy.  Works  :  Charles  IX.,  Isaura 
de  Salerno,  operas  ;  La  unit  des  troisiques, 
symphonj',  for  grand  orchestra  ;  ]Monte- 
video,  do.  ;  Grand  triumphal  march,  for 
do.  ;  Gran  marcha  solemne,  dedicated  to 
the  Emperor  of  Brazil,  for  do.  ;  Finale  con- 
certante  to  the  opera  Charles  IX.,  for  do.  ; 
Escenas  campestres  cubanas,  for  do.  ;  Gran 
Tarantella,  for  do.  ;  about  90  works  for  pi- 
anoforte, a  complete  list  of  which  is  to  be 
I  found  in  the  monographs  cited  below,  and 
about  a  dozen  songs. — Fors,  Gottschalk 
j  (Havana,  1880)  ;  R.  E.  Peterson,  Notes  of  a 
I  Pianist,  etc.  (Philadelphia,  1881) ;  Octavia 
I  Hensel,  Life  and  Letters  of  L.  M.  Gottschalk 
(Boston,  1870). 

GOTT  SEI  MIR  GNADIG,  bass  air  of 
Paulus  in  Mendelssohn's  J^aulus,  Part  I. 

GOTTWALD,  HEINRICH,  born  at 
Reichenbach,  Silesia,  Oct.  24,  1821,  died  in 
Breslau,  Feb.  17,  1876.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
his  father  ;  entered  the  seminary  in  Bres- 
lau in  1839,  but  soon  left  to  study  under 
Pixis  at  the  Prague  Conservatorium.  He 
became  music  director  at  Hohenelbe,  Bo- 
hemia, in  1844  ;  was  first  horn  in  a  theatre 
orchestra  in  Vienna  in  1846  ;  retm-ned  to 
Hohenelbe  in  1847  ;  settled  in  Breslau  as 
pianist,  teacher,  and  writer,  in  1857.  Works : 
Symphonies  ;  Overtures  ;  Masses  ;  Music  for 
horn  and  pianoforte. — Mendel,  iv.  310  ;  Er- 
giinz.,  131  ;  Fi'tis,  Supplement,  i.  404. 

GOTTWALD,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Wil- 
helmsthal,  Glatz,  Aug.  6,  1754,  died  in  Bres- 
lau, June  25,  1833.  He  became  choir-boy 
in  the  Dominican  Church  of  Breslau  in  1766, 
organist  of  the  sanie  in  1769,  organist  of  the 
Kreuzkirche  in  1783,  and  of  the  cathedral 
in  1819.  Works  :  -Masses  ;  Hj-mns  ;  Vespers, 
and  other  church  music. — Mendel ;  Fetis. 


ne 


GOTZE 


GOTZE,  HEINKICH,  born  at  AYaitba, 
Silesia,  April  7,  1836,  still  liviug,  1889.  Li- 
strumental  composer,  pujiil  of  Mosewius 
and  Baumgart,  then  at  the  Conservatoriuiu, 
Leipsic,  of  Frauz  Gutze  iu  singing  ;  losing 
liis  voice,  be  devoted  himself  to  teaching 
and  composition,  went  first  to  Russia  as 
musical  tutor,  then  lived  for  some  years  at 
Breslau,  and  in  1871  became  instructor 
of  music  at  the  seminary  at  Liebenthal, 
Silesia.  Among  his  compositions  are  es- 
pecially noteworthy  two  serenades,  and 
six  sketches  for  string  orchestra,  and  a 
pianoforte  trio. — Mendel,  Ergiiuz.,  129  ; 
Riemann. 

GOTZE,  JOHANN  NICOLAUS  KON- 
RAD,  born  at  Weimar,  Feb.  11,  1791,  died 
there,  Dec.  5,  1861.  Violinist,  pujnl  iu 
Gotha  of  Spohr,  iu  Weimar  of  August  Miil- 
ler,  and  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  iu  1813 
of  Kreutzer  and  Cherubini.  After  leaving 
the  Conservatoire  he  settled  in  Weimar, 
making  jjrofessional  journeys  to  Vienna  and 
other  cities.  Iu  1826-18  he  was  director 
of  the  Court  Theatre  at  Weimar.  Works — 
Operas  :  Der  Markt,  Weimar,  1819  ;  Alex- 
ander iu  Persieu,  ib.,  1820  ;  Das  Orakel  iu 
Delphi,  three  acts,  ib.,  1822  ;  Der  Gallego, 
four  acts,  ib.,  1834.  He  wrote  also  the 
music  for  several  vaudevilles  and  melo- 
dramas ;  Overtures  for  orchestra  ;  Quartet 
for  stringed  instruments,  op.  2  ;  3  other 
quartets  for  do.,  op.  5  ;  Variations  for  vio- 
lin with  accompaniment  ;  3  trios  for  two 
violins  and  %dolonceUo  ;  Pianoforte  music  ; 
Songs,  etc. — Fctis  ;  Larousse. 

GOTZE,  KARL,  boru  in  Weimar  iu  1836, 
died  at  Magdeburg,  Jan.  14,  1887.  Dra- 
matic composer,  j)upil  of  TOpfer  and  Geb- 
hardi,  and  later  of  Liszt.  He  became  Cor- 
repetitor  of  the  Weimar  Opera  iu  1855, 
then  theatre  Kapellmeister  in  Magdeburg, 
iu  Berlin  in  1869,  in  Breslau  in  1872,  and 
in  Chemnitz  from  1875.  Works — Operas  : 
Eine  AbschiedsroUe,  Die  Korseu,  Weimar, 
1866  ;  Gustav  Wasa,  der  Held  des  Nordens, 
text  by  Rost,  ib.,  1868;  Judith,  Magde- 
burg, 1887.     Eine   Sommernacht,  sympho- 


nic poem,   op.  20  ;   Orchestral,    pianoforte, 
and  vocal  music. — Riemann  ;  Mendel. 

GOUDIMEL,  CLAUDE,  born  at  Vaison, 
near  Avignon,  Frauce,  probably  about  1505, 
killed  at  Lyons  iu  the  massacre  on  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's Day,  Aug.  24, 1572.  Of  his  early 
life  nothing  is  known  ;  he  went  to  Rome 
and  established  a  music  school  there,  cer- 
tainly before  1540.  Li  1555  he  had  returned 
to  France,  and  was  partner  of  Nicolas  Du- 
chemiu,  book  and  music  publisher  in  Paris. 
The  partnershijD  was  dissolved  iu  the  follow- 
ing year.  Iu  1562  he  jjublished  his  set- 
ting of  the  Psalms  in  four-voice  counter- 
point on  cantus  firmi  taken  from  Calviuistic 
melodies.  It  is  very  doubtful,  however,  if 
Goudimel  was  himself  a  Protestant.  His 
Psalms  had  the  authorization  of  the  Sor- 
bonne  (Oct.  16,  1561),  and  were  actually 
used  iu  Catholic  public  worship.  His  being 
included  iu  the  St.  Bartholomew  proscrip- 
tion was  probably  due  to  the  machinations 
of  envious  rivals.  Goudimel  wrote  almost 
entirely  for  the  church  ;  his  works  are  nota- 
ble for  a  peculiar  charm  and  grace  of  style, 
remindiug  one  more  of  Costanzo  Festa  than 
of  his  other  great  coutemi^oraries  Hobrecht 
and  Arcadelt.  His  fame  as  a  teacher  has, 
somewhat  unjustly,  thrown  his  reputation 
as  a  composer  iuto  the  shade.  Probably 
no  man  ever  formed  so  many  great  pupils, 
among  them  being  Palestrina,  Giovanni 
Animuccia,  Steftano  Bettiui,  Giovanni  Maria 
Nanini,  and  Alessandro  della  Viola. — Am- 
bros,  iii.  578. 

GOULD,  NATHANIEL  (DUREN),  born 
iu  Chelmsford  (now  Bedford),  Massachu- 
setts, March  26,  1781,  died  in  Boston,  May 
28,  1864.  He  studied  vocal  music  under 
Reuben  Emerson,  established  his  first  sing- 
ing school  iu  Stoddard,  N.  H.,  iu  1798,  and 
for  twenty  years  conducted  singing  schools 
in  New  Hampshire  and  Massachusetts.  In 
1806  his  name  was  changed  from  Duren  to 
Gould.  About  1807  was  formed  the  Mid- 
dlesex Musical  Society,  of  which  he  was 
'  conductor  for  several  years.  In  1819  he 
'  removed  to  Boston,  and  taught  vocal  music 


GOULLEY 


there  and  in  New  York  for  ten  years.  He 
then  returned  to  Boston,  where  he  jJassed 
the  rest  of  his  Ufe  as  a  professional  penman. 
He  edited  the  following  works :  "  Social 
Harmony  "  (1823)  ;  "  National  Church  Har- 
mony "  (1832)  ;  "  Sacred  Minstrel  "  (1839) ; 
"  Companion  for  the  Psalmist  "  (1853).  He 
was  the  author  also  of  a  Look  entitled 
"  Church  Music  in  America." 

GOULLEY  (Goule),  JACQUES  NICO- 
LAS, born  at  Saint-Jean  du  Cardonnay 
about  1774,  died  at  Rouen,  May  30,  1818. 
Church  composer,  pupil  of  Cordonnier  and 
Broche  at  the  Maitrise  of  Rouen  Cathedral, 
where  Boieldieu  was  his  fellow  pupil.  Com- 
posed his  first  mass,  with  orchestral  accom- 
paniment, at  fifteen.  His  motet,  lucipite 
Domino,  with  full  orchestra,  was  considered 
a  fine  work.  He  excelled  in  romances  for 
3  or  4  voices  ;  one  of  these,  O  ma  j)atrie,  O 
mon  bonheur,  was  very  popular. — Fctis, 
Supplement,  i.  405  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  131. 
GOUNOD,  CHARLES  (FRANCOIS), 
born  in  Paris,  June 
17,  1818,  stm  hving, 
1889.  Dramatic 
composer ;  g  r  a  d  u- 
ated  at  the  Lycc'e 
Saint-Louis,  and  in 
1836  entered  the 
C(jnservatoire,  where 
he  became  a  pupil 
of  Haluvy  in  coun- 
terpoint, and  of  Paer 
and  Lesueur  in  composition.  In  1837  he 
won  the  second  prize  for  composition,  and  in 
1839  the  prix  de  Rome,  with  the  cantata 
Fernand.  During  his  three  years'  residence 
in  Rome  he  studied  the  style  of  Palestrina, 
brought  out  a  mass  in  S.  Luigi  de'  Francesi 
in  1841,  and  a  Requiem  in  Vienna,  1842,  and 
after  his  return  to  Paris  became  organist  and 
maitre  de  chapelle  of  the  ^Missions  etran- 
n-eres.  At  that  time  he  attended  theologi- 
cal  lectures,  and  came  near  taking  holy 
orders  ;  but  suddenly  a  change  took  place 
in  his  musical  aspirations,  which  led  him  to 
dramatic  composition.     It  was,  however,  a 


religious  work  which  first  brought  him 
into  universal  notice,  after  one  of  Hullah's 
concerts  in  London, 
1851,  in  which  parts 
of  his  Messe  so- 
leunelle  wei'e  per- 
formed. In  the 
same  year  he  made 
his  debut  at  tlie 
Opera  with  Sapho, 
and  in  1852  was 
made  director  of 
the  Orpheon,  the 
great  union  of  the 
male  singing  societies  and  vocal  schools  of 
Paris,  which  position  he  held  for  eight  years. 
In  1859  he  won  his  greatest  triumph  with 
Faust,  Avhich  bore  his  fame  into  all  coun- 
tries of  Europe,  and  continues  to  be  his 
masterpiece,  although  his  Romeo  et  Juliette 
(1867)  is  ranked  even  higher  in  France. 
The  war  of  1870  caused  his  removal  to  Lon- 
don, where  ho  founded  the  choral  union 
Gounod's  Choir,  with  whom  he  gave  con- 
certs ;  in  1875  he  returned  to  Paris,  where, 
after  producing  several  new  operas,  the 
success  of  which  never  equalled  that  of 
Faust,  he  devoted  himself  almost  exclu- 
sively to  sacred  composition  in  the  larger 
forms.  Gounod's  genius  is  eminently  ele- 
giac and  poetic,  with  a  tinge  of  mysticism  ; 
he  is  a  consummate  master  of  the  orchestra, 
in  his  treatment  of  which  he  evinces  consid- 
erable individuality.  Member  of  the  Insti- 
tute of  France  ;  Commander  of  the  L.  of 
Honour.  "Works — Operas:  Sapho,  given  at 
the  OiJcra,  April  IG,  1851 ;  La  nonne.  san- 
glante,  Oct.  18,  1854 ;  Le  medecin  malgre 
lui,  oiJcra-comique,  Theilti-e  Lyriquc,  Jan. 
15,  1858  ;  FausI,  ib.,  March  19,  1859,  and 
with  considerable  modifications.  Opera, 
March  3,  1809  ;  Philemon  et  Baucis,  The- 
atre Lyi'ique,  Feb.  18,  1860,  Opera  Co- 
mique  (reduced  to  2  acts),  1876  ;  La  vo- 
loinbe,  opera-comique,  Baden,  1860,  Opera 
Comique,  June  7,  1866  ;  La  reine  de  Saba, 
Opera,  Feb.  29,  18()2  ;  Mireilh;  Theatre 
Lyrique,  March  19,   1804,  Opera  Comique 


ITS 


GOUVY 


(reduced  to  4  acts),  November,  1874  ;  Pio- 
mk>  et  Juliette,  Theatre  Lyrique,  April  27, 
1867 ;  Cinq-'Mars,  Opera  Comique,  April 
5,  1877;  Pohjeude,  Opera,  Oct.  7,  1878; 
Georges  Dandin,  not  performed  ;  Le  tribut 
de  Zamora,  April  1,  1881.  Other  dramatic 
music :  Choruses  to  Ponsard's  tragedy 
Cli/sse,  Comedie  Frau^aise,  June  18,  1852  ; 
do.,  and  incidental  music  to  Legouve's 
drama  Les  deux  reines  de  France,  Theatre 
Ventadour,  Nov.  27,  1872  ;  do.  to  Barbier's 
drama  Jeanne  d'Arc,  Theatre  de  la  Gaite, 
Nov.  8,  1873.  Sacred  music  :  Mass  for 
3  voices  and  orchestra,  Rome,  1841  ;  Re- 
quiem, Vienna,  St.  Charles's,  1842  ;  Messe 
solennelle,  Paris,  Saint-Eustache,  1849  ; 
Missa  brevis  ;  Second  Requiem  mass  ;  Two 
masses  ;  Messe  du  Sacre-Coeur  de  Jesus, 
for  4  voices,  chorus,  orchestra,  and  organ, 
Paris,  Saint-Eustaclie,  187G  ;  Stabat  Jlatcr  ; 
Tubie,  oratorio  ;  Lcs  sept  paroles  du  Christ  ; 
MasSj  Angeli  custodes  ;  Pater  uoster  ;  I'res 
du  fleuve  etranger,  chorus  with  orchestra  ; 
Ji'sus  de  Nazareth  ;  Ave  verum  ;  O  saluta- 
ris,  for  solo  voice,  with  chorus  and  organ ; 
Te  Deum  ;  Jesus  sur  le  lac  de  Tiberiade, 
scene  for  baritone  solo,  chorus,  and  orches- 
tra, Paris,  187G  ;  Magnificat  ;  Vexilla  regis  ; 
Christus  faetus  est ;  Sis  cantiques,  for  solo 
or  chorus  ;  Messe  solennelle,  Sainte-Cecile, 
Paris,  1882  ;  La  Redemption,  oratorio, 
Birmingham  Festival,  August,  1882  ;  jl/b>-.s 
et  vita,  do.,  ib.,  1885.  Cantatas  :  Fernand 
(1839)  ;  A  la  frontiere,  Paris,  Opera,  1870  ; 
OaUia,  biblical  elegy,  for  chorus,  soli,  and 
orchestra,  for  the  opening  of  the  Interna- 
tional Exhibition,  London,  Royal  Albert 
Hall,  Maj'  1,  1871.  Instrumental  music  : 
Symphony  in  D  ;  do.  in  E-flat ;  La  reine 
des  Apotres,  symphony  ;  Marche  romaine  ; 
Prelude  de  Bach,  orchestrated.  Concert 
populaire,  Dec.  8,  18G7  ;  Meditation  sur  le 
ler  prelude  de  Bach,  for  sojjrano,  violin, 
pianoforte,  and  organ  ;  Le  calme,  for  violin 
solo,  with  orchestra ;  Romances  sans  pa- 
roles, for  pianoforte  ;  10  morceaux  ori- 
ginaux,  for  do.  ;  Marche  pontifieale,  do.  ; 
Valses,  do.  ;   Convoi  funebre  d'une  mario- 


nette, do.  ;  Dodelinette,  berceuse  for  do. 
(4  hands)  ;  Methode  de  cor  a  pistons. 
Vocal  :  12  choruses  for  3-G  voices  ;  Choeurs 
orpheoniques,  for  4  male  voices  ;  Dans  uue 
etable,  chorus  with  orchestra  ;  Les  Gaulois, 
do.  ;  En  avant !,  chanson  militaire,  for  solo 
and  chorus,  with  orchestra  ;  Chants  lyriques 
de  Saiil ;  Pastorale  sur  un  Noel  du  dix- 
huitieme  siecle,  chorus  with  orchestra ; 
Choruses  dedicated  to  the  Albert  Hall  Cho- 
ral Society  ;  20  melodies  for  voice  and  pi- 
anoforte (Paris,  Choudens)  ;  do.,  2d  col.  ; 
do.,   3d  col.  ; 

do.,  4th  col.  \  ^    f  ^ 

15   duets  for  ^  ^  -        rZtu.rx^ 
do.    (m  o  s  1 1  y 

extracts  from  his  operas)  ;  Biondina, 
12  melodies  to  Italian  f)oems  by  Zaf- 
fira  ;  Many  other  French,  English,  and 
Italian  songs. — Autobiograjihie  de  Ch.  Gou- 
nod, etc.  (London,  W.  Reeves,  1875)  ;  L'Art, 
April  1  and  8,  1877  ;  Claretie,  Portraits 
contemporains  (Paris,  1875)  ;  Clement, 
Mus.  celebres,  G24 ;  Fetis ;  do.,  Supple- 
ment, i.  405  ;  Mendel. 

GOm'Y,  (LOUIS)  THEODORE,  born, 
of  French  parents,  atGoffontaine,  near  Saar- 
briick,  Rlienish  Prussia,  July  2,  1819,  still 
living  in  Paris,  1889.  Pianist  ;  after  a 
course  of  study  at  the  Metz  Gymnasium  he 
went  in  1840  to  Paris  to  study  law,  but 
gave  it  up  for  music  ;  studied  composition 
under  Elwart  three  years,  then  studied  in 
Berlin,  and  later  in  Italy  fifteen  months. 
In  184G  he  returned  to  Paris,  where  he  has 
since  resided  as  a  teacher  and  composer. 
He  gave  his  first  concert  in  Paris  in  1847, 
when  the  orchestra  of  the  Theatre  Italien 
played  his  second  symphony,  op.  9.  The 
Societe  des  Concerts  of  the  Union  Musicale 
played  his  music  in  1848  and  it  had  a  warm 
reception,  and  since  1850  the  different  mu- 
sical societies  of  Paris,  notably  that  of  Sainte- 
Cecile,  and  the  society  of  the  young  stu- 
dents of  the  Conservatoire  h.ave  played  his 
works  every  year.  His  puljlished  and  un- 
published works  extend  to  op.  75,  and  con- 
tain more  than  200  numbers. — Works  :  Cid, 


1T9 


GOW 


opera,  1863  ;  Aslega,  lyric-dramatic  scene  ; 
Golgotha,  cantata  ;  Eequiem  Mass  ;  Stabat 
Mater  ;  Friihlings  Erwacben,  for  male  cho- 
rus, soprano  solo,  and  orchestra,  op.  73  ;  6 
symphonies  for  full  orchestra ;  2  concert 
overtures  ;  String  quartets  and  a  quintet  ; 
5  pianoforte  trios  and  cue  quintet ;  18  ser- 
enades for  pianoforte  solo  ;  Sonatas  for  pi- 
anoforte, choruses,  songs,  and  other  pieces 
iu  large  numbers. — Fctis  ;  do.,  Sujjplement, 
i.  -110  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel ;  lliemann. 

GOW,  NEIL,  born  at  luver,  near  Dun- 
keld,  Perthshire,  Scotland,  March  22,  1727, 
died  thei-e,  March  1,  1807.  Violinist,  self- 
taught  until  the  age  of  thirteen,  when  he 
received  lessons  from  John  Cameron,  a 
retainer  of  the  Stewart  family  of  Grand- 
tull\'.  He  became  noted  for  his  i^erform- 
ance  of  Scotch  tunes,  especially  reels  and 
strathspeys,  and  he  pei-formed  at  most  of 
the  fashionable  balls  and  assemblies  of  his 
time,  supported  by  his  brother  Donald  on 
the  violoncello.  He  published  six  collec- 
tions of  strathspey  reels,  and  A  Complete 
Repositoiy  of  the  Original  Scotch  Slow 
Tunes,  Strathspeys,  and  Dances,  many  of 
which  were  of  his  own  composition.  His 
four  sons,  Nathaniel,  Andrew,  John,  and 
William,  were  all  violinists,  and  noted  in 
their  day.  Nathaniel  (17G6-1831),  pupil 
of  his  father,  and  also  of  E.  M'Intosh, 
M'Glashan,  and  J.  Keinagle,  edited  The 
Beauties  of  Neil  Gow  (Edinburgh),  in  six 
books,  comprising  chiefly  the  comjDOsitions 
of  Neil  Gow  and  his  sons,  and  several  otlier 
collections  of  Scotch  melodies.  Among  his 
airs.  Caller  Hen-iu'  is  one  of  the  most  pop- 
ular. Neil  Gow,  Jr.  (1795-1823),  son  of 
Nathaniel,  was  the  composer  of  Cam'  ye  by 
Athol  ?,  Flora  Maedouald's  Lament,  and 
Bonnie  Prince  Charlie. — Grove  ;  Brown. 

GRABELER,  PETER,  born  in  Bonn,  Aug. 
10,  179G,  died  there,  Dec.  IG,  1830.  Violin- 
ist, ^slaved  when  ten  years  old  in  an  orches- 
tra of  his  native  city  ;  learned  several  other 
instruments,  and  in  theory  was  the  pupil  of 
Stegmann.  He  became  a  bandmaster  in 
the  Prussian  Army,  and,  after  the  battle  of 


Waterloo,  directed  German  opera  in  Posen. 
In  1821  he  returned  to  Bonn,  and  took 
charge  of  his  dead  father's  brewery  in  1824, 
without  giving  up  music  entirely.  He  com- 
posed the  oratorio,  Salomo's  Urtheil,  the 
cantata,  An  die  Hoffnung,  to  words  by  Lud- 
wig,  King  of  Bavaria,  and  other  vocal  and 
instrumental  music. — Mendel  ;  Fetis. 
GRABEN-HOFFMANN  ( H  o  ff  m  a  n  n ) , 
GUSTAV,  born  at 
Bnin,  near  Posen, 
March  7,  1820,  still 
living,  1889.  After 
studying  at  the  semin- 
ary of  Bromberg,  he 
became  a  teacher  near 
and  in  Posen  ;  and  in 
1813  went  to  Berlin 
and  was  a  pupil  of  the 
singer  Stiimer.  He 
founded  a  ladies'  singing  academy  in  Pots- 
dam, studied  composition  under  Hauptmanu 
in  Leipsic,  settled  iu  Dresden  as  teacher  of 
singing  in  18.^)8,  in  Schwerin  in  18G8,  La 
Berlin  in  1870,  and  returned  to  Dresden  in 
1873  ;  settled  at  Potsdam,  1885.  He  has 
composed  95  books  of  songs  and  other  mu- 
sic, and  has  written  several  works  on  vocal 
instruction.  His  ballad,  500,000  Teufel, 
was  veiy  popular  and  often  translated. 
— I\Ieudel ;  Brockhaus,  ix.  300  ;  Riemann, 
327  ;  Fi'tis,  Supplement,  i.  411. 

GR.YBU  (Grabut),  LOUIS,  French  com- 
poser, living  in  London  about  1680.  He 
wrote  the  music  for  Drvden's  Albion  and 
Albinus,  1G85,  printed  in  London  (1GS7). 
Choron  calls  him  chapel-master  to  Charles 
H.  and  director  of  Covent  Garden  Theatre, 
and  says  that  the  first  opera  played  in  Lon- 
don, Ariadne,  or  the  Marriage  of  Bacchus 
(1674),  was  by  him,  but  this  account  has  no 
real  foundation. — FOtis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iv. 
194  ;  Mendel. 

GRADEHAND,  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Brehna,  Prussian  Saxonj',  Dec.  24,  1812, 
died  in  Leipsic,  June  2,  1842.  Organist, 
pupil  at  the  Thomasschule,  Leipsic,  of 
Weinlig ;    organist   of   the   Church    of   St. 


GRADENER 


Georg,  Leijisic.     Works  :   Symphony  ;   Mo- 
tets ;  Organ  pieces. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRADENER,  HERMANN,  born  at  Kiel, 
Germany,  May  8,  1844,  still  living,  1889. 
Organist,  son  and  pupil  of  Karl  Griideuer, 
and  at  the  Conservatorium  in  Vienna ;  or- 
ganist at  Gumpeudorf  (Vienna),  1862,  vio- 
linist in  the  court  orchestra,  1804,  instructor 
of  harmony  at  Horak's  jnanoforte  school, 
and  for  some  years  past  at  the  Conservato- 
rium. Works  :  Capriccio  for  orchestra,  op. 
4;  Sinfonietta,  for  do.,  op.  14;  Eiue  Lusl- 
s^jiW-Ouvertiire,  for  do.,  op.  28  ;  Octet  for 
strings,  op.  12  ;  Quintet  for  do.,  op.  23  ; 
do.  for  pianoforte  and  strings,  op.  6 ;  Trio 
for  do.,  op.  1 ;  .5  impromptus  for  do.,  op. 
11  ;  5  intermezzi  for  violin  and  pianoforte, 
op.  9  ;  Sonata  for  two  pianofortes,  op.  18  ; 
Other  pianoforte  jaieces  and  songs. 

GEADENER,  KARL  G.  P.,  born  at  Ros- 
tock, Jan.  14,  1812, 
ilied  in  Hamburg, 
June  10,  1883. 
Studied  at  Halle 
and  GiJttingcn  TJiii- 
versities,  and  then 
adopted  music  as  a 
profession.  He  was 
violoncellist  in  Hel- 
slugfors,  and  uni- 
versity and  society 
music  director  in 
Kiel  for  ten  years  ;  then  founded  a  singing 
academy  in  Hamburg  in  1851,  and  con- 
ducted it  another  ten  years.  He  taught 
singing  and  theory  at  the  Vienna  Conser- 
vatorium in  1802-0.5,  when  he  settled  in 
Hamburg  again  as  a  teacher.  His  works 
are  distinguished  by  original  harmony  and 
striking  form.  Works :  2  symphonies ; 
Overture  to  Schiller's  Fiesco,  op.  30  ;  Con- 
certo for  pianoforte,  op.  20  ;  2  quintets  for 
do.  and  strings;  2  trios  for  do.;  1  sonata, 
variations,  fantastic  studies,  Fliegende  Blat- 
ter und  Bliittchen,  Triiumereien,  for  piano- 
forte ;  3  sonatas  for  violin  ;  Sonata  for  vio- 
loncello ;  Octet  for  strings,  op.  49  ;  3  string 
quartets,  op.  12,  17,  29  ;  Trio,  op.  48  ;  Ro- 


mance for  violin  with  orchestra. — Mendel  ; 
Riemann. 

GRADENTHALER  (not  Gnadenthaler), 
HIERONYMUS,  German  composer  of  the 
17th  century.  He  was  organist  in  Ratisbon, 
and  composed  several  collections  of  sacred 
and  secular  songs. — Fetis;  Gerber,  N.  Lex.; 
Mendel. 

GRADUS  AD  PARNASSUM,  a  series  of 
100  instructive  studies  for  the  pianoforte, 
by  Clementi,  dedicated  to  the  Princess 
Wolkonska.  Some  of  these  exercises  had 
been  published  previously,  and  were  revised 
and  extended  for  this  collection.  Three 
sonatas,  op.  50,  are  dedicated  to  Cherubini. 
Published  by  Ricordi  (Milan,  1817).  Cle- 
menti published  an  appendix  to  the  Gradus, 
containing  134  exercises,  gavottes,  gigues, 
airs  with  variations,  etc.,  chiefly  by  other 
composers,  to  which  he  wrote  preludes. 
Selections  from  the  Gradus,  for  advanced 
students,  have  been  edited,  with  modern 
fingering,  by  Karl  Tausig.  Fux  wrote,  un- 
der the  same  title,  a  treatise  on  composition 
and  counterpoint  (Vienna,  1725),  translated 
into  German  by  Mizler  (Leipsic,  1742)  ;  Ital- 
ian, by  Manfredi  (Carpi,  1761).  An  English 
edition  was  published  also,  without  date, 
with  a  Kyrie  and  Amen  from  the  Missa  Vicis- 
situdinis. — Grove,  i.  610. 

GRAESER,  JOHANN  CHRISTOPH 
GOTTFRIED,  born  in  Arnstadt  in  1766, 
died  at  the  Castle  of  Erbach  in  1790. 
He  chose  the  clerical  profession,  and  at  his 
early  death  was  a  private  tutor  and  a  can- 
didate for  the  ministry.  His  musical  abil- 
ities were  demonstrated  by  pianoforte  so- 
natas and  songs,  which  he  published. 
—Mendel,  iv.  323  ;  Schilling,  iii.  285  ;  Fe- 
tis, iv.  77. 

GRAF,  CHRISTIAN  ERNST,  born  at 
Rudolstadt  in  1723,  died  at  The  Hague  in 
1802  (?).  Violinist,  son  and  pupil  of  Johann 
Graf,  whom  he  succeeded  as  Kapellmeister 
to  the  court  of  Rudolstadt ;  in  1762  he  was 
called  to  The  Hague  as  royal  Kapellmeis- 
ter. His  name  is  sometimes  set  down  in 
catalogues   as   Christian    Friedrich    Graaf. 


GRAF 


Works  :  G-  symplionies  for  orchestra  ;  15 
concertos  for  the  vioUu  ;  Trios  for  2  viohus 
and  bass  ;  Duo  ecouomique,  op.  '27  ;  G  duos 
for  violiu  and  viola,  op.  28  ;  2  sonatas  for 
pianoforte  {i  hands),  op.  29  ;  Pot-pourri, 
for  do.,  op.  31 ;  Fables,  for  a  voice  and  piano- 
forte, op.  32  ;  Sonata  for  violin  and  pianoforte, 
op.  33  ;  An  oratorio,  performed  at  The  Hague, 
July,  1802.— Fetis  ;  INIendel ;  Schilling. 

GRAF,  FRIEDRICH  HARTMANN  (Her- 
mann), born  at  Rudolstadt  in  1727,  died  at 
Augsburg,  Aug.  19,  179.5.  Flute  player, 
brother  of  the  preceding,  pupil  of  his  father. 
He  entered  a  Dutch  regiment,  and  was  taken 
prisoner  by  the  English  at  Berg-op-Zoom  ; 
after  regaining  his  liberty,  he  went  to  Ham- 
burg in  1795,  and  during  a  stay  of  five  years 
won  reputation  as  flutist  and  composer, 
then  made  a  concert  tour  through  England, 
Holland,  Germany,  Switzerland,  and  Italy ; 
was  first  fiutist  of  the  royal  orchestra  at  The 
Hague,  under  his  brother's  direction,  from 
17G9  until  1772,  when  he  accepted  a  call  to 
Augsburg  as  director  of  music.  In  1779  ho 
was  charged  with  the  composition  of  a  dra- 
matic work  by  the  director  of  the  German 
opera  in  Vienna,  and  while  there  was  in- 
vited to  conduct  the  grand  concerts  of  the 
season  of  1783-84  in  London,  whence  ho  re- 
turned to  Augsburg,  to  resume  his  office  as 
Kapellmeistei-.  The  University  of  Oxford 
sent  him,  in  1789,  the  diploma  of  Mus.  Doc, 
waiving  all  usual  formalities.  Works  :  Die 
Siindfluth,  oratorio  ;  Der  verlorene  Sohn, 
do.  ;  Die  Hirten  an  der  Krippe  zu  Bethle- 
hem, do.  ;  The  29th  Psalm  ;  Invocation  of 
Neptune  and  his  attendant  Nereids  of  Bri- 
tannia, cantata,  London,  1784  ;  Andromeda, 
heroic  cantata  ;  5  concertos  for  flute,  violin, 
violoncello,  and  orchestra  ;  21  concertos  for 
the  flute  ;  2  do.  for  flute  d'amour ;  2  sym- 
phonies concertantes,  for  2  flutes  ;  18  quar- 
tets for  strings  ;  12  do.,  for  flute  and  strings  ; 
2  do.,  for  2  flutes,  viola,  and  bass  ;  Quartet 
for  4  flutes  ;  do.  for  oboe,  violin,  bassoon, 
and  violoncello  ;  Trios  for  2  flutes  and  bass  ; 
G  duos  for  flute  ;  12  soli  for  do. — Fotis  ; 
Mendel  ;  SchiUiug. 


GRAF,  JOHANN,  born  in  Nuremberg 
towards  the  end  of  the  17th  ceuturj',  died  in 
Rudolstadt  about  1745.  Violinist  ;  went  as 
regimental  bandmaster  to  Hungary,  and 
profited  by  several  visits  to  Vienna.  About 
1718  he  was  court  musician  in  Mainz  and 
Bamberg,  and  finally  was  called  to  Rudol- 
stadt as  Couzertmoister.  Works  :  12  Violin 
sonatas  ;  String  quartets.  (Bamberg  and 
Rudolstadt  ).^ — Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

GR.\FE,  JOHANN  FRIEDRICH,  born 
at  Brunswick  in  1711,  died  there,  Fob.  7, 
1787.  Vocal  composer,  amateur,  lived  in 
Halle  and  Leipsic,  and  afterwards  returned 
to  his  native  city  as  chamber  and  post-office 
councillor.  Works  :  Sammlungen  von  Oden 
mit  Melodien  (Halle,  1737)  ;  Odcu  und 
Schilfergedichte  (Leipsic,  1744) ;  Sonnet 
(ib.,  1755)  ;  Fiinfzig  Psalme,  Oden  und 
geistliche  Lieder  (Brunswick,  17G0)  ;  LA- 
mour,  cantata  (Berlin,  17G5)  ;  Seeks  geist- 
liche Oden  und  Lieder  (Leipsic,  1762) ; 
Oden  und  Lieder  (17G7-G8)  ;  and  many 
single  pieces  in  Rich's  Musikalisches  Vieler- 
lei  (Hamburg,  1770). — AUgom.  d.  Biogr.,  ix. 
557  ;  Fotis  ;  Gerber  ;  Meudek 

GRAFF,  CARL,  born  at  Also  For,  Hun- 
gary, ]V[ay  20,  1833,  still  living,  1889.  Vio- 
linist, studied  at  the  Vienna  Conservatori- 
um ;  then  solo  violinist  at  the  Theater  an 
der  Wien,  and  pupil  of  BOhm  in  violin  and  of 
Sechter  in  composition.  Ho  made  a  concert 
trip  in  Austria,  Hungary,  and  Turkey  ; 
after  studying  under  Vieuxtemjjs  in  Paris, 
he  accompanied  his  master  on  a  professional 
tour  ;  appeared  in  London  and  Paris  ;  was 
engaged  by  Spolir  as  first  solo  violinist  in 
Cassel  in  1858 ;  was  afterwards  in  Mar- 
seilles, and  in  1870  in  Mentone.  Works : 
Hercule,  operetta  ;  Overture  to  Don  Carlos  ; 
Conzertstiick  for  violiu  and  orchestra  ;  Fan- 
taisie  dx'amatique,  for  violin  and  pianoforte  ; 
3  string  quartets  ;  Mass  for  2  voices  and  or- 
gan ;  Motets  for  4  voices  and  organ  ;  2  grand 
fugues  for  organ  ;  Tantum  ergo,  for  piano- 
forte ;  Sonata  for  violin  and  pianoforte  ;  2 
Hungarian  dances  fordo.  ;  Several  fantasias 
for  violin  ;  G  morceaux  de  salon,  for  piano- 


las 


GEAFFIGXA 


forte  ;  Romances,  songs,  and  clioruses. — Fu- 
tis.  Supplement,  i.  412  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
132. 

GRAFFIGNA,  ACHILLE,  bom  in  Lom- 
bardy  about  1817,  still  living,  1880.  Dra- 
matic composer,  j'upil  at  the  Conservatorio, 
Milan ;  became  director  of  the  opera  at  Odessa 
in  1845  ;  visited  Paris  in  1SG5,  to  bring  out 
an  oj^era,  and  in  1872  as  impresario  and  or- 
chestra conductor  of  an  opera  troui)e,  which 
failed  ;  maestro  coucertatore  at  the  Teatro 
Goldoni,  in  Florence,  in  1875.  Works  :  Un 
lampo  d'  infedelta,  Lodi,  1838  ;  La  conquista 
di  Grauata,  ballet,  Milan,  Scala,  1839  ;  Ilde- 
gonda  e  Riccardo,  Milan,  1841  ;  Eleonora 
di  San  Bouifazio,  Verona,  1842  :  Mignoni  e 
Fanfau,  Florence,  1844  ;  Gli  ultimi  giorui 
di  Suli,  Ester  d'  Eiigaddi,  Odessa,  1845  ; 
L'  assedio  di  Malta,  Udine,  1854  ;  La  dii- 
chessadiSan  Giuliano,  Paris,  Theatre  Italien, 
18G5  (formerly  in  Italy  under  the  title  Ve- 
ronica Cibo)  ;  Romances. — Fctis  ;  do.,  Sujj- 
ploment,  i.  413. 

GRAGNANI,  FILIPPO,  born  in  Leghorn 
in  17G7.  Distinguished  guitarist  and  com- 
jioser  ;  studied  counterpoint  under  Luchesi, 
intending  to  devote  himself  to  church  com- 
position, but  chance  placing  a  guitar  in  his 
liands,  he  adopted  it  as  his  instrument. 
His  music  for  guitar,  alone  or  with  other 
instruments,  was  published  in  Milan,  Augs- 
burg, Paris. — Fetis,  iv.  79  ;  Mendel,  iv. 
32G. 

GRAMMANN,  CARL,  born  at  Liibeck, 
March  3,  1844,  still 
living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the 
L  e  i  p  s  i  c  Couserva- 
torium  in  1867-71, 
then  lived  in  Vienna, 
where  he  devoted  him- 
self to  composition. 
Works — Operas  :  Der 
Schatzgrilber ;  Die  Eis- 
jungfrau ;  MeJusine,  op. 
24,  Wiesbaden,  1875 
Dresden,  1881  ;  Das  Andreasfest ,  op.  35, 
ib.,  1882.     Two  symphonies  ;    Cantata  for 


Thusnelda,    op.   29' 


chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra  ;  Chamber  music. 
— Riemann  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  133 ;  Fetis, 
Supplement,  i.  413. 

GRANARA,  ANTONIO,  born  in  Genoa, 
Italy,  in  1809.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil 
of  Generali  at  Novara.  Works — Operas  : 
Elisa  de'  Montaltieri,  given  in  Genoa,  1832  ; 
Giovanni  di  Napoli  ;  Un'  avventura  teatrale, 
oi^era  biifta,  Venice,  1836.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRAN  CID,  IL.     See  Cid. 

GRANCINI,  anCHELE  ANGELO,  Ital- 
ian composer  of  the  17th  century.  Organ- 
ist of  the  Church  del  Paradiso  and  subse- 
quently organist  and  maestro  di  cajipella  of 
the  catliedral,  Milan.  When  a  decree  of 
Carlo  Borromeo,  in  156G,  excluded  all  mar- 
ried men  from  these  oiBces,  he  obtained  a 
dispensation  in  recognition  of  his  talent  as 
a  composer.  His  masses,  psalms,  and  mo- 
tets, i^ublished  during  his  life,  are  in  23 
volumes. — Fetis,  iv.  81  ;  do.  Supplement,  i. 
413  ;  Mendel. 

GRANDE-DUCHESSE  DE  Gl^ROL- 
STEIN,  LA,  opera-boulib  in  three  acts  and 
four  tableaux,  text  by  Henri  Meilhac  and 
Ludovic  Halevy,  music  by  Otfenbach,  first 
represented  at  the  Varietes,  Paris,  Ajiril  12, 
1867.  This  grotesque  parody,  produced  at 
the  time  of  the  Exposition  universelle,  had 
an  immense  success  and  obtained  a  Euro- 
pean celebrity.  The  Grande-Duchesse,  re- 
viewing her  army,  under  the  command  of 
General  Boum,  notices  Fritz,  a  soldier  of  fine 
presence,  and  makes  him  her  favouiite.  He 
becomes  almost  at  once  sergeant,  count,  and 
general  in  chief,  and  succeeds  Boum.  A 
conspiracy  is  organized  again.st  him,  but  he 
destroys  his  own  good  fortune  by  preferring 
to  marry  the  little  peasant  Wanda  rather 
than  accept  the  favours  of  the  Grande- 
Duchesse,  and  after  a  funny  series  of  ad- 
ventures is  succeeded  by  Baron  Grog,  who 
in  turn  gives  up  the  command  again  to 
General  Boum.  The  role  of  the  Grande- 
Duchesse  was  filled  by  Mile  Schneider  ; 
the  other  parts  were  sung  by  Dupuis,  Cou- 
derc,  Grenier,  Kopp,  Baron,  Gardel,  and 
Miles   Garait,    Legrand,    Morosini,   Verou, 


183 


GRANDE 


and  Maucourt.  An  Italian  opera  buffa,  en- 
titled II  grauduca  di  Gerolstein,  by  Eurico 
Bernardi,  was  given  in  Milan,  1871. — Cle- 
ment and  Larousse. 

GRANDE  SYAIPHONIE  FUN^BRE. 
See  Symphonie  fuuebre  et  triompbale. 

GRANDFOND,  EUGENE,  born  at  Com- 
pii'gne,  France,  in  February,  1786.  Com- 
poser, pupil  at  the  Conservatoire,  under 
Kreutzer  for  violin,  Berton  for  harmony; 
became  second  chef  d'orchestre  at  the  Ver- 
sailles Theatre  in  1809.  He  -nTote  an  opera, 
Monsieur  Desbosquets,  given  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  1810  ;  concertos  for  violin,  and 
several  romances,  with  pianoforte. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

GRANDI,  ALESSANDRO  DE'.  born  in 
Venice,  16th  century,  died  at  Bergamo  in 
1630.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Giovanni 
Gabrieli.  He  was  maestro  di  cappella,  in 
1597,  at  the  Accademia  della  Morte,  Fer- 
rara,  subsequently  at  San  Marco,  Venice, 
1617,  and  in  1618  maestro  cantatore  of  the 
Ducal  Seminary.  Vice  maestro  di  cappella 
of  San  Marco  in  1620,  he  resigned  this  posi- 
tion to  become  maestro  di  cappella  of  S.  M. 
Maggiore  at  Bergamo  in  1627.  Works: 
Madrigali  concertati  (Venice,  1G19,  'M  ed.)  ; 
Salmi  pur  i  Vespri,  etc.,  Te  Deum  e  Tan  turn 
ergo,  op.  2  (Bologna,  1607)  ;  6  books  of  mo- 
tets for  2-8  voices  (1619-40)  ;  Messe  con- 
certate  a  otto  voci  ;  3  books  of  motets  (Ven- 
ice, 1621) ;  Messa  e  Salmi  (Venice,  1623)  ; 
Celesti  tiori ;  Salmi  brevi  (1623)  ;  Messa  e 
salmi  concertati  (ib.,  1630)  ;  Motetti  con- 
certati (ib.,  1632).— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Rie- 
mann. 

GRANDIS,  VINCENZO  DE,  born  at 
Monte  Albotto,  Pontifical  States,  died  (?). 
Church  composer,  maestro  di  cappella  to  the 
Duke  of  Modena  in  1682-83,  where  he  pro- 
duced the  following  oratorios  :  II  nasci- 
mento  di  Mosi-,  1682  ;  La  caduta  di  Adamo  ; 
II  matrimonio  di  Mose. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supple- 
ment, i.  413  ;  Schilling. 

GRANDTANTE,  LA,  opera-comique, 
text  by  Adenis  and  Grandvalet,  music  by 
Jules  Massenet,   represented  at  the  Opera 


Comique,  Paris,  April  3,  1867.  This,  the 
composer's  iirst  dramatic  work,  showed  him 
to  be  the  skilled  and  graceful  musician 
which  he  has  since  proved  himself. 

GR.iNDVAL,  M.AltlE  FELICIE  CLE- 
MENCE  DE  REISET,  Vicomtesse  DE,  born 
at  the  Chateau  de  la  Cour-du-Bois  (Sarthe), 
France,  Jan.  21,  1830,  still  hviug,  1889. 
Dramatic  composer,  studied  composition 
under  Flotow  and  Saint  Saens.  Her  operas 
have  been  given  in  Paris  under  difi'ereut 
pseudonyms :  Caroline  Blangay,  Clemence 
Valgrand,  etc.  Some  of  her  church  music, 
notably  a  Stabat  Mater  for  soli,  chorus,  and 
orchestra,  was  i)layed  at  the  Conservatoire 
concerts.  Her  chansons  have  also  been  very 
popular  in  France.  Works — Operas  :  Le 
sou  de  Lise,  operetta,  Paris,  Bouffes  Pari- 
siens,  1859  ;  Les  fiances  de  Rosa,  ib..  Thea- 
tre LjTique,  1863  ;  La  comtesse  £va,  Baden, 
1864  ;  La  penitente,  Paris,  Opera  Comique, 
1868  ;  PiccoHno,  ib..  Theatre  Italien,  1869  ; 
La  foret,  lyric  scene  for  soli,  chorus,  and  or- 
chestra, ib.,  Salle  Ventadour,  1875  ;  Sainte- 
Agnes,  oratorio,  ib.,  Odeon,  1876  ;  2  masses ; 
Stabat  Mater ;  Pater  noster,  for  soprano, 
with  organ  ;  Esquisses  symphoniques,  for 
orchestra  ;  Suite  for  flute  and  pianoforte  ; 
Trio,  op.  7  ;  Sonata  for  violin  and  piano- 
forte, op.  8  ;  Concertino  for  violin  ;  Noc- 
turnes for  pianoforte  ;  Arias,  chansons,  and 
duets. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  414. 

GRANDVAL,  NICOLAS  RAGOT  DE, 
born  in  Paris  in  1676,  died  there,  Nov.  16, 
1753.  He  wrote  music  for  all  the  popular 
comedies  played  in  Paris  at  the  Comedie 
Franyaise  from  1694  to  1751  ;  became  or- 
ganist of  a  church.  His  cantatas  were  pub- 
lished in  1729. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  i. 
414. 

GRANET  (Grenet),  ,  born  in  Lyons, 

France,  in  1707,  died  in  Paris  in  1761.  Lit- 
tle is  known  of  him,  and  his  name  has  been 
preserved  only  because  certain  detractors  of 
Jean  Jacques  Rousseau  have  accused  him  of 
stealing  from  Granet  the  music  of  his  Devin 
du  Village.  Granet  was  a  director  of  con- 
certs in  Lyons.     Works  :  Le  triomphe  de 


184 


GRANIER 


I'harmonie,  opera-ballet,  test  by  Lefrauc 
de  Pompignau,  represented  at  the  Aca- 
dt-mie  Royale  de  Musique,  May  9,  1737  ; 
ApoUon,  berger  d'Admete,  ojiera  iu  one 
act,  Opera,  Paris,  1759. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
i.  420. 

GRANIER,  LOUIS,  born  at  Toulouse  in 
1740,  died  there  in  1800.  Violinist  and 
dramatic  composer  ;  studied  music  in  his 
native  city,  whence  he  went  to  Bordeaux, 
and,  although  a  mere  j'outh,  was  made  mai- 
tre  de  musique  at  the  Opera  ;  a  few  years 
later  he  entered  the  service  of  Prince  Charles 
of  Lorraine  as  first  violin,  was  in  Brussels, 
and  in  1766  went  to  Paris,  where  he  was 
2d  violin  at  the  Opera  for  twenty  years,  re- 
tiring to  his  native  town  in  1787.  He  was 
made  inspector  of  the  Opera  in  1780. 
Works :  Choruses  to  Racine's  Athalie  ;  The- 
onis,  ou  le  toucher,  opera  (with  Berton  and 
Trial),  given  in  Paris,  Academic  Roj'ale  de 
Musique,  1767  ;  Bellerophon,  do.  (with  Ber- 
ton), ib.,  1773  ;  Music  to  several  divertisse- 
ments, and  ballets  ;  Sonatas  and  other 
pieces  for  violin. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

GRANZIN,  LOUIS,  born  at  Halle,  Prus- 
sian Saxony,  about  1810,  still  living,  1889  (?). 
Organist,  pujiil  of  Naue  and  Niemeyer.  He 
was  cantor  and  professor  of  music  at  Mari- 
enwerder,  and  iu  1840  went  as  organist  to 
Dantzic.  His  oratorio  of  Tobias  was  played 
there  in  1845.  Other  works  :  Te  Deum  ; 
Crucifixus,  for  6  voices  and  organ  ;  Domine 
salvum  fac  regem ;  Organ  music,  and  songs. 
—Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRASSET,  JEAN  JACQUES,  born  in 
Paris  about  1769,  died  there,  Aug.  25, 
1839.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Berthaume  ;  served 
in  the  campaigns  in  Germany  and  Italy,  but 
gave  all  his  spare  time  to  the  study  of  mu- 
sic. On  his  return  to  Paris  he  gave  con- 
certs, and  in  1800  was  appointed  professor 
of  the  violin  at  the  Conservatoire.  In  1801- 
29  he  was  chef  d'orchestre  at  the  Italian 
Opera.  Works  :  3  concertos  for  violin,  op. 
1,  2,  4  ;  Duos  pour  deux  violons,  liv.  1,  2,  3, 
4,  5,  op.  9  ;  Sonate  pour  piano  et  violin,  op. 


3. — Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Vio- 
line,  258. 

GRASSI,  FRANCESCO,  church  com- 
poser, maestro  di  cappella  of  San  Giacomo 
degli  Spagnuoli,  Rome,  about  the  end  of 
the  17th  century.  His  oratorio,  II  trionfo 
de'  Giusti,  was  given  at  the  Church  della 
Pieta  iu  1701.  He  left  music  in  MS. :  Masses 
for  4  voices  ;  Couiitebor,  Dixit,  and  Mis- 
erere, for  8  voices,  and  several  other  pieces 
of  church  music. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRASSI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  at  Palmi, 
Calabria,  Feb.  26,  1825,  still  hving,  1889. 
Pianist  and  dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Rosa  Savoia,  of  Carmelo  Jonita,  and  at 
Naples  of  a  German  master,  and  in  har- 
mony and  composition  of  Gaetano  Rotondo. 
Works — Operas  :  La  vergine  del  Castello, 
given  at  Naples,  Teatro  Nuovo,  1845  ;  Don 
Procopio  a  Carditiello,  ossia  n'  asciuta  a  Iu 
Fusaro,  ib.,  1849 ;  I  tre  matrimonii,  ib., 
1852  ;  Melodramma  in  onore  di  S.  Rocco, 
cantata,  Palmi,  1840  ;  Cantata  in  onore  della 
Madoiuia  della  Montagna,  Radicena,  1850  ; 
La  guida  e  il  solitario,  cantata,  Semiuaria, 
1857.  His  son  Pietro  is  a  distinguished 
pianist. — Feti.s,  Supplement,  i.  416. 

GRASSONI,  GIOVANNI,  born  at  An- 
cona  about  1819,  died  there,  July  13,  1882. 
Composer,  was  professor  of  singing  in  the 
normal  school  of  Ancona ;  brought  out  a 
successful  opera,  Matilda  di  Valdelmo,  at 
Ancona,  about  1850.  Has  been  maestro  di 
canto  in  many  Italian  theatres  ;  in  1875  at 
Mantua. — Fetis  ;  Supplement,  i.  417. 

GRATZ,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Vohburg,  Ba- 
varia, Dec.  2,  17G0,  died  iu  Munich,  July 
17,  1826.  Dramatic  and  church  composer, 
pupil  of  Michael  Haydn  at  Salzburg,  and 
of  Bertoni  in  Venice,  whence  he  visited 
the  principal  cities  of  North  Italy,  and  re- 
turned to  Bavaria  in  1788,  settling  in  Mu- 
nich. He  was  esteemed  as  a  theoretician, 
his  instruction  being  sought  by  such  men 
as  Cannabich,  Ett,  Lindpaintner,  and  others, 
when  they  were  already  ripened  artists  ; 
but  as  a  composer  he  was  exceedingly  dry, 
to  which  his  operas  Das  Gespenst  mit  der 


1S5 


GEAUN 


Trommel,  and  Adelheid  von  Veltlieini,  de- 
cidedly rejected  at  their  first  performance, 
his  oratorio,  Der  Tod  Jesu,  and  his  masses, 
bear  witness,  while  among  his  chorals,  jjrel- 
udes  and  other  church  music  are  works 
of  acknowledged  merit. — Fetis  ;  Meudel ; 
Schilling. 

GRAUN,  JOHANN  GOTTLIEB,  born  at 
Wahreubruck,  Merseburg,  about  1698,  died 
in  Berlin,  Oct.  27,  1771.  Violinist,  pupil 
at  the  Kreuzschule,  Dresden,  with  his 
brother,  Karl  Heiurich  Graun,  of  Grundig, 
in  singing  and  of  Petzold  on  the  organ  and 
pianoforte  ;  studied  the  violin  under  Piseu- 
del,  and  in  Padua  under  Tartiui.  In  1720 
he  was  in  the  service  of  the  court  at  Merse- 
burg, in  1727  of  the  Prince  of  Waldeck, 
and  in  1728  was  Conzertmeister  to  the 
Crown  Prince  of  Prussia  (Frederick  the 
Great)  at  llheiusberg,  and  in  17-40  occupied 
the  same  position  in  the  I'oyal  chapel. 
Works  :  40  symphonies  ;  20  violin  con- 
certos ;  24  string  quartets  ;  String  trios,  etc. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  GOG  ;  "Wasielewski, 
Die  Violine,  165  ;  Dubourg,  The  VioHn, 
228  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

GRVrX,  K.mL  HEINRICH,  born  at 
AVahrenbriick,  Prus- 
sian Saxony,  May  7, 
1701,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, Aug.  8,  1759. 
Church  and  dra- 
matic c  o  ni  po  s  e  r . 
Gifted  as  a  boy  with 
a  remarkable  so- 
prano voice,  he  was 
instructed  in  singing 
by  Cantor  Grundig, 
and  on  tlie  organ  and  pianoforte  by  Chris- 
tian Petzold,  at  the  Kreuzschule  in  Dres- 
den, where  he  obtained  a  position  in  the 
city  choir.  While  his  voice  was  changing 
into  a  tenor  he  studied  composition  under 
Johann  Christoph  Schmidt,  and  formed  his 
taste  by  frequent  attendance  at  the  opera, 
then  under  the  direction  of  Lotti.  In  1725 
he  was  engaged  for  the  opera  at  Brunswick, 
where  within  one  year  he  won  success  as  a 


_.*-^v-^ 


dramatic  composer,  was  appointed  Vice-Ka- 
pellmeister, and  comjjosed  in  rajoid  succes- 
sion five  operas,  which  sjjread  his  reputa- 
tion throughout  Germany.  On  a  visit  to 
Brunswick,  the  Crown  Prince  of  Prussia, 
afterwards  Frederick  II. ,  persuaded  the  duke 
to  release  Graun,  whose  services  he  wished 
to  secure  for  his  chapel  at  Rheinsberg, 
whither  he  went  in  1735,  and  devoted  him- 
self for  some  time  to  the  composition  of 
cantatas,  for  which  the  Crown  Prince  wrote 
the  text  in  French  verse.  On  the  accession 
I  of  Frederick  11.  he  was  sent  to  Italy  to  en- 
gage singers  for  the  king's  favourite  project 
of  establishing  Italian  opera  in  Berlin. 
Having  acquitted  himself  of  this  task,  and 
also  having  earned  great  applause  as  a 
singer  in  the  principal  cities  of  Italy,  he 
was  ajipointed  Kapellmeister,  and  during 
his  long  service  composed  28  operas,  which, 
with  those  of  Hasse,  were  peiformed  almost 
exclusively  at  that  time  in  Berlin.  Inti- 
mately as  his  life  is  connected  with  the  his- 
tory of  the  opera,  his  importance  increases 
in  his  church  compositions,  among  which 
the  Passion  oratorio,  Der  Tod  Jesu,  has  kept 
his  fame  alive  to  this  day,  and  although 
somewhat  overrated,  in  sjjite  of  its  high 
merit,  will  probably  continue  so  to  do  for  fu- 
ture generations.  His  harmony  was  singu- 
larly pure,  and  in  all  his  works  prevailed  the 
most  perfect  system  of  modulation  ;  in  melo- 
dious effects  he  has  few  equals,  and  while 
his  vocal  compositions  lack  fire  they  never 
fail  in  pleasing  and  tender  exi^ression, 
stamijing  especially  his  adagios  as  master- 
pieces, which  perfectly  correspond  to  his 
aflable  and  loving  character.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Pollido)X>,  given  at  Brunswick,  1726 ; 
Sancio  e  Sinilda,  ib.,  1727  ;  Ifigenia  in 
Aulide  (in  German),  ib.,  1729  ;  Scipio  Afri- 
canns  (do.),  ib.,  1730  ;  Timareta,  ib.,  1733  ; 
Faraone  (with  German  recitatives  and  Ital- 
ian arias),  ib.  ;  Lo  specchio  della  fedelta, 
Potsdam,  1733  ;  Roddinda,  Berlin,  1741  ; 
Cleopatra,  ib.,  1742;  Artaserse,  ib.,  1743; 
'  Catone  in  Utica,  ib.,  1744;  Alessandro  uell' 
I  Indie,  Lucio  Papirio,  ib.,  1745  ;  Adriano  in 


186 


GRAUPKER 


Siria,  Dcmofoonte,  ib.,  174G ;  Cajo  Ffibrizio, 
ib.,  174:7 ;  Le  feste  galante,  Galatea,  pastor- 
al (with  Frederick  II.,  Quautz,  and  Niscbel- 
mann),  Cinna,  ib.,  17-48  ;  Eiiropa  galaute, 
ib.,  1749  ;  Angelica  e  Medoro,  Coriolano, 
ib.,  1750;  Medonte,  Mitridate,  ib.,  1751; 
Armida,  Britannico,  ib.,  1752  ;  Orfeo,  II 
giudizio  di  Paride,  Silla  (text  by  Fi-ederic 
II.),  ib.,  1753  ;  Semiramide,  ib.,  1754  ; 
Montezuma,  Ezio,  il).,  1755  ;  I  fratelli  ne- 
mici,  Merope,  ib.,  175G.  Der  Tod  .Jesu,  ora- 
torio, first  2>erforined  in  Berlin  Cathedral, 
March  2G,  1755  ;  Lavinia  e  Turno,  cantata  ; 
Te  Deuni,  with  chorus  and  orchestra,  on 
the  victory  near  Prague,  175G  ;  About  25 
church  cantatas,  with  orchestra  ;  2  passion 
cantatas  ;  Mass  ;  About  20  Latin  motets, 
for  4  voices  a  capjjella  ;  church  melodies 
for  every  day  in  the  year  (two  years)  ;  Col- 
lection of  odes ;  3  collections  of  concertos 
for  the  flute,  with  other  instruments  ;  12 
concertos  for  harpsichord,  with  string  in- 
struments ;  etc. — AUgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  G07  ; 
Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  i.  seq.  ;  Hiller,  Lebens- 
bcschreibungen  berilhmter  Musikgelehrten, 
etc.  (Leipsic,  1784). 

GRAUPNER,  CHRISTOPH,  born  at 
Kirchberg,  Saxony,  January',  1G83,  died  at 
Darmstadt,  May  10,  17G0.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, pupil  at  the  Thomasschule  in  Leipsic 
of  Kulinau  ;  then  studied  law,  but  was 
driven  by  the  Swedish  invasion  of  1706  to 
Hamburg,  where  he  acted  as  accompanist 
to  the  opera  under  Reiser.  He  was  ap- 
pointed Vice-Kapellmeister  at  Darmstadt  in 
1710,  Kapellmeister  in  1711,  and  did  much 
to  elevate  musical  taste.  During  the  last 
ten  years  of  his  life  he  was  blind.  He  was 
wonderfully  industrious  in  composition, 
working  sometimes  days  and  nights,  and 
he  engraved  some  of  his  own  pieces.  He 
devoted  himself  later  almost  exclusively  to 
church  music.  Works  —  Operas  :  Dido, 
Hamburg,  1707  ;  Die  lustige  Hochzeit 
(with  Keiser),  ib.,  1708  ;  Herkules  und 
Theseus,  Aniiochiis  und  Stratonice,  Bellero- 
phon,  ib.,  1708  ;  Simson,  ib.,  1709  ;  Bere- 
nice und  Lucio,    Darmstadt,    1710;   Tele- 


mach,  ib.,  1711;  Bestiindigkeit  besiegt  Be- 
trug,  ib.,  1719.  Eight  Parthien  fiirKlavier 
(1718)  ;  Monatliche  Klavierfriichte  (1722)  ; 
8  Parthien  fiir  das  Klavier  (172G)  ;  Die  vier 
Jahreszeiten  (1733)  ;  Hessen-Darmstadti- 
sches  Choralbuch.  In  manuscript:  About 
1,300  figured  chorals  and  pieces  for  the 
Schlosskirchc  in  Darmstadt  ;  194  Tafelmu- 
siken,  144  symphonies,  and  80  overtures  for 
pianoforte  and  other  instruments  ;  50  con- 
certos for  various  instruments  ;  trios  and 
sonatas  for  pianoforte,  strings,  and  wind  in- 
struments. His  manuscripts  are  in  the  court 
musical  library  of  Darmstadt.— Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  ix.  GOO  ;  Mendel;  Mattheson,  Ehren- 
pforte,  410,  autobiographical ;  Fetis  ;  "Win- 
terfeld,  Der  evang.  Kirchengesang,  iii.  502. 

GRAVRAND  (Graveraud),  JACQUES 
FRANCOIS  URBAIN,  born  at  Caen,  France, 
April  2,  1770,  died  there,  July  IG,  1854. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  Queru,  then  in  Paris  of 
Baillot  ;  after  having  been  violinist  in  the 
theatre  orchestra  at  Caen  for  several  years, 
he  became  chef  d'orehestre.  Works  :  7  col- 
lections of  duos  for  violin,  op.  1-5,  7,  8  ;  3 
trios  for  2  violins  and  violoncello,  op.  G. 
—Fetis. 

GR.\ZIANI  (Gratiani),  BONIFACIO, 
born  at  Marino,  near  Rome,  in  1C05,  died 
there,  June  15,  1CG4.  Church  composer, 
maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Jesuit  church  in 
Rome.  He  left  a  quantity  of  church  music, 
published  after  his  death  by  his  brother, 
consisting  of  motets  for  one,  two,  and  six 
voices  ;  Salmi  for  five  voices,  etc. ;  Masses  ; 
Litanies  ;  etc.,  in  all  twenty-four  works,  from 
1G52  to  1G78.— Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel. 

GRAZIANI,  Padre  TOMMASO,  born  at 
Bagnacavallo,  near  Ravenna,  Italy ;  lived  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  16th  and  beginning 
of  the  17th  centurj'.  He  was  a  Franciscan 
monk,  and  became  maestro  di  cappella  of 
the  convent  of  his  order  in  Milan.  Works  : 
Five-part  masses  (1569)  ;  Four-part  vesper 
psalms  (1587)  ;  Five-part  madrigals  (1588) ; 
Eight-part  do.  (1601)  ;  Sinfouie  pertinaci, 
litanie  a  4,  5,  6  e  8  voci  (1617)  ;  Responses 
(1627).— Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Fetis. 


GEAZIOLI 


GRAZIOLI,     GIOVANNI     BATTISTA, 

born  ill  Venice  about  1755,  died  there  iu 
1820.  Organist,  pupil  of  Bertoni,  whom  he 
assisted  in  1778.  He  succeeded  Domenico 
Bettoui  at  San  Marco  iu  1 782.  His  sonatas 
for  harpsichord  and  violiu,  etc.,  were  pub- 
lished in  German}'. — Ft'tis  ;  Mendel. 

GRAZZINI,  REGIN.ALDO,  born  at  Flor- 
ence, Italy,  Oct.  15,  1848,  still  living,  1889. 
Instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of 
Teodulo  Mabellini  nt  the  Conservatorio, 
Florence  ;  became  director  of  the  Conserva- 
torio, and  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  theatre 
at  Reggio  d'  Emilio  in  1881,  and  professor 
and  artistic  director  of  the  Liceo  Benedetto 
Marcello,  at  Venice,  in  1882.  Works  :  Can- 
tata biblica,  1875  ;  Mass  for  3  voices,  1882  ; 
Symphonies ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  Opera 
(MS.). — Riemann. 

GREAT  DAGON  HAS  SUBDUED  OUR 
FOE,  tenor  air  and  chorus  in  G  major,  in 
Handel's  Sainsoi),  Part  IH. 

GREATHEED,  SAMUEL  STEPHEN- 
SON, boi'n  near  Weston-super-Mare,  Eng- 
land, Feb.  22,  1813,  still  living,  1889. 
Church  coraijosei",  rector  of  Corringham, 
Sussex.  B.A.  Cambridge,  1835 ;  M.A. 
1838.  Works  :  Enoch's  Pro^jhecy,  oratorio, 
1852  ;  Communion  services  ;  Anthems,  etc. 

GREATOREX,  THOMAS,  born  at  North 
Wingfield,  Derbyshire,  England,  Oct.  5, 
1758,  died  in  London,  July  18,  1831.  Or- 
ganist, pupil  of  Dr.  Benjamin  Cooke  in 
1772.  He  found  a  patron  in  the  Earl  of 
Sandwich  in  1774,  and  assisted  at  the  ora- 
torios given  by  Joah  Bates  at  Hinchinbrook 
House  in  1774,  1775,  177G.  In  1780-84  he 
was  organist  of  Carlisle  Cathedral,  and  iu 
178G-88  visited  Italy  and  the  Netherlands. 
He  established  himself  as  a  teacher  in  Lon^ 
don  in  1789,  and  succeeded  Bates  on  his  re- 
tirement, in  1793,  as  conductor  of  the  Con- 
cert of  Ancient  Music.  In  1801  he  joined 
Knyvett,  HaiTison,  and  Bartleman  in  reviv- 
ing the  Vocal  Concerts,  in  1819  succeeded 
George  Ebenezer  Williams  as  organist  of 
Westminster  Abbey,  and  was  conductor ' 
many  years  of  the  triennial  musical  festivals  I 


at  Birmingham,  as  well  as  those  at  York, 
Derby,  and  elsewhere.  Greatorex  was  the 
foremost  organist  of  his  time,  and  of  consid- 
erable scientific  attainments.  He  published 
a  collection  of  psalm  tunes  harmonized  for 
four  voices,  and  a  few  harmonized  airs ;  and 
composed  orchestral  accompaniments  for 
many  pieces  for  the  Ancient  and  Vocal  Con- 
certs which  are  still  in  MS.  His  son, 
Henry  Wellington  Greatorex  (born  at  Bur- 
ton-on-Trent,  1811,  died  in  Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  Sept.  10,  1858),  wont  to 
New  York  in  1839  and  was  organist  of  Cal- 
vary Church,  of  St.  Paul's  Chapel,  and  later 
of  a  church  in  Hartford,  Connecticut.  He 
published  some  church  music  and  compiled 
The  Greatorex  Collection  (Hartford,  1851). 
He  was  the  husband  of  Eliza  Greatorex,  the 
artist. — Grove  ;  Brown  ;  Harmonicon,  1831, 
231. 

GREAVES,  THOMAS,  English  lutist  and 
composer,  beginning  of  the  17th  century. 
He  published,  in  1G04  :  "  Songs  of  Sundrie 
Kindes  ;  first.  Aires  to  be  sung  to  the  Lute 
or  Base  Violl.  Next,  Songs  of  Sadnesse  for 
the  Viols  and  Voyces.  Lastly,  Madrigalles 
for  five  Voyces."  It  consists  of  21  pieces,  15 
songs,  and  6  madrigals.  Nothing  is  known 
of  his  history. — Grove. 

GREBER,  JACOB,  lived  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  17th  and  first  part  of  the  18th 
century.  He  went  to  Loudon  about  1703, 
and  aided  in  the  introduction  of  Italian 
opera.  Madame  Pe^nisch  was  one  of  his 
pupils.  Works— Operas:  The  Loves  of  Er- 
gasto,  melodrama,  given  at  the  Haymarket 
Theatre,  London,  1705  ;  The  Temple  of 
Love,  ib.,  170G. — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney, 
Hist,  of  Music,  iv.  200  ;  Hawkins,  Hist,  of 
Music,  v.  154. 

GREENE,  MAURICE,  born  in  London 
about  1G9G,  died  there,  Sept.  1,  1755.  Or- 
ganist, chorister  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 
under  Charles  King,  afterwards  articled  to 
Richard  Brind,  organist  of  the  cathedral. 
He  soon  distinguished  himself,  and  suc- 
ceeded Daniel  Pureell  as  organist  of  St. 
Andrew's,  Holborn,  in  1717,  being  at  the 


188 


GREEN  SLEEVES 


same  time  organist  of  St.  Duustan's  iu 
the  West,  Fleet  Street  ;  ou  the  death  of 
Brind,  iu  1718,  he  became  organist  of  St. 
Paul's,  and  iu  1727  organist  aud  composer 
to  the  Chapel  Royal.  He  was  intimate  with 
Handel  aud  Bononcini.  When  the  latter 
was  expelled  from  the  Academy,  Greene, 
believing  or  affecting  to  believe  that  his 
friend  had  beeu  unjustly  treated,  also  with- 
drew from  it,  and,  in  conjunction  with  Fest- 
ing  the  violinist,  established  a  rival  concert 
at  the  Apollo  Rooms.  In  1730  he  was 
elected  professor  of  music  in  the  University 
of  Cambridge  to  succeed  Dr.  Tudway,  and 
received  the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  He  suc- 
ceeded John  Eccles  as  master  of  the  king's 
band  in  1735,  aud  wrote  many  odes  for  the 
king's  birthdays  and  New  Year's  Day.  His 
reputation  rests  mainly  on  his  Forty  Select 
Anthems  (17-13),  a  work  which  places  him 
among  the  best  of  the  Euglish  church  com- 
posers. In  1750  he  began  the  formation 
of  a  collection  of  the  best  English  cathedral 
music  in  score,  which,  left  unfinished  at 
his  death,  was  completed  by  Dr.  Boyce  un- 
der the  title  of  "  Cathedral  Music."  He 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Society  of 
Musicians.  Works  :  Music  to  Pope's  Ode 
on  St.  Cecilia's  Day  (1730) ;  Odes  for  King's 
Birthday  and  New  Year's  Day  (1730) ;  Par- 
aphrase ou  part  of  the  Soug  of  Deborah  and 
Barak  (1732);  Jephthah,  oratorio  (1737); 
Florimel,  or  Love's  Revenge,  dramatic  pas- 
toral (1737) ;  Addison's  ode.  The  Spacious 
Firmament  (1837)  ;  The  Judgment  of  Her- 
cules, masque  (1710)  ;  The  Force  of  Truth, 
oratorio  (17-lJ:)  ;  Phoebe,  pastoral  ofiera 
(1748) ;  Spencer's  Amoretti,  for  voice,  harp- 
sichord, aud  violin  ;  The  Chaplet,  collection 
of  twelve  Euglish  songs  ;  Catches  and  can- 
ons for  three  and  four  voices  ;  2  books, 
each  containing  a  cantata  and  four  English 
songs  ;  Church  service  in  C  (1737)  ;  Forty 
select  anthems  in  score  for  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7, 
and  8  voices  (2  vols.,  Loudon,  1743) ;  Te 
Deum  in  D  (1745) ;  Anthems,  many  in  MS.; 
Organ  voluntaries  ;  Harpsichord  lessons, 
etc. — Grove  ;    Fetis  ;   Burney,   History,   iv. 


G67 ;  Barrett,  English  Church  Composers, 
117. 

GREENSLEEVES,  English  ballad  and 
tune  of  the  IGth  century,  probably  as  old  as 
the  reigu  of  Henry  VIH.  The  tune  is  still  to 
be  heard  in  London  streets  with  the  old  bur- 
den, "  Which  nobody  can  deny."  It  is  the  air 
also  of  ■■  Christmas  comes  but  once  a  year," 
aud  many  other  songs.  In  the  civil  wars  it 
was  one  of  the  party  tuues  of  the  Cavaliers, 
who  had  many  songs  to  it,  esjjecially  "The 
Blacksmith,"  aud  "The  Brewer,"  or  "Old 
Noll,  the  Brewer  of  Huntingdon,"  referring 
to  Cromwell.  Shakespeare  mentions  it  in 
the  "Merry  Wives  of  Windsor"  (ii..  Scene 
1  ;  v..  Scene  7),  Beaumont  and  Fletcher  iu 
"  The  Loyal  Subject,"  aud  it  was  introduced 
in  "  The  Beggars'  OiJera." — Chappell,  Music 
of  Olden  Time,  227. 

GREGOIR,  fiDOUARD  GEORGES 
JACyUES,  born  at  Turnhout,  Belgium, 
Nov.  27,  1822,  still  living,  1889.  Pianist, 
brother  of  Jacques  Mathieu  Joseph  Gregoir, 
pupil  in  Bieberich  of  Rummel  on  the  piano- 
forte. He  gave  concerts  iu  London  in  1841 
with  the  violinists  Teresa  aud  Maria  Mila- 
nollo  ;  went  to  Amsterdam  in  1847,  to  Paris 
in  1849,  aud  in  the  same  year  became  profes- 
sor at  Lierre,  and  later  at  Antwerp,  where  he 
undertook  the  task  of  reforming  the  meth- 
ods for  teaching  music  iu  the  government 
schools  and  institutions  of  Belgium.  Works : 
Les  Croisades,  symphouie  historique,  Ant- 
werp, 1846  ;  La  vie,  drame  lyrique,  Ant- 
werp, 1848  ;  Le  Deluge,  oratorio  sympho- 
uique,  Antwerp,  1849 ;  Marguerite  d'Au- 
triche,  grand  opera,  Antwerp,  1850 ;  De 
Belgen  in  1848,  drame  national  avec  ouver- 
ture,  airs,  duos,  chceurs,  Brussels,  1851  ; 
La  derniere  nuit  du  comte  d'Egmont, 
Brussels,  1851  ;  Leicester,  drame  mele  de 
musique,  Brussels,  1854  ;  Willem  Beukels, 
opera-comique  flamand,  Brussels,  185G  ; 
Willem  de  Zwyger,  opura-comique,  185G  ; 
La  belle  Bourbonuaise,  opera-comique, 
about  1860.  He  has  published  also  a  Me- 
thode  theorique  d'orgue  aud  two  Jlethodes 
de  Musiques,  besides  more  than  a  hundred 


189 


GREGOm 


choruses  for  male  voices  ;  organ  and  piano- 
forte music  ;  collections  of  songs  ;  a  collec- 
tion of  pieces  for  the  harmonium  ;  violin 
music,  and  several  verj'  popular  songs.  He 
is  also  a  contributor  to  musical  periodicals 
and  the  author  of  historical  works,  among 
which  are  :  Essai  historique  sur  la  musique 
et  les  musiciens  dans  les  Pays-Bas  (Brussels, 
18G1) ;  Galerie  biographique  des  artistes- 
musicieus  beiges  du  xviii.  et  du  xix.  siecle 
(18G2,  new  ed.,  1885) ;  Notice  sur  I'origine 
du  celebi'e  compositeur  Louis  van  Beetho- 
ven (18G3)  ;  Les  artistes-musicieus  ueerlan- 
dais  (1864);  Histoire  de  I'orgue  (1865); 
Notice  biographique  d'Adrian  Willaert ; 
Documents  historiques  relatifs  u  I'art  mu- 
sical et  aux  artistcs-musiciens  (4  vols.,  1872- 
76) ;  Phantln'on  musical  populaire  (6  vols., 
1876-77)  ;  Bibliotheque  musicale  populaire 
(3  vols.,  1877-79) ;  Notice  biographique  sur 
F.  J.  Gosse  dit  Gossec  (1878) ;  L'art  musical 
en  Belgique  sous  les  ri'gnes  de  Leopold 
L  et  Leopold  U.  (1879)  ;  Des  gloires  de 
rOpe-ra  et  la  musique  a  Paris  (3  vols.,  1880- 
8-). — Fi'tis,  Sujjplument,  i.  418  ;  Riemann  ; 
Larousse. 

GREGOIR,  JACQUES  MATHIEU  JO- 
SEPH, born  in  Antwerp,  Jan.  18,  1817, 
died  in  Brussels,  Oct.  29,  1876.  Pianist, 
showed  a  precocious  taste  for  music,  and 
played  a  difficult  concerto  by  Dussek  in 
public  at  the  age  of  eight.  He  studied  the 
organ  under  Horaans  and  after  the  Revolu- 
tion of  1830  became  a  pupil  at  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  of  Henri  Herz,  and  subse- 
quently went  to  Germany  with  his  brother 
Edouard,  and  studied  under  Ruinmcl.  On 
his  return  to  Antwerp,  in  1837,  he  played  at 
several  concerts,  and  became  widely  known 
for  his  compositions.  At  this  period  he 
brought  out  a  Lauda  Sioii,  for  chorus  and 
orchestra,  a  musical  jjoem,  Faust  (1847)  ; 
and  an  opera,  Le  gondolier  de  Venise, 
Antwerp,  1848.  He  was  at  that  time  chef 
d'orchestre  of  the  royal  theatre,  and  di- 
rector of  a  German  choral  society.  He 
went  to  Brussels  in  1848,  became  professor 
in  an  English  school  at  Bruges  in  1849,  and 


finally  settled  in  Brussels  in  1850,  making 
occasional  professional  journeys  to  other 
countries.  Among  his  best  works  are  his 
pianoforte  compositions,  which  number 
more  than  one  hundred.  Works :  Marche 
solennelle,  for  the  25th  anniversary  of  Leo- 
pold's reign  ;  Marche  triomphale,  for  the 
marriage  festivities  of  the  Due  de  Brabant  ; 
Aux  manes  de  IMeyerbeer,  marche  funebre  ; 
Concerto,  op.  10  ;  Poesies  musicales  ;  Com- 
positions nouvelles  en  forme  d'etudes,  op. 
66  ;  L'etude  du  diable  ;  Etudes  de  moyenne 
force  ;  24  etudes  de  style  et  d'expression,  4 
books,  oj).  101  ;  Etudes  de  style  et  de  meca- 
nisme,  4  books,  op.  99  ;  Six  morceaux  de 
salon,  OJ).  98  ;  etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i. 
418. 

GREGOR,  CHRISTIAN,  born  at  Dirs- 
dorf,  Silesia,  Jan.  1,  1723,  died  at  Berthels- 
dorf,  Nov.  6,  1801.  Organist,  joined  the 
Jloravian  Brotherhood  in  1742,  and  was  ap- 
pointed Bishop  of  the  Briiderkirche  at  Ber- 
thelsdorf.  He  was  organist,  teacher,  and 
music  director  for  the  order,  and  composed 
many  songs  for  them,  besides  editing  a 
Choralbuch.— Mendel,  iv.  343. 

GREGORIO,  ANNIBALE,  born  at  Siena 
about  the  end  of  the  16th  century.  He 
was  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  cathedral  of 
that  city  and  member  of  the  Accademia 
degli  Intronati.  Works  :  Madrigals  (Venice, 
1617)  ;  Church  music  (Siena,  1620).— Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

GREISEN,  ALBERT,  born  in  Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder,  April  24,  1814,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, April  11,  1836.  His  compositions  at- 
tracted the  notice  of  Zelter,  who  took  him 
to  Berlin  ;  after  his  master's  death  he  be- 
came the  pupil  of  Rungenhagen  at  the  mu- 
sic school  of  the  Academy.  He  composed 
an  oratorio,  a  symphony,  and  some  chamber 
music. — MeudeL 

GREITH,  IvARL,  born  at  Aarau,  Swit- 
zerland, Feb.  21,  1828,  died  in  Munich,  Nov. 
17,  1887.  Son  and  pupil  of  Joseph  Greith  ; 
studied  in  Munich  under  C.  Ett  and  in 
Augsburg  under  C.  L.  Drobisch.  He  be- 
came music  teacher  of  schools  and  director 


190 


GRELL 


of  singing  societies  in  St.  Gall,  taught  in 
Frankfort-on-tlie-Main  for  several  years 
from  185-i,  and  was  professor  in  the  College 
of  Maria  Hilf  in  Scbwjtz.  In  1861  be  took 
bis  father's  jjlace  as  choirmaster  of  the  St. 
Gall  Cathedral,  and  after  ten  j-ears  settled 
as  a  composer  and  critic  in  Munich,  where 
be  subsequently  became  Kapellmeister  of 
the  cathedral.  Works  :  Der  beilige  Gallus, 
oratorio,  Winterthur,  1849  ;  Frauenberz, 
melodrama.  Die  Waise  aus  Genf,  do.,  both 
at  St.  Gall,  about  1850 ;  Symphony,  ib., 
and  Basel ;  Requiem  (Winterthur,  1857) ; 
7  vocal  masses  ;  5  instrumental  masses  ; 
Litanies  ;  Motets  ;  Many  songs  to  the  Holy 
Virgin,  etc.  (since  18G2) ;  3  Singspiele ; 
Jung  Rubens,  Der  Mutter  Lied,  Der  verzau- 
berte  Frosch  (Munich,  since  1871)  ;  Two- 
part  songs  for  female  chorus  (ib.). — Men- 
del. 

GRELL,  EDUARD  (AUGUST),  born  in 
Berlin,  Nov.  G,  1800,  died  at  Steglitz,  near 
Berlin,  Aug.  10,  188G.  Organist,  jjupil  of  bis 
father,  of  Kaufmann,  Ritsehl,  and  Zelter ; 
became  organist  of  the  Nikolaikirche  in 
Berlin'  in  181G  ;  entered  the  Singakademie 
in  1817,  and  was  made  vice-director  of  it 
in  1832.  In  1839  be  was  appointed  court 
organist  of  the  cathedral,  in  1811  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Berlin  Acadenij',  in  1813 
teacher  of  the  cathedral  choir,  and,  after 
Rungenhagen's  death  in  1851,  teacher  of 
the  composition  school  of  the  Academy. 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  senate  of  the 
Academy,  and  first  director  of  the  Sing- 
akademie ;  became  professor  in  1858,  and 
received  the  order  pour  le  merite  in  18G4. 
He  relinquished  the  direction  of  the  Sing- 
akademie in  187G.  In  1883  the  Berlin 
University  conferred  on  bim  the  honorary 
degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy.  Works  : 
Die  Israelilen  in  der  ^  , 
Wiiste,  oratorio  ;  Mass  ^^  ^J^^^-vjdf 
for    IC    voices ;  Over- 

ture  for  orchestra  ;  Organ  preludes  ;  Mo- 
tets, cantatas,  psalms,  hymns,  and  many 
songs  ;  Four-part  arrangement  of  the  cho- 
ral melodies  of  the  Evangelical  Gesangbucb 


(1833).  —  Riemann  ;  Mendel ;  Broekhaus  ; 
Fetis,  iV.  98  ;  do.,  Sui^plement,  i.  120. 

GRENET.     See  Granet. 

GRENIER,  FELIX,  born  at  Marseilles, 
Sept.  27,  1841,  still  living,  1889.  Amateur 
instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of 
Heckmauu,  an  Alsatian  organist,  became  a 
lawyer,  but  still  studied  music  in  Paris 
under  Labarre,  Boely,  and  Franchomme. 
He  has  lived  in  Nice  since  18G9.  His  songs 
and  music  are  well  known,  and  some  of  his 
choruses  have  been  very  pojjular.  He  has 
translated  several  German  works  on  music, 
and  has  published  works  on  Sebastian 
Bach,  Mendelssohn,  and  other  German 
musicians.  Principal  works  :  La  Roussalka, 
opera  (not  performed)  ;  Trio  for  strings, 
op.  1 ;  do.  for  pianoforte  and  strings,  oj). 
3 ;  (Quartet  for  pianoforte  and  strings,  op. 
4  ;  2  quartets  for  strings,  op.  5  and  13  ; 
3  preludes  and  fugues  for  pianoforte,  op. 
15  ;  12  songs  for  soprano,  op.  2  ;  G  songs, 
op.  7  ;  4  do.,  op.  8  ;  Four-part  songs  ;  Cho- 
ruses for  Racine's  Esther,  for  4  female 
voices  ;  Mass  for  4  voices ;  The  49tb  psalm 
for  double  chorus,  and  orchestra. — Fotis, 
Supplement,  i.  421  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  135. 

GRENIER,  GABRIEL,  lived  in  Paris, 
last  half  of  the  18th  century.  Harpist,  pub- 
lished romances  with  harp  accompaniment, 
1793  ;  Harp  sonatas,  and  harp  and  violin 
music. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRESNICH  (not  Gresnick),  ANTOINE 
FREDERIC,  born  in  Liege,  March  2,  1755, 
died  in  Paris,  Oct.  16,  1799.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  College  Liegeois, 
Rome,  and  subsequently  in  Naples  of  Sala  ; 
wrote  operas  for  that  city  before  1780  ;  went 
to  London  some  time  before  1784,  again  in 
1785,  was  chosen  director  of  music  by  the 
Prince  of  Wales  in  1786,  returned  to  Paris 
in  1791,  was  in  Lyons  as  chef  d'orchestre 
of  the  Grand  Theatre  in  1793  ;  his  L'Amour 
a  Cythore,  brought  out  there  in  that  year, 
was  played  also  at  six  of  the  Paris  theatres 
in  the  same  year,  and  made  him  famous. 
Works — Operas  :  D  Fraucese  bizzarro,  opera 
bufifa,  Savona,  1784 ;  Demetrio,  Alessandro 


GRESSLER 


neir  Indie,  La  donna  di  cattivo  umore,  Lon- 
don, 1785  ;  Alceste,  ib.,  1786 ;  L' Amour  :\ 
Cythure,  Lj'ous,  1793  ;  Le  savoir-faire,  Les 
petits  commissionnaires,  Paris,  Theatre  de 
la  rue  de  Louvois,  1795  ;  fiponine  et  Sa- 
binus,  Les  faux  mendiauts,  Le  baiser  donne 
et  rendu,  ib.,  179G  ;  Les  extravagances  de 
la  vieillesse.  Theatre  Moutansier,  1796  ;  La 
Foret  de  Sicile,  Le  petit  page,  ou  la  prison 
d'etat,  Les  faux  mounojem-s,  ou  la  ven- 
geance, Le  tuteur  original,  ib.,  1797 ;  La 
grotte  des  Cevennes,  ib.,  1798  ;  L'heureux 
proces,  ou  Alphonse  et  Leonore,  Theatre 
Feydeau,  1798 ;  La  tourterelle  dans  les 
bois,  Rencontres  sur  rencontres.  Theatre 
Moutansier,  1799  ;  Le  reve.  Theatre  Favart, 
1799 ;  Leonidas,  ou  les  Spartiates  (with  Per- 
suis).  Opera,  1799  ;  Symphonic  concertante 
for  clarinet  and  bassoon,  with  orchestra, 
Paris,  Concerts  de  Feydeau,  1797  ;  Ariet- 
tas, i-omances,  duos,  etc. — Pougin,  Gresnick 
(Paris,  1862) ;  Fetis ;  do.,  Sujiplement,  i. 
421;  Mendel;  Schilling. 

GRESSLEE,  FRANZ  ALBERT,  born  at 
Suiza,  Thuringia,  Dec.  14,  1804,  still  living, 
1889.  Son  of  Friedrich  Salomon  Grcssler  ; 
finished  his  musical  education  in  the  Erfurt 
Seminar}'  under  M.  G.  Fischer,  L.  E.  Geb- 
hardi,  and  J.  J.  Miiller  ;  became  teacher  in 
a  family  in  1826,  and  from  1827  taught  in 
schools  in  Erfurt.  Composed  pianoforte 
and  organ  music  and  songs. — Mendel  ; 
Ersch  und  Gruber,  i.  Section,  xc.  246. 

GRESSLER,  FRIEDRICH  SALOJION, 
organist  at  Triptis,  near  Meissen,  in  1780. 
From  1791  he  was  cantor,  organist,  and 
teacher  at  Suiza  in  Thimngia.  Composed 
pianoforte  pieces  and  songs. — Mendel,  iv. 
355  ;  Ersch  und  Gruber,  i.  Section,  xc.  246. 

GRETRY,  ANDRE  (ERNEST  MO- 
DESTE),  born  at  Liege,  Feb.  8,  1741,  died 
at  "  I'Ermitage  "  (formerly  Rousseau's  coun- 
try house),  near  Montmorency,  Sept.  24, 
1813.  The  son  of  a  poor  violinist,  he  en- 
tered the  choir  of  Saint-Denis  at  the  age 
of  six,  but  was  dismissed  as  incapable,  and 
put  under  one  Leclerc,  who  made  him  a 
proficient  reader   of   music.     Inspired    by 


his  time  in  composing. 


the  arrival  in  Liege  of  an  Italian  opera  com- 
pany, he  took  to  composing,  and  showed 
such  talent  that  his 
family  procured  him 
good  instruction.  He 
studied  harmony  un- 
der Rcnekin  the  or- 
ganist, and  counter- 
point under  Moreau  ; 
but  it  was  too  late  to 
expect  jjatient  study, 
and  he  spent  most  of 
Six  little  symphonies 
by  him  wore  produced  at  Liege  in  1758,  and 
a  four-voice  mass  in  1759,  with  such  success 
that  the  Chanoine  du  Harlez  sent  him  to 
Rome,  where  he  studied  counterpoint  four 
or  five  j'ears  under  Casali,  but  he  never  be- 
came a  good  harmonist,  nor  a  contrapuntist. 
His  genius  was  purely  dramatic  and  expres- 
sive. Some  smaller  compositions,  notably 
an  intermezzo,  Le  Veudemmiatrici,  met 
with  success  at  Rome,  but  when  he  saw  the 
score  of  Monsigny's  Rose  et  Colas,  he  be- 
gan to  feel  that  French  opcra-comique  was 
to  be  his  real  vocation.  In  1767  he  went  to 
Geneva,  and,  failing  to  get  Voltaire  to  write 
him  a  libretto,  set  to  work  to  write  new  mu- 
sic to  Favart's  Isabelle  et  Gertrude,  which 
he  brought  out  with  great  success  the  same 
year  at  Geneva.  By  Voltaire's  advice  he 
then  went  to  Paris,  where  two  years  were 
thrown  away  in  vain  solicitations  for  a  li- 
bretto, until  at  last  Du  Rosoy  confided  to 
him  his  Les  mariages  Samnites.  The  first 
rehearsals  of  the  music  at  the  house  of  the 
Prince  de  Conti,  in  presence  of  the  court, 
persuaded  almost  everyone  that  the  com- 
poser had  no  talent  for  dramatic  composi- 
tion ;  but  Count  Creutz,  the  Swedish  min- 
ister, thought  otherwise,  and,  taking  Gretry 
under  his  protection,  prevailed  upon  Mar- 
montel  to  confide  to  him  his  comedy,  Le 
Huron.  This  work  was  given,  Aug.  20, 
1768,  with  the  most  overwhelming  success. 
Lucile  ajspeared  a  few  months  later,  and 
with  Le  tableau  jiarlant  (1769)  Gretry's  po- 
sition in  the  foremost  rank  of  French  com- 


192 


GENTRY 


posers  was  establislied.  He  continued  pro- 
ducing opera  after  opera,  until  very  near  the 
time  of  Lis  death.  The  most  famous  of  his 
works  are  Le  tableau  parlaut,  Zemire  et 
Azor,  L'amant  jaloux,  L'upreuvc  village- 
oise,  and  Richard  Caau-  de  Lion,  which  last 
must  be  accounted  as  his  masterpiece.  In 
1784  the  Prince-Bishop  of  Lioge  made  him 
privj^-couucillor.  In  1795  he  was  admitted 
to  the  lustitut,  and  in  1802  Napoleon  made 
him  chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 
He  was  appointed  also  one  of  the  inspectors 
of  the  Conservatoire  ou  its  foundation,  but 
held  the  office  for  only  a  year.  His  funeral 
at  Paris  (Sept.  27,  1813)  was  splendid,  and 
Bouilly  and  Mehul  pronounced  eulogies 
over  his  grave.  Gretry's  genius,  which  was 
epoch-making  in  the  annals  of  French  comic 
opera,  was  essentially  melodic  and  dramatic. 
He  was  little  of  a  harmonist,  as  he  himself 
knew  very  well,  and  was  wholly  at  a  loss 
when  he  tried  to  step  out  of  the  limited 
frame  of  opera-comique.  His  accompani- 
ments were  in  general  very  meagre,  and 
although  he  showed  that,  when  he  aimed 
at  orchestral  effects,  he  knew  how  to  handle 
the  orchestra  intelligently  and  cleverly,  he 
rarely  attempted  anything  of  the  sort. 
Graceful  melody  and,  especially,  expressive 
and  dramatic  declamation  were  his  forte. 
His  theatrical  sense  was  of  the  keenest,  and 
he  has  rarely  been  surpassed  as  a  delineator 
of  character  ;  his  comic  power  was  also  very 
remarkable,  and  his  admirers  have  called 
hiiu  the  "  Molicre  of  music."  Works — Op- 
eras :  1.  Le  Vendemmiatrici,  intermezzo, 
Rome,  Teatro  Aliberti,  17G5  ;  2.  Isabelle  et 
Gertrude,  Geneva,  17G7 ;  3.  Le  Huron, 
Paris,  Theatre  Italien,  1768  ;  4.  Lucile, 
ib.,  1769 ;  5.  Le  tableau  parlant,  ib.,  1769  ; 
6.  Sylvain,  ib.,  1770  ;  7.  Les  <hutx  Avares, 
Fontainebleau,  1770,  Paris,  Comcdie  Ita- 
lienne,  1770  ;  8.  L'amitie  a  IVpreuve,  2 
acts,  Fontainebleau,  1770,  Paris,  Theatre 
Itahen,  1771  ;  do.,  3  acts,  Fontainebleau, 
Oct.  24,  and  Paris,  Oct.  30,  1783  ;  9.  L'nmi 
de  la  maison,  Fontainebleau,  Oct.  26,  1771, 
Paris,  March  14,  1772  ;  10.  Zemtre  et  Azor, 


Fontainebleau,  1771,  Paris,  Theatre  Italien, 
1771  ;  11.  Le  magnifique,  Paris,  Theatre 
Italien,  1773  ;  12.  Cephale  et  Procris,  lyric 
tragedy,  Versailles,  1773,  Paris,  Academic, 
177.5  ;  13.  La  roslire  de  Salency,  Theatre 
Itahen,  1774  ;  14.  La  fausse  Magie,  Come- 
die  Italienne  ;  do.,  1  act,  ib.,  1776  ;  15. 
Tjbs  mariagei^  Samnites,  ib.,  1776  ;  16.  Ma- 
troco,  Fontainebleau,  1777,  Paris,  Theatre 
Italien,  1778  ;  17.  Les  troisagesde  I'Opera, 
prologue  in  1  act,  Paris,  Academic  Royale 
de  Musique,  1778  ;  18.  Le  jugement  de 
Midas,  Comedie  Italienne,  1778  ;  19.  Les 
fausses  apparences,  ou  Vamant  jaloux,  Ver- 
sailles, Nov.  20,  Paris,  Dec.  23,  1778 ; 
20.  Les  evenements  imprevus,  Versailles, 
Nov.  11,  Paris,  Theatre  Italien,  Nov.  13, 
1779  ;  21.  Andromaque,  Paris,  Aeademie 
Royale  de  Musique,  1780  ;  22.  Emilie,  ib., 
1781  ;  23.  CoUnelle  a  la  cour,  ou  la  double 
epreuve,  ib.,  1782  ;  24.  L'embarras  des 
richesses,  ib.,  1782  ;  25.  Thalie  au  nouveau 
theatre,  Comedie  Italienne,  1783  ;  26.  La 
caravane  du  Caire,  Fontainebleau,  Oct.  30, 
1783,  Paris,  Acadeniie  Royale  de  Musique, 
Jan.  15,  1784 ;  27.  Theodore  et  Paulin, 
Theatre  Italien,  March  18,  1784;  do.,  as 
Jji'preuve  villageoise,  ib.,  June  24,  1784  ; 
28.  Richard  Cceur  de  Lion,  Paris,  by  the 
comediens  ordinaires  du  roi,  Oct.  21,  1784  ; 
do.,  4  acts,  Dec.  21,  1785  ;  do.,  3  acts, 
Dec.  29,  1786  ;  29.  Panurge  dans  I'lle  des 
Lanternes,  Oj)L'ra,  1785  ;  30.  La  nouvelle 
amitie     a    I'epreuve,    Comedie     Italienne, 

1786  ;  31.  Les  meprises  par  ressemblance, 
Fontainebleau,  Paris,  Comedie  Italienne, 
Nov.  16,  1786  ;  32.  Le  comte  d'Albert, 
Fontainebleau,  Nov.  13,  1786,  Paris,  Come- 
die Italienne,  Feb.  8,  1787  ;  33.  La  suite 
du  comte  d'Albert,  Paris,  Comedie  Italienne, 

1787  ;  34.  Le  prisonnier  anglais,  ib.,  1787  ; 
35.  Le  rival  confident,  ib.,  1788  ;  36.  Ain- 
phytrion,  Academie  Roj'ale  de  Musique, 
1788 ;  37.  Raoul  Barbe-Bleue,  Comedie 
Italienne,  1789  ;  38.  Aspasie,  Opera,  1789 ; 

39.  Pi<;>TeleGrand,  Comedie  Italienne,  1790; 

40.  Guillaume  Tell,  ib.,  1791;  41.  Cecile 
et  Dermance,   ib.,  1792  ;  42.  Basile,   ou  it 


ma 


GREULICII 


trompeur,  trompeur  et  demi,  Opc'ra  Co- 
mique,  1792  ;  43.  Clarice  et  Belton  (altered 
version  of  Le  prisonnier  anglais),  ib.,  1793  ; 

44.  La  rosiere  republicaine,  Opera,   1793  ; 

45.  Joseph  Barra,  Comedie  Italieuue,  1794  ; 

46.  Denys  le  t3-ran  maltre  d'ecole  a  Co- 
rintbe,  Opera,  1794  ;  47.  Callias,  ou  nature 
et  patrie,  Opera  Comique,  1794  ;  48.  Lis- 
helh,  Comedie  Italienne,  1797  ;  49.  Anacreon 
chez  Polycrate,  1797  ;  50.  Le  harhier  de 
village,  ou  le  revenant,  Theatre  Feydeau, 
1797  ;  51.  Elisca,  ou  I'amour  maternel, 
ib.,  1799  ;  52.  La  casque  et  les  colombes, 
Opera,  1801  ;  53.  Delphis  et  Mopsa,  ib., 
1803.  Also  the  following :  Le  congre.s 
des  rois  (in  collaboration  with  Berton, 
Blasius,  Cherubini,  Dalayrac,  Deshayes, 
Devienne,  Jadin,  Kreutzer,  Mehul,  Solie, 
and  Trial  fils),  Theatre  Favart,  Feb.  2G, 
1793  ;  and  the  following,  which  were  never 
performed :  Alcindor  et  Zaide  ;  Zimeo,  3 
acts  ;  Zelmar,  ou  I'asile,  1  act ;  £lectre,  3 
acts ;  Diogene  et  Alexandre,  3  acts  ;  Les 
llaures  d'Espagne,  3  acts.  Church  music  : 
Messe  solennelle,  Liege,  1759  ;  Confiteor, 
for  4  voices  and  orchestra,  Rome,  1762  ;  6 

motets  for   2 


<i«rVJ  /n  /?  A  j'  ^^'^  ^  voices  ; 
y  //  ci^L/^^^  Deprofundis; 
f  ^y^     Requiem.   In- 


Req 

strumen  tal 
music :  6  sym- 
phonies for  orchestra  ;  2  quartets  for  harpsi- 
chord and  strings  ;  6  do.  for  strings  ;  6  so- 
natas for  harpsichord. — Le  Breton,  Notice 
sur  la  vie,  etc.  (Paris,  1814)  ;  Andre  Joseph 
Grotry,  Gretry  en  famille  (ib.,  1815)  ;  Ger- 
lache,  Essai  sur  G.  (Liege,  1821) ;  Fetis, 
Galerie  de  musiciens  celebres  (Paris,  1828) ; 
Van  Hulst,  Gretry  (Liege,  1842);  L.  de 
Saegher,  Notice  biographique  (Brussels, 
1869) ;  Clement,  Mus.  celebres,  150  ;  Jal, 
Diet,  critique,  657  ;  Liny,  Kecueil  de  let- 
tres  i'crites  a  Gretrv  (Paris,  1809). 

GREULICH,  ADOLPH,  born  in  Posen 
in  1819,  died  in  Moscow  in  1868.  Pia- 
nist, self-taught  at  first,  then  studied  under 
W.  Fischer  in  Brieg,  and  became  private 


tutor  in  a  noble  family  of  Warsaw.  He 
visited  Weimar,  where  he  was  influenced  by 
Liszt,  and  in  1858  was  teacher  of  music  in 
Schitomir,  Southern  Russia ;  and  later  ap- 
pointed pianoforte  jjrofessor  at  the  Catha- 
rine Institute  in  Moscow.  Works  :  Piano- 
forte music. — Mendel  ;  Fetis,  Supplement, 
i.  422. 

GRIEF  AND  PMN.  See  Bms  und 
Reu'. 
GRIEG,  EDVARD  (HAGERUP),  bom 
at  Bergen,  Norway, 
June  15,  1843,  still  liv- 
ing there,  1889.  In- 
strumental and  vocal 
c  o  m  J)  o  s  e  r,  first  in- 
structed on  the  piano- 
forte by  his  mother, 
then  at  the  Conserva- 
torium  in  Leijjsic 
(whither  he  was  sent  by 
Ole  Bull's  advice  in 
1858),  pupil  of  Richter  and  Hauptmann  in 
harmony  and  counterpoint,  of  Rietz  and 
Reinecke  in  composition,  and  of  Wenzel 
and  Moscheles  on  the  pianoforte.  Illness 
forced  him  to  return  home  in  the  spring 
of  1860,  but  he  resumed  his  studies  at 
Leipsic  in  the  autumn,  and  remained  there 
until  1862.  He  went  to  Copenhagen  in 
the  spring  of  1863,  principally  to  make  the 
acquaintance  of  Gade,  and,  although  in- 
fluenced by  him  and  by  Emil  Hartraann,  he 
was  most  decidedly  affected  by  Rikard  Nor- 
drank,  an  ingenious  Norwegian  tone-poet 
(died  shortly  afterwards),  who  sang  and 
played  to  him  his  melodies  to  BjOrnson's 
songs.  As  Gi'ieg  himself  relates  :  "  The 
scales  fell  from  my  eyes  ;  it  was  only 
through  him  that  I  learned  to  know  the 
Norse  melodies  and  my  own  nature.  We 
made  a  compact  against  the  weakly  Gade- 
Meudelssohn  Scandinavism,  and  entered 
with  enthusiasm  upon  the  new  path  on 
which  the  Northern  school  is  now  progress- 
ing." In  1867  he  settled  at  Christiania, 
where  he  founded  a  musical  society  and  con- 
ducted it  until  1880,  when  he  returned  to 


191 


GRIESBACH 


Bergen.  As  the  Norwegian  Diet  awarded 
him  a  liberal  pension,  be  has  had  nothing 
to  do  since  but  to  devote  himself  to  his 
art.  In  1865  and  1870  be  visited  Italy, 
cultivating  Liszt's  society  in  Rome  ;  and 
was  repeatedly  in  Germany,  especially  at 
Leipsic,  to  bring  out  his  compositions. 
Grieg  may  be  said  to  dispute  with  Svendsen 
the  foremost  place  among  living  Norwegian 
composers.  As  yet  he  has  devoted  himself 
chieiiy  to  the  higher  forms  of  chamber 
music.  His  talent,  strongly  imbued  with 
the  Scandinavian  folk-song  spirit,  has 
marked  individuality,  and  his  comjjositions 
are  noted  for  their  brilliant  and  effective 
local  coloring.  His  inspiration  is  vigorous 
and  spontaneous,  and  if  his  workmanship  is 
not  invariably  of  the  very  best,  and  be  often 
shows  a  considerable  disregard  for  euishony, 
as  well  as  a  certain  incapacity  for  organic 
thematic  develo23ment,  in  the  highest  sense 
of  the  term,  he  only  shares  these  short- 
comings with  many  of  his  contemjjoraries, 
while  the  freshness  of  his  melodic  invention, 
the  piquancy  of  his  harmouj',  and  the  auda- 
cious brilliancy  of  his  style  have  won  him 
hosts  of  warm  admirers.  His  best  works 
are  his  A  minor  pianoforte  concerto,  and 
his  sonata  for  pianoforte  and  violin  in  F 
major.  Works:  Concerto  for  pianoforte 
and  orchestra,  in  A  minor,  op.  16  (2  ver- 
sions) ;  Sonata  for  violin  and  pianoforte,  in 
F,  op.  8 ;  do.  in  G  minor,  op.  13  ;  do.  in  C 
minor,  op.  45  ;  do.  for  violoncello,  op.  36  ; 
String  quartet,  op.  27  ;  Zwei  Melodien,  for 
string  orchestra,  op.  34  ;  Foran  Sydens  Klos- 
ter,  for  soprano  solo,  female  chorus,  and  or- 
chestra, op.  20  ;  Landkjeudiug,  for  baritone, 
male  chorus,  and  orchestra,  op.  31 ;  Der  Bei'g- 
entriickte,  for  baritone,  with  string  orches- 
tra and  2  horns,  op.  32  ;  Bergliot  (by  BjOrn- 
son),  for  declamation  with  orchestra,  op.  42  ; 
Music  to  BjOrnson's  Sigur  Jorsalfar,  op.  22  ; 
do.  to  Ibsen's  Peer  Gynt,  op.  23.  For 
pianoforte  :  4  Clavierstiicke,  op.  1  ;  Poe- 
tische  Tonbilder,  op.  3  ;  Ballade,  op.  4 ;  4 
Humoresken,  op.  6  ;  Sonata,  op.  7 ;  Ro- 
manzeu  und  Balladen,  op.  9  ;  Kleine  Roman- 


zen,  op.  10  ;  Im  Herbst,  Phantasie  (2  piano- 
fortes), op.  11  ;  Lyrische  kleine  Stiicke,  op. 
12  ;  2  symphonische  Stiicke  (2  pianofortes), 
op.  14  ;  Romanzen,  op.  15  ;  25  Norwegische 
Volkslieder  und  Tiinze,  op.  17  ;  Bilder  aus 
dem  Volksleben,  Drei  Humoresken,  ojj.  19  ; 
Ballade,  op.  24  ;  Albumbliitter,  oji.  28  ;  Im- 
provisata  fiber  2  norwegische  Volksweisen, 
op.  29  ;  Norwegische  Tiinze,  op.  35  ;  Wal- 
zer-Capricen,  op.  37  ;  Neue  lyrische  Stilck- 


chen,  op.  38  ;  Aus  Holberg's  Zeit,  Suite  im 
alteu  Style,  op.  40.  Songs  :  4  Lieder  for 
contralto,  op.  2  ;  6  Lieder,  op.  4  ;  Melodien 
des  Herzens,  op.  5  ;  4  Romanzen,  op.  10  ; 
Romanzen  und  Lieder,  oj).  18  ;  4  Gedichte, 
op.  21. — Mendel ;  Riemann  ;  Mus.  Wochen- 
blatt,  iv.  161,  195  ;  v.  7  ;  vii.  348  ;  viii.  226 ; 
xiii.  134 ;  XV.  511,  522. 

GRIESBACH,  JOHN  HENRY,  born  at 
Windsor,  England,  June  20,  1798,  died  in 
London,  Jan.  9, 1875.  Dramatic  composer, 
son  of  Justin  Christian  Griesbach,  violon- 
cellist in  Queen  Charlotte's  band,  and 
nephew  to  Friedrich  Griesbach,  the  oboe 
player  ;  pupil  of  his  uncle,  George  Leopold 
Jacob  Griesbach,  and  of  Kalkbreuner.  On 
the  breaking  up  of  the  Queen's  band,  in 
which  he  was  violoncellist,  he  settled  in 
London  as  a  pianist,  composer,  and  teacher. 
He  was  fourteen  times  a  director  of  the 
Philharmonic  Society.  Works  :  Belshaz- 
zar's  Feast,  oratorio,  written  in  1835,  re- 
modelled and  performed  as  Daniel,  at  the 


195 


GRIEVE 


Harmonic  Society,  in  1854 ;  Overture  and 
music  to  Shakespeare's  "Tempest ;"  James 
I.,  or  the  Eoj'al  Captive,  operetta  ;  The 
Goldsmith  of  Westcheap,  opera ;  Eblis, 
uufiiiished  opera ;  Kaby  Ruins,  musical 
drama ;  Overtures,  symphonies,  anthems, 
songs,  etc. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

GRIEVE,  JOHN  CHARLES,  bom  in 
Edinburgh,  Aug.  29, 1842,  stUl  living,  1889. 
He  is  lecturer  on  musical  theory  in  Heriot- 
Watt  College,  and  conductor  of  the  Phreuix 
Musical  Association,  Edinburgh.  Works  : 
Benjamin,  oratorio,  Edinburgh,  1877  ;  The 
Sower  and  the  Seed,  Scriptui-e  parable  for 
soli  and  chorus  ;  The  Good  Samaritan,  do.  ; 
Julia's  Birthday,  musical  sketch ;  Kinder- 
spiel,  do.  for  juveniles  ;  Glees,  songs,  and 
part-songs.  His  Stars  of  the  Summer 
Night  is  popular. 

GRIFFIN,  GEORGE  EUGENE,  born 
Jan.  8,  1781,  died  in  London,  May,  1863. 
Pianist,  one  of  the  original  members  of  the 
Philharmonic  Society.  Works  :  2  concertos 
for  pianoforte  and  orchestra  ;  Ode  to  Char- 
ity, 1806  ;  4  sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  3  string 
quartets  ;  Rondos,  variations,  etc.  ;  Songs, 
glees,  etc. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

GRILL,  FR.INZ,  died  at  Oedeuburg, 
Hungary,  about  1795.  Chamber  musician 
to  a  Hungarian  nobleman,  and  known 
through  the  following  compositions  in  the 
style  of  Haydn  :  15  sonatas  for  pianoforte 
and  violin,  op.  1,  2,  4,  6  ;  12  string  quar- 
tets, op.  3  (dedicated  to  Haydn),  5,  7  ;  89 
caprices  for  pianoforte  (1791)  ;  6  duos  con- 
certants  for  pianoforte  and  violin  (1791)  ; 
2  do.  (1792)  ;  3  quartets  (1792) ;  Quartet 
(1795).— Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

GRIMM,  HEINRICH,  born  (?),  died  in 
Brunswick,  July  10,  1637.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Michael  Priitorius,  and  was  cantor  in 
Magdeburg  and  later  in  Brunswick.  He 
wrote  church  music  and  theoretical  works. 
— Allgem.  d,  Biogr.,  ix.  678  ;  Mendel,  iv.  386  ; 
do.,  Ergiinz.,  136  ;  F6tis,  iv.  412  ;  Schilling,  iii. 
360  ;  Gerber  (1790),  i.  548  ;  (1812),  ii.  411. 

GRDIM,  JULIUS  OTTO,  born  in  Per- 
uau,  Russia,  March  6, 1827,  still  living,  1889. 


Pianist,  pupil  at  the  Leipsic  Conservatorium 
and  influenced  by  Schumann,  Joachim,  and 
Brahms.  He  settled  in  1855  in  Gottingen 
as  a  teacher,  and  in  1860  became  musical 
director  in  Miinster.  Works :  2  orchestral 
suites  in  canon-form  (much  played  in  Ger- 
many) ;  An  die  Musik,  for  solo,  chorus,  and 
orchestra  ;  Symphony  ;  Sonata  for  piano- 
forte and  violin  ;  12  Lieder  for  voice  and 
pianoforte,  op.  1,  3  ;  6  Lieder  for  four  male 
voices,  op.  13,  etc. — Mendel  ;  Riemann  ; 
Fetis.  Supplement,  i.  423. 

GRISAR,  ALBERT,  born  in  Antwerp, 
Dec.  26,  1808,  died 
at  Asniores,  near 
Paris,  June  15, 
1869.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  in 
Paris  of  Reicha. 
Placed  by  his  fam- 
ily in  a  commercial 
house  in  Liverpool, 
he  ran  away  to  Par- 
is during  the  rev- 
and  began  to  study  under 
Reicha,  but  the  revolution  spreading  to  Bel- 
gium, he  joined  his  family  in  Antwerii,  and 
wrote  there  during  the  siege  his  first  ro- 
mance, La  folle,  which  had  quite  a  success 
in  Belgium  and  France.  His  first  important 
dramatic  work,  Le  mariage  impossible, 
opera-comique,  given  in  Brussels  in  1833, 
procured  him  a  grant  from  the  government 
of  1,200  francs  to  aid  his  musical  education. 
He  returned  to  Paris,  and  devoted  himself 
to  dramatic  composition,  but,  dissatisfied 
with  his  work,  went  to  Naples  in  1840  and 
studied  under  Mercadante.  In  1848  he  re- 
turned to  Paris,  produced  many  works,  and 
became  a  pojiular  favourite.  Nineteen  of 
his  operas  were  represented,  and  he  left 
others  in  MS.  He  published  also  more  than 
fifty  melodies  and  romances.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Sarah,  Paris,  Opera  Comique,  1836  ; 
L'an  mil,  ib.,  1837  ;  La  Suisse  a  Trianon, 
Theatre  des  Varietes,  1837  ;  Lady  Melvil, 
Theatre  de  la  Renaissance,  1838  ;  L'eau 
merveilleuse,  ib.,  1839  ;    Le  naufrage  de  la 


196 


GRISELDA 


Moduse  (with  Flotow  and  Pilati,  ib.,  1839  ; 
Les  travestissemeuts,  Opora  Coinique,  1839  ; 
L'opera  a  la  Cour  (with  Boieldieu),  ib., 
1840  ;  Gille  ravisseur,  ib.,  1848  ;  Les  por- 
cherous,  ib.,  1850  ;  Bonsoii-,  monsieur  Pau- 
talou,  ib.,  1851  ;  Le  carillvimeur  de  Bruges, 
ib.,  1852  ;  Les  amours  du  diable,  Theatre 
Lyrique,  1853  ;  Le  chien  du  jardinier,  Opura 
Comique,  1855  ;  Voyage  autour  de  ma  cham- 
bre,  ib.,  1859  ;  Le  joaiUier  de  St.  James  (a 
revision  of  Lady  Melvil),  ib.,  1862  ;  La 
chatte  merveilleuse,  Theatre  Lyrique,  18G2  ; 
Begaiements  d'aiuour,  ib.,  1804  ;  Douze 
iunoceutes,  Bouffes  Parisieus,  1865.  He 
left  12  operas  in  MS.,  some  complete,  some 
only  sketched ;  more  than  fifty  melodies, 
romances,  dramatic  scenes,  etc. — Pougin, 
Albert  Grisar  (Paris,  1870)  ;  Clument,  Mus. 
culobres,  517  ;  Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  424  ; 
Mendel ;  Riemanu. 

GRISELDA,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Apostolo  Zeno,  rewritten  by  Rolli, 
music  by  Giovanni  Battista  Bououcini,  rep- 
resented at  the  Academy  of  Music,  London, 
Feb.  22,  1722.  The  libretto  is  founded  on 
the  story  of  Griseldis,  Griselda,  or  Grisla, 
called  by  English  writers  Patient  Grissel,  a 
subject  popularized  by  Boccaccio,  Petrarch, 
and  by  Chaucer  iu  "The  Clerk's  Tale." 
In  the  original  legend,  Griselda,  daughter 
of  a  Piedmoutese  labourer,  is  married  by 
the  Marquis  de  Saluces  and  has  by  him  two 
children.  Wishing  to  prove  her  constancy 
and  the  strength  of  her  love,  he  puts  her  to 
the  most  cruel  tests  and  subjects  her  to  a 
thousand  humiliations,  all  of  which  she 
bears  patiently.  When  he  considers  the 
proof  of  her  devotion  complete  he  brings 
her  back  iu  triumph  to  his  castle.  The 
principal  parts  in  Bononciui's  opera,  which 
is  regarded  as  his  best  dramatic  production, 
were  sung  by  Seuesino,  Boschi,  and  Mrs. 
Anastasia  Robinson,  whose  admirable  per- 
formance of  the  character  of  Griselda  is 
said  to  have  completed  her  conquest  of  the 
Earl  of  Peterborough.  There  seems  to 
have  been  some  slight  resemblance  between 
this  beautiful  woman's  career  and  that  of 


the  patient  heroine,  for,  though  married  to 
the  Earl  of  Peterborough,  she  consented  to 
appear  to  the  world  as  his  mistress  only,  un- 
til he  chose  to  own  her  as  his  wife  and  to 
invest  her  with  the  honours  of  his  position. 
The  libretto  of  Zeno  has  been  set  to  music 
also  by  the  following  :  PoUarolo,  Venice, 
1701 ;  Chelleri,  Piacenza,  1707  ;  Predieri, 
Bologna,  1711  ;  Capelli,  Rovigo,  about 
1710  ;  Orlandini,  Bologna,  1720  ;  Scarlatti, 
Rome,  1721  ;  Conti,  Vienna,  1725  ;  Caldara, 
Vienna,  1725  ;  Albinoni,  Rome,  1728  ;  Vi- 


Anastasia  Robinson. 

valdi,  Venice,  1735  ;  Latilla,  Rome,  1747  ; 
Picciuni,  Venice,  1793  ;  Paer,  Parma,  1796, 
Paris,  1803.— Burney,  iv.  284  ;  Hogarth,  ii. 
18. 

GROLL,  EVERMODUS,  born  at  Wit- 
tenau  in  the  Upper  Palatinate  in  1756,  died 
at  Allershausen  in  1809.  He  was  educated 
iu  the  Benedictine  monastery  at  Reichen- 
bach  and  in  Ratisbon.  He  entered  the  Pre- 
monstraut  Abbey  at  Scheftlarn,  and  was 
music  director  and  leader  of  the  choir. 
After  the  abolition  of  the  monastery,  he 
was  appointed  to  the  Parish  of  Allershausen 


\m 


geo:n'lakd 


in  1807.  He  composed  sympliouies  and 
masses. — Fetis,  Gerber,  Schilling. 

GRONLAND,  JOHANN  FEIEDRICH, 
born  about  1760  in  Sleswick,  died  iu  Altona 
in  November,  1834  He  studied  in  Kiel  in 
1780-82,  and  assisted  Cramer  in  his  Maga- 
ziu  der  Musik  ;  after  being  secretary  iu  the 
German  Government  office  in  Copenhagen 
and  director  of  the  royal  porcelain  factor}' 
there,  he  became  organist  and  music  teacher 
in  Altona.  He  comijosed  songs  and  piano- 
forte music. — Fotis,  iv.  116  ;  Mendel,  iv. 
390  ;  Gerber,  ii.  412  ;  Schilling,  iii.  362. 

GROOS,  KARL  AUGUST,  born  at  Sass- 
mannshauseu,  Wittgenstein,  Feb.  16,  1789, 
died  iu  Coblentz,  Nov.  20,  1861.  He  stud- 
ied theology  ;  while  in  Berlin  in  1817-18, 
he  edited,  with  Bernhard  Klein,  Deutsche 
Lieder  fiir  Jung  uud  Alt,  containing  many 
songs  of  his  own  composition.  He  was  jjas- 
tor  in  Coblentz.  Some  of  his  songs  have 
become  virtually  Volkslieder. — Mendel. 

GROOT,  DAVID  EDU.iRD  DE,  born  in 
Amsterdam,  April  8,  1795,  died  in  Paris, 
March  29,  1874.  Clarinetist,  made  success- 
ful concert  toui-s  in  Holland,  Belgium,  and 
Germany.  From  1830  he  lived  in  France  ; 
was  dii'ector  of  a  theatre  orchestra  in  Mar- 
seilles for  some  time  ;  spent  the  last  years 
of  his  life  in  Paiis.  He  composed  a  great 
deal  of  music  for  the  clarinet,  of  a  high  ar- 
tistic order. — Mendel ;  Tiotta. 

GROSE,  mCHAEL  EHREGOTT  (TI- 
MOTHEUS),  German  organ  virtuoso,  died 
after  1824.  He  was  organist  until  1786  at 
St.  Gottliardt's-Kirche,  Brandenburg,  then 
at  Christiansund  in  Sweden,  and  finally 
in  Copenhagen.  Works  :  24  Lieder,  with 
clavier  accompaniment  (Leipsic,  1780)  ;  6 
Bonatas  for  clavier  (Berlin,  1785). — Mendel ; 
F.'tis. 

GROSHEIM,  GEORG  CHRISTOPH, 
born  iu  Cassel,  July  1,  1764,  died  there  in 
1847.  He  became  music  director  in  1800, 
for  a  short  time,  of  the  new  theatre  of  Laud- 
grave  Friedrich  Wilhelm  H.  of  Hesse,  and 
later  was  teacher  to  the  children  of  the 
Queen  of  Westphalia,  after  which  his  ^wpu- 


larity  as  an  instructor  of  music  was  great. 
In  1819  he  received  the  degree  of  Ph.D. 
from  the  Wittenberg  University.  Works : 
Titauia,  opera,  given  at  Cassel,  1801  ;  Das 
heilige  Kleeblatt,  do.,  ib.,  about  1801 ;  Pas- 
sion oratorio  ;  Six  psalms  for  4  voices  ;  Six 
symphonies  for  orchestra ;  Several  gi-and 
pieces  of  church  music,  with  orchestra  ; 
Three  concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  One  con- 
certo for  flute  ;  One  do.  for  clarinet ;  One 
do.  for  2  oboes  ;  12  sonatas  for  pianoforte 
and  violiu  ;  3  fantasias  for  ijianoforte  ;  6 
little  do.  ;  Theme  and  variations ;  jMarche 
de  Bonaparte  a  Marengo  ;  Anglaises  for 
pianoforte  ;  Preludes  for  organ  ;  The  Ten 
Commandments  for  1—4  voices  and  organ  ; 
Choralbuch  for  the  reformed  church  of 
Hesse  ;  Hektor's  Abschied,  by  Schiller,  for 
2  voices  and  orchestra ;  Collections  of  songs. 
— Fc'tis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GROSJEAN,  JEAN  RO^IARY,  born  at 
Rochesson  (Vosges),  Jan.  12,  1815,  died  at 
Saint-Die  (ib.),  Feb.  13,  1888.  Organist, 
son  of  a  poor  artisan.  When  twelve  years 
old  he  was  organist  of  his  native  place,  then 
at  Padoux,  in  1837  of  the  princijjal  church 
in  Remiremont,  and  iu  1839  of  the  Cathe- 
dral of  Saint-Dio.  Later  he  was  a  pu^Dil  in 
Paris  of  Stamaty.  He  devoted  much  time 
to  the  study  of  the  German  organists,  and 
published  a  work  containing  selections  from 
their  music,  with  some  of  his  own,  entitled, 
.\lbum  d'un  organiste  catholique  (2  vols.). 
He  published  also  a  collection  of  the  Noels 
and  popular  melodies  of  Lorraine  (1861). — 
Fotis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

GROSS,  GEORG  AUGUST,  born  in  Ko- 
nigsberg,  Sept.  28,  1801,  died  in  Hamburg 
iu  1853.  Pianist  and  violinist,  studied 
composition  uuder  Urban.  He  was  Con- 
zertmeister  in  Memel  iu  1820,  made  a  con- 
cert tour  iu  1830,  then  officiated  as  teacher 
in  Liibeck,  and  was  soon  called  to  Hildes- 
heim  as  music  director.  Iu  1837  he  re- 
moved to  Hamburg,  and  founded  and  edit- 
ed the  Hamburger  musikalische  Zeitung. 
He  published  psalms  and  songs,  and  left 
pianoforte  and  violin  music  in  manuscript. 


198 


GROSS 


— Mendel ;  F(Jtis,  iv.  119;  do.,  Snpplt'ment, 
i.  426. 

GROSS,  HEINinCH,  born  in  the  18tli 
century,  died  in  Berlin  in  1806.  Violoncel- 
list, pupil  of  Duport.  As  a  boj'  lie  played 
publicly  in  Berlin  ;  about  1793  lie  entered 
the  service  of  the  Swedish  Count  de  Geer, 
and  some  two  years  later  became  first  yio- 
loucello  in  the  royal  Prussian  orchestra. 
He  published  a  sonata  and  variations  for 
violoncello. — Mendel. 

GROSS,  JOHANN  BENJAJMIN,  born  in 
Elbing.  Prussia,  Sept.  12,  1809,  died  in  St. 
Petersburg,  Sept.  1,  1848.  Violoncellist, 
brother  of  Georg  August  Gross,  and  pupil 
of  Hausmann.  He  was  in  the  orchestra  of 
the  Konigstadtisches  Theater  of  Berlin  in 
182-1-29  ;  then  lived  in  Leijjsic,  playing  solo 
often  in  the  Gewandhaus  concerts  ;  joined 
the  theatre  orchestra  of  ]\Iagdeburg  in  1833, 
but  soon  returned  to  Berlin  ;  next  played 
in  a  private  quartet  in  Dorpat,  with  Ferdi- 
nand David  as  first  violin,  and  became  first 
violoncello  of  the  imj)erial  orchestra  of  St. 
Petersburg  in  1835.  He  died  of  cholera. 
He  published  string  quartets,  songs,  and 
many  violoncello  compositions. — Mendel  ; 
Riemann  ;  Fetis. 

.  GROSSE,  SAMUEL  DIETRICH,  born 
in  Berlin  in  1757,  died  there  in  1789.  Vio- 
linist, pupil  of  Lolli.  In  1779  he  was  in  the 
orchestra  of  Crown  Prince  Friedrich  Wilhelm 
of  Prussia.  He  made  a  concert  tour  to  Paris 
in  1780-82,  and  joined  the  royal  orchestra  of 
Berlin  in  1786.  Works  :  Le  retour  desire, 
comic  opera,  Berlin,  1784 ;  Cantata ;  Violin 
concertos,  and  other  music. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 
GROSSER,  JOHANN  EMANUEL,  born 
at  Warmbrunn,  Silesia,  Jan.  30,  1799,  died 
('?).  Organist,  son  and  pupil  of  Joseph  Aloys 
Grosser.  He  was  cantor  and  organist  in 
Friedeberg-on-the-Queis  in  1822,  organist 
in  Hirschberg  in  1823,  and  rector  in  Polk- 
witz  from  1826.  He  composed  masses, 
offertories,  church  and  pianoforte  music, 
edited  a  musical  weekly,  and  wrote  biog- 
raphies of  Haydn,  Mozart,  and  J.  S.  Bach. 
— Mendel  ;  Schilling  ;  Fetis. 


GROSSI,  Cavaliere  CARLO,  lived  in  Ve- 
nice in  the  latter  part  of  the  17th  century. 
He  was  a  singer  in  the  Chapel  of  S.  Marco, 
and  was  pensioned  in  1685.  Works — Operas: 
Giocaste,  regina  d'Armenia,  given  in  Venice, 
1676  ;  II  Nicomede  in  Bitinia,  ib.,  1677  ; 
Artaserse,  ib.,  1669.  Church  music,  can- 
zoni,  and  madrigali. — Caffi,  Storia.  .  .  . 
di  S.  Marco  in  Venezia,  L  308,  H.  34  ;  Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

GROSS VATERTANZ  (Grandfather's 
Dance),  a  German  family-dance  of  the  17tli 
ceuturjf,  greatlj'  in  vogue  at  weddings.  As 
it  usually  concluded  the  entertainment, 
it  was  called  also  the  Kehraus  (Clear-out). 
The  ail-,  called  Grossvater-Lied,  was  very 
popular.  Spohr  introduces  it  into  the  Fes- 
tival March  written  for  the  marriage  of 
Princess  Marie  of  Hesse  with  the  Duke  of 
Saxe-Meiningen  in  1825,  and  Schumann 
uses  it  in  the  Davidsbiindler  March  and  in 
the  finale  of  his  Papillons,  op.  2. — Grove. 

GROTTE,  NICOLAS  DE  LA,  lived  in 
Paris  from  about  1565  to  1587.  He  was 
valet  de  chambre  and  organist  to  Heni-i  IH. 
of  France,  and  one  of  the  best  players  of  his 
time  on  the  organ  and  spinet.  He  set  Ron- 
sard's  chansons  to  music.  Works  :  Chan- 
sons a  trois,  quatre,  cinq  et  six  parties 
(Paris,  1553).— F6tis. 

GRUA,  FRANZ  PAUL,  born  in  Mann- 
heim, Feb.  2,  1754,  died  in  Munich,  July  5, 
1833.  Son  and  pupil  of  Karl  Ludwig  Peter 
Grua  ;  studied  also  under  Holzbauer  and 
in  Italy  under  Padre  Martini  and  Traetta. 
In  1779  he  became  Kapellmeister  to  the 
Elector  Palatine,  whose  court  was  then  in 
Munich,  and  was  pensioned  in  1831.  Mo- 
zart thought  it  was  easy  enough  to  write 
half  a  dozen  such  masses  as  his  in  a  daj-. 
Works :  Telemacco,  opera,  Munich,  1780  ; 
31  masses  for  orchestra  ;  39  oft'ertories  and 
motets  ;  6  Miserere  ;  3  Stabat  Mater  ;  3 
Requiem  ;  3  Te  Deum  ;  Concerto  for  piano- 
forte, clarinet,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRUA,  KARL  LUDWIG  PETER,  born 
in  Milan,  died  after  1714.  He  is  erro- 
neously called  Wilhelm  Grua  in  the  older 


19U 


GEUA 


lexicons.  After  receiving  a  musical  educa- 
tion in  Slilan,  and  visiting  several  Italian 
cities,  he  went  to  Germany  and  was  for  a 
short  time  attached  to  the  electoral  chapel 
in  Dresden.  In  1G97  he  settled  in  Dussel- 
dorf  as  Kapellmeister,  and  in  1714  went  to 
Mannheim.  Works  :  Masses,  and  MS.  mu- 
sic in  Dresden  and  Berlin  libraries. — All- 
gem,  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  785  ;  Mendel ;  Fetis. 

GRUA,  KARL  LUDWIG  PETER,  born 
in  Milan  in  1700,  died  in  Mannheim  in 
1775.  He  finished  his  musical  education 
under  his  uncle  Karl  Ludwig  Peter  Grua, 
and  became  Kapellmeister  to  the  court  of 
Mannheim,  and  in  1712  also  director  of 
the  opera.  Works :  Cambise,  Italian  opera, 
represented  in  Mannheim,  Jan.  17,  1742. 
— Fi'tis;  Mendel ;  Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  ix.  785. 

GRUBER,  FRANZ,  born  at  Hochburg, 
Upper  Austria,  Nov.  25,  1787,  died  in  Hal- 
lein,  June  7,  1863.  Organist  in  Arnsdorf, 
Berndorf,  and  Hallein.  He  composed  the 
Christmas  song,  Stille  Nacht,  heilige  Nacht, 
long  ascribed  to  Haydn. — Mendel. 

GRUBER,  FRANZ,  born  in  Arnsdorf, 
Nov.  27,  1820,  died  in  Hallein,  April  27, 
1871.  Son  and  pupil  of  Franz  Gruber  ; 
studied  also  theory  under  Taux  and  the 
violin  under  Stummer.  He  was  a  school- 
teacher in  Mauterndorf,  Salzburg,  and  Hal- 
lein, and  founded  two  musical  societies  in 
the  latter  place.  His  compositions  number 
about  sixty,  and  comprise  church  and  piano- 
forte music,  overtures,  and  songs.  Only  six 
of  his  woi'ks  have  been  printed. — Mendel. 

GRUBER,  GEORG  WILHEL^M,  born  in 
Nuremberg,  Sept.  22,  1720,  died  there, 
Sept.  22,  1796.  Violinist,  pupil  on  the 
pianoforte  and  in  composition  of  Dretzel 
and  Siebenkees,  and  on  the  violin  of  Hem- 
merich.  Before  he  was  eighteen  j-ears  old 
he  made  a  concert  tour  ;  took  lessons  in 
counterpoint  in  Dresden  from  Umstadt ; 
and  about  1750  entered  the  orchestra  of 
Nuremberg,  w'here  Ferrari's  presence  in- 
fluenced him  gi-eatly.  He  succeeded  Agrell 
as  Kapellmeister  in  1765,  and  held  also 
honorary  municipal  offices.     Works :  Ora- 


torios ;  Church,  chamber,  and  other  instru- 
mental music. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  x.  1  ; 
Mendel ;  Fetis. 

GRUNBAUM,  JOHANN  CHRISTOPH, 
born  at  Haslau,  near  Eger,  Oct.  28,  1785, 
died  in  Berlin,  Jan.  10,  1870.  He  studied 
music  in  a  convent  and  in  the  choir  of  Rat- 
isbon  Cathedral ;  tlien  became  tenor  in  the 
Ratisbon  theatre  in  1804,  and  in  the  Prague 
theatre  in  1807.  Having  married  the 
singer,  Therese  Miiller,  in  1813,  he  went 
^yith  her  to  the  court  opera  of  Vienna  in 
1818,  but  settled  in  Berlin  from  1832  as 
teacher  of  singing  and  writer  for  music  pub- 
lishers. He  wrote  vocal  music  and  trans- 
lated many  operas  and  songs. — Mendel. 

GRUNBERGER,  LUDWIG,  born  in 
Prague,  April  24,  1839,  still  living,  1889. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  Franz  Skraup  and  Josef 
Kisch,  then  in  Dresden  of  Rictz  and  Rei- 
chel.  Works  :  2  symphonies  ;  Music  to 
Lowe's  Kindertraum  (1885)  ;  Dithyrambe 
by  Schiller  ;  2  string  quartets  ;  Pianoforte 
music,  and  songs. 

GRUNBERGER,  THEODOR,  German 
composer  of  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury. He  was  a  monk  in  a  monastery  in 
Suabia,  and  composed  masses  and  organ 
music. — Gerber  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GRUND,  FRIEDRICH  WILHELM,  born 
in  Hamburg,  Oct.  7,  1791,  died  there,  Nov. 
I  24,  1874.  Pupil  of  his  father,  founded  the 
i  Singakademie  in  his  native  city  in  1819, 
and  led  the  Philharmonic  concerts  in  1828- 
62.  He  was  popular  as  a  teacher.  Works  : 
Die  Burg  Falkenstein,  Mathilde,  operas,  not 
performed  ;  Die  Auferstehung  und  Him- 
melfahrt  Christi,  cantata  ;  Mass  for  8  voices 
a  cappella  ;  Symphonies  ;  Overtures  ;  Octet 
for  pianoforte  and  wind  instruments  ;  Quin- 
tet for  do.,  op.  8  ;  Quartet  for  pianoforte 
and  strings,  op.  5  ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte, 
violin,  and  violoncello,  op.  9,  11,  13  ;  do., 
for  pianoforte,  four  hands,  op.  10  ;  Sona- 
tinas for  pianoforte,  op.  14 ;  Hymn  by 
Krummacher  ;  Six  collections  of  songs. 
— Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  137  ;  Riemann  ;  Fetis, 
do.,  Suj)plement,  i.  426. 


GEUNER 


GRUNEE,  NATHANAEL  GOTTFRIED, 

lived  in  the  latter  part  of  the  IStli  century, 
died  in  1794  at  Gera,  ^yhere  he  was  cantor 
and  music  director.  He  seems  also  to  have 
lived  at  Lyons,  as  some  of  his  music  was  pub- 
lished there.  Works  :  Dein  Ziou  streut  dir 
Palmeu,  cantata  ;  Psalms  8,  27,  51,  81,  and 
113  for  chorus  and  orchestra ;  Motets ; 
About  15  chorals  in  form  of  cantatas,  for 
do.  ;  Concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  Six  sonatas 
for  pianoforte,  oix  1  (Leipsic,  Breitkopf  & 
Hilrtel,  1781)  ;  Ten  do.,  op.  2  (ib.,  1783)  ; 
Four-part  songs  for  church  choii-s  and 
schools,  1st  and  2d  book  (Leipsic,  Koll- 
mann). — FiHis  ;  Mendel. 

GRUNEWALD,  KARL  HE  IN  RICH, 
singer  and  composer,  lived  in  the  first  part 
of  the  18th  century,  died  at  Darmstadt  in 


1739.     He  was  singing   in    the   Hamburg '  Drechsler   on  the  vio 


brothers  on  the  violin  and  in  harmony.  In 
1815  he  was  violinist  in  the  orchestra  of  the 
united  theatres  of  Presburg  and  Baden,  and 
in  181G  of  a  Vienna  theatre.  In  1830  he  be- 
came second  director  of  the  Kiirntnerthor 
Theater,  and  in  1831  member  of  the  im- 
perial chapel.  Works :  Der  Nachtwilchter, 
opera,  Vienna,  1835  ;  Der  Liebhaber  als 
Contrebande,  do.,  ib.,  1838;  2  masses; 
Graduale  and  offertory  ;  Duos,  trios,  and 
quartets  for  violin  ;  Vocal  quartets  ;  Songs. 
— AVurzbach  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling  ;  Fetis. 

GRUTZMACHER,  FRIEDRICH  (WIL- 
HELM  LUDWIG), 
born  in  Dessau,  March 
1,  1832,  still  living, 
1889.  Violoncellist,  pu- 
pil   of    his    father,    of 


Theatre  in  1703  ;  was  court  singer  in  Ber- 
lin about  1708  ;  later  he  became  Viceka- 
pellmeister  in  Darmstadt.  He  is  said  to 
have  composed  several  operas,  of  which, 
however,  only  one  is  still  known  :  Germani- 
cus,  oder  die  gerettete  Unschuld,  given  suc- 
cessfully in  Hamburg,  170G. — Gerber  ; 
Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

GRliNFELD,  ALFRED,  born  in  Prague, 
July  4,  1852,  still  liv- 
ing, 1889.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  Julius  Theo- 
dore Hiiger,  and  at 
the  Conservatorium 
of  Krejfi,  then  in 
Berlin  at  Kullak's 
Academy;  in  1837  he 
settled  in  Vienna, 
where  he  at  once 
made  for  himself  a 
prominent  position  as  a  concert  player,  and 
whence  he  has  undertaken  successful  con- 
cert tours  abroad,  especially  in  1883  to  St. 
Petersburg  and  IMoscow.  As  a  composer 
he  is  known  by  songs  and  pianoforte  music. 
— Mus.  Wochenblatt,  siv.  343. 

GRUTSCH,  FRANZ  SERAPH,  born  in 
Vienna,  Oct.  24,  1800,  died  there,  April  5, 
18G7.     Violinist,   pupil  of  the  Blumenthal 


loncello,  and  of  F. 
Schneider  in  theory. 
He  went  to  Leijjsic  in 
1848,  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  David,  and  in  1849  became  first 
violoncellist  of  the  Gewandhaus  orchestra, 
and  teaclier  in  the  Conservatorium.  In 
ISfiO  ho  was  appointed  chamber  virtuoso  in 
Dresden  ;  he  has  made  many  concert  tours 
and  formed  many  distinguished  pujiils. 
Works  :  Concertos  for  violoncello  and  or- 
chestra ;  Variations,  for  do.  ;  IMusic  and  ex- 
ercises for  violoncello  ;  Chamber  and  or- 
chestral music  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ;  Songs. 
He  has  published  also  many  editions  of 
standard  works.  His  brother,  Leojjold 
Griitzmacher  (born  at  Dessau,  Sept.  4, 
1835),  is  a  violoncellist  virtuoso  at  Weimar, 
and  a  composer  for  his  instrument. — IMen- 
del ;  Grove  ;  Riemann,  34G  ;  Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  427  ;  Mus.  Wochenblatt,  i.  599. 

GUAITOLI,  FRANCESCO  MARIA,  born 
at  Carpi  in  15G3,  died  there,  Jan.  3,  1G28. 
Church  composer,  canon  and  maestro  di 
capi^ella  of  the  cathedral  of  his  native  place, 
also  of  the  confraternity  of  San  Rocco  from 
1G02.  Works:  Salmi  per  vespri  a  5  voci 
(Venice,  1G04)  ;  Libro  primo  di  madrigali 
(ib.,  IGOO)  ;  Canzonette  a  tre  e  quattro  voci 


201 


-^ 


GUAMI 


(ib.,  IGOC)  ;  Psalmi  ad  tertiam  quinis  Toci- 
bus,  etc.  (ib.,  1618)  ;  Messe  e  Motetti  .a  otto 
voci,  1st  auj  2d  book  (ib.,  1G18).— Fctis  ; 
Mendel. 

GUAm,  GIUSEPPE,  bom  in  Lucca, 
about  1.540,  died  in  1626.  Organist  of  the 
ro_yal  chapel  at  Municli  in  1.57.5,  second  or- 
ganist of  S.  Marco,  Venice,  in  1.588,  and  or- 
ganist to  the  cathedi-al  of  Lucca  in  1591. 
He  was  celebrated  also  as  a  violinist. 
Works :  JIadrigals  and  motets  ;  Church 
music,  found  in  the  collections  of  the  time. 
— Fctis,  iv.  127 ;  Supplement,  i.  427  ;  Bur- 
ney,  Hist.  Music,  iii.  545  ;  Mendel,  iv. 
428  ;  do.,  Ergiinz.,  187. 

GUAEANY,  Hj,  Italian  opera  seria  in  four 
acts,  text  by  Sealvini,  music  by  Carlos  Go- 
mez, first  represented  at  La  Scala,  Milan, 
March  19,  1870.  Spanish  adventurers  sur- 
round with  suares  a  noble  Portuguese, 
whose  daughter  and  treasures  they  intend 
to  carry  off.  An  Indian  chief  of  the  tribe 
of  the  Guarany,  protects  the  family  and  tri- 
umphs over  the  iilibustcrs.  The  work, 
which  was  interpreted  by  Mme  Marie  Sass, 
Maurel,  and  Villani,  was  fairly  successful. 
It  was  given  soon  after  in  Rome,  and  at 
Covent  Garden,  London,  July  13,  1872. 

GUAZZONI,  FEDERIGO,  born  near 
IMilan  in  the  18th  century,  died  in  Rome  in 
1787.  He  studied  music  in  Naples  ;  was 
maestro  di  cappclla  in  several  small  Ital- 
ian cities,  and  finally  in  Rome  in  1770.  Of 
his  masses,  otYertories,  litanies,  etc.,  some 
are  still  in  use  in  Italy.  His  operas  are  for- 
gotten.— ^Mendel ;  Schilling,  Supplement, 
176. 

GUDRUN,  opera,  in  three  acts,  text  and 
music  by  Felix  Driiseke,  first  given  in  Han- 
over, Nov.  5,  1884.  Great  success.  Pub- 
lished by  Kistner  (Leipsic,  1884).  Same  ti- 
tle, by  Amand  Mangold,  Darmstadt,  1851  ; 
August  Reissmann,  Leipsic,  1871  ;  August 
Klughardt,  Neustrelitz,  1882,  Leipsic,  1884. 

GUl^DRON,  PIERRE,  born  in  Paris, 
about  1565,  died  (?).  He  was  a  singer  in 
the  King's  music  from  1590  and  succeeded 
Claude  Lejeune  as  composer  to  the  king.  , 


Under  Louis  XHI.  he  was  superintendent  of 
church  music  and  wrote  many  of  the  court 
ballets.  He  was  also  a  favorite  composer 
of  chansons  for  one  voice,  which  began  to 
take  the  jslace  of  those  for  three,  four,  or 
more  voices,  in  the  reign  of  Henri  IV. — Fc- 
tis ;  Larousse  ;  Mendel. 

GUEIT,  MARIUS,  born  in  Paris,  about 
1810,  still  living,  1889  (?).  Blind  organist 
and  composer,  whose  improvisations  on  the 
organ  were  remarkable  ;  was  also  a  finished 
violoncellist,  pupil  of  Benazet.  Organist  of 
the  Church  of  Saint-Paterne,  Orleans,  1831- 
1840,  of  Saint-Denis  au  Marais,  Paris,  1841. 
Works  :  L'indicateur  de  I'organiste,  60 
jjieces  for  anthems,  Kyrie,  Gloria,  etc.  ;  12 
pieces  for  the  organ  ;  3  oifertories  for  do., 
op.  25  ;  Fantaisies,  divertissement,  romances, 
serenades,  etc.,  for  organ  and  harmonium  ; 
Motets  for  several  voices,  and  organ  ;  Can- 
ticles ;  Method  for  the  organ. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del. 

GUENEE,  LUC,  born  at  Cadiz,  Aug.  19, 
1781,  died  in  Paris,  in  1847.  Dramatic  com- 
poser, pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  under 
Gavinies  and  Rode,  and  later  of  Mazas  and 
Reicha.  He  entered  in  1829  the  orchestra  of 
the  Opera,  of  which  he  was  a  member  twentj-- 
five  years.  He  was  also  chef  d'orchestre 
at  the  Palais  Royal  Theatre.  Works— Op- 
eras :  La  chambre  a  coucher,  Paris,  Opera- 
Comique,  1813  ;  La  comtesse  de  Troun, 
ib.,  1816  ;  Une  visite  a  la  campagne,  Gym- 
nase  Dramatique  ;  Concerto  for  violin  and 
orchestra  ;  Trios  for  2  violins  and  bass,  op. 
5  ;  Three  duos  concertants  for  violins,  op. 
1 ;  Thi-ee  do.,  op.  2  ;  Six  caprices  for  violin, 
with  bass  ;  Thi-ee  quartets  for  strings,  oj). 
4. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUltlNIN,  MARIE  ALEXANDRE,  born 
at  Maubeuge  (Nord),  Feb.  20,  1744,  died  in 
Paris  in  1819.  Violinist,  pupil  of  Capron 
on  the  violin  and  of  Gossec  in  composition. 
He  played  a  concerto  of  his  own  at  the  Con- 
certs Spirituels  in  1775  ;  was  intendant  of  the 
Prince  de  Conde's  music  in  1777  ;  member 
of  the  royal  chapel  in  1778,  and  solo  violin 
at  the  Oi^cra  iu  1780-1800.     In  1810-14  he 


202 


GUERCIA 


was  second  violin  to  Charles  IV.  of  Sj)ain. 
Works  :  U  sj'inplionies  ;  G  string  quartets ; 
18  violin  duets ;  G  sonatas  for  two  violins  ; 
3  sonatas  for  j^ianoforte  and  violin  ;  3  vio- 
loncello duets. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Eiemauu  ; 
Wasielewski,  Die  Violine,  251. 

GUEKCIA,  ALFONSO,  born  in  Naples, 
Nov.  13,  1831,  still  living,  1889.  Composer, 
professor  of  singing  at  the  Naples  Conserva- 
torio.  His  opera,  Rita,  was  represented  in 
Naples,  Dec.  11,  1875.  He  is  the  author  also 
of  many  songs,  and  of  a  theoretical  work, 
L'  Arte  del  canto  italiano. — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, i.  428  ;  Mendel,  ErgUuz.,  137. 

GUEEIN,  EjSIJMANUEL,  born  in  Ver- 
sailles in  1779,  died  (?).  Yioloucellist,  pupil 
at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  of  Levasseur.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Thea- 
tre Feydeau  in  1799-1824.  Works :  Sona- 
tas, duets,  and  variations  for  the  violoncello. 
■ — Fetis  ;  Eiemann. 

GUERRA,  GUERRA.     See  Norma. 

GUERRERO  (Guerreiro),  FRANCISCO, 
born  at  Beja,  Portugal,  in  1528,  died  at 
Seville,  Jan.  15,  1600.  Church  composer, 
jiupil  of  his  elder  brother,  Pedro,  a  pro- 
fessor of  music,  and  later  of  Morales.  In 
1546  he  became  maestro  de  capilla  of  the 
Cathedral  of  Jaen,  and  in  1550  a  singer  in 
the  Cathedral  of  Seville,  where  he  was  asso- 
ciated with  and  tiually  succeeded  Fernandez 
as  maestro.  In  1588  he  undertook  a  jour- 
ney to  Jerusalem,  passing  through  Italy, 
wliere  he  left  with  Zarlino  his  compositions 
for  revision.  Some  of  his  earlier  composi- 
tions had  been  already  published  in  Paris, 
Louvain,  and  Rome,  which  would  seem  to 
imply  that  he  had  previously  visited  those 
cities.  His  works  are  known  throughout 
Spain,  in  every  cathedral  towu,  but  are  ex- 
tremely rare  in  the  rest  of  Europe.  His 
most  important  works  were  published  im- 
der  the  title.  Liber  primus  Missarum,  F. 
Guerrero,  Hispalensis  Odei  phonasco  au- 
thore  (Paris,  1566) ;  this  contains  4  masses 
in  5  parts  and  5  in  4  parts,  and  some  mo- 
tets in  5,  6,  and  8  parts.  This  work  and  a 
collection  of  Magnificats,  printed  at  Lou- 


vain in  1563,  are  now  in  the  Vienna  library. 
Eslava's  Lira  sacro-hispana  has  the  Passion 
according  to  St.  Matthew,  for  4  voices,  for 
Palm  Sunday,  and  that  according  to  St. 
John,  5  voices,  for  Good  Friday ;  also  3 
motets  for  5  voices  and  a  4-j)art  mass.  Si- 
mile est  reguum  ccelorum.  His  Psalmo- 
rum  quat.  voc,  etc.,  Missarum  defunctorum 
(Rome,  1559),  and  Primo  lib.  di  salmi  (ib., 
1584),  are  in  the  same  work.  Besides  these, 
II  secoudo  libro  di  messe  (Rome,  1584),  and 
Libro  di  motetti  a  quattro,  etc.  (Venice), 
are  given  in  Fetis'  list. — Fetis,  iv.  136 ; 
Supplement,  i.  429  ;  Mendel. 

GUEST,  GEORGE,  born  at  Bury  St.  Ed- 
mund's, England,  in  1771,  died  at  Wisbeach, 
Cambridgeshire,  Sept.  10,  1831.  Organist, 
son  and  pupil  of  Ralph  Guest  ;  chorister  in 
the  Chapel  Royal  under  Dr.  Nares  and  Dr. 
Ayrton,  organist  at  Eye,  Suffolk,  in  1787- 
89,  then  at  Wisbeach  until  his  decease. 
Works :  Anthems  ;  Hymns  ;  Glees  ;  Duets ; 
Organ  music  ;  Military  baud  music. — Grove  ; 
Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUEST,  RALPH,  born  at  Basely,  Shrop- 
shire, England,  in  1742,  died  at  Bury  St. 
Ednunid's,  June,  1830.  Organist,  member 
of  the  Portland  Chapel  choir,  London,  1763  ; 
pupil  in  organ  playing  at  Bury  St.  Ednuuid's 
of  Ford,  organist  of  St.  James's  Church  ; 
choir-master  and  organist  of  St.  Mary's, 
Bury  St.  Edmund's,  in  1805-22.  He  pub- 
lished "  The  Psalms  of  David,"  a  collection 
of  old  psalm  tunes  with  about  sixty  new 
ones,  and  a  supplement,  "Hymns  and 
Psalms,"  with  music  composed  and  adapt- 
ed by  himself.  He  was  author  of  many 
popular  songs. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUGL,  IMATTHAUS,  lived  in  the  first 
part  of  the  18th  century.  Organist  of  the 
cathedral  in  Salzburg,  composed  music  of 
great  popularity  at  the  time,  and  wrote  an 
instruction  book. — Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Fetis. 

GUGLIELMI,  PIETEO,  born  at  Massa- 
Carrara,  Italy,  May,  1727,  died  in  Rome, 
Nov.  19,  1804.  Dramatic  composer,  son 
and  pupil  of  an  accomplished  musician  who 
was  maestro  di   cappella  to  the   Duke  of 


203 


GUGLIELMI 


Modena  ;  pupil  at  tlie  Conservatorio  of  San 
Loreto,  Naples,  of  Durante.  On  leaviug 
the  Conservatorio,  be  made  a  tour  through 
Italy  and  brought  out  -his  first  ojJera  in 
Turin,  in  1755.  From  that  time  the  prin- 
cipal cities  of  Italy  disi^uted  the  privi- 
lege of  producing  his  operas,  of  which  he 
wrote  nearly  two  buudi'ed.  In  1762  be 
■went  to  Venice,  soon  after  to  Dresden  and 
Brunswick,  and  in  1772  to  London,  where 
he  was  not  very  successful,  as  Piccinni 
w'as  then  the  reigning  favourite.  When  he 
returned  to  Naples  after  an  absence  of 
fifteen  years,  be  found  that  Cimarosa  and 
Paisiello  bad  taken  his  place  iu  pojjular 
favour  ;  but,  notwithstanding  the  efforts 
made  by  their  followers,  be  eventually  di- 
vided the  favours  of  the  Neapolitan  public 
with  them.  The  three  subsequently  formed 
themselves  into  a  mutual  protective  society 
to  keep  out  intruders,  and  agreed  upon  a 
common  jjrice  of  sis  hundred  ducats  for 
each  opera  that  the}'  should  produce.  Gu- 
glielmi  finally  gave  up  dramatic  composi- 
tion, and  in  1793  accepted  the  position  of 
maestro  at  the  Vatican,  and  composed 
church  music.  Most  of  his  operas  are  for- 
gotten, but  those  that  remain  arc  wortliy  of 
a  place  in  the  history  of  music.  Some  of  his 
opere  buffs  are  stiU  played  in  Italy.  Prin- 
cipal works  :  I  viaggiatori  ridicoli  (1772) ; 
La  serva  iunaniorata  (1778)  ;  La  bella  pesca- 
trice  (1779) ;  I  fi-atelli  Papjja  IMosca  (Milan, 
1783)  ;  La  pastorella  nobile  (1783)  ;  La  Di- 
done  (Venice,  1785)  ;  Enea  e  Lavinia  (Na- 
ples, 1785)  ;  I  due  gemelU  (Rome,  1787). 
His  church  compositions  are  mostly  ora- 
torios. La  morte  d'  Abele  ;  Betulia  liberata ; 
La  distruzione  di  Gerusalenime ;  Debora 
e  Sisera,  considered  his  masterpiece  by 
Zingarelli,  written  for  the  Vatican  iu  1794  ; 
Le  lagrime  di  San  Pietro  ;  besides  masses, 
motets,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel  ;  Eie- 
mann  ;  Schilling  ;  Hogartli,  Hist,  of  Miis. 
Drama,  160  ;  Burnej',  Hist,  of  Music,  iv. 
493. 

GUGLIELMI,    PIETRO   CARLO,   born 
in  Naples  in   1763,  died  iu  Massa-Carrara, 


!  Feb.  28,  1817.  Dramatic  composer,  son  of 
Pietro  Guglielmi  ;  pupil  at  the  Conserva- 
torio of  Loreto,  Naples.  He  produced  his 
first  opera  in  Naples  when  only  twenty 
years  old.  After  visiting  several  Italian 
cities  as  a  composer,  and  London  in  1810, 
he  became  maestro  di  cappella  to  the  arch- 
duchess Beatrice  of  Massa-Carrara.  Works 
— Operas  :  Asteria  e  Teseo,  Naples,  about 
1783  ;  La  fiera,  ib.,  about  1785  ;  II  nau- 
fragio  fortunato,  ib.,  about  1787  ;  L'  equivo- 
co  degli  sposi,  ib.,  about  1789  ;  La  serva 
I  bizzarra,  ib.,  about  1790 ;  L'  erede  di  Bel 
j  Prato,  about  1799  ;  L'  isola  di  Calipso, 
Milan,  1813  ;  La  persuasione  corretta,  Na- 
ples, about  1814  ;  Ernesto  e  Palmira,  Italy, 
about  1814  ;  La  moglie  giudice  del  marito, 
Naples,  about  1815  ;  Romeo  e  Giulietta, 
about  1816. — Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

GUHR,  FRIEDRICH  HEINRICH 
FLORIAN,  born  at  Militsch,  Prussian  Sile- 
sia, April  17,  1791,  died  (?).  Pupil  of  bis 
father  ;  was  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Count 
von  Maltzahn  in  his  native  town  in  1807-10  ; 
then  continued  his  studies  at  the  seminary 
in  Breslau.  On  bis  return  he  assisted  his 
father  as  cantor,  and  later  succeeded  him 
iu  that  position.  He  composed  some  songs, 
and  wrote  an  elementary  book  on  music. 
'  —Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUHR,     KARL      FRIEDRICH     WIL- 
HELM,  born  at  Militsch,  Prussian  Silesia, 
Oct.   30,   1787,    died   in   Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  July  22,  1848.     Pianist  and  violinist, 
son  and  pupil  of  Karl  Christoph  Guhr,  and 
pupil  of  Faust,  Jauitschek,  Berner,  Wolfl, 
Schnabel,  and  Vogler.     At  fourteen  he  had 
I  been  a  member  of  Count  von  Maltzalin's 
'  orchestra  in   Militsch,  and   after   finishing 
his  studies  he  joined  it  again  in  1804.     In 
1807  he  became  chamber  musician  in  Wiirz- 
burg,  soon   after   musical   du'cctor   of   the 
Nuremberg  theatre,  and  in  1813  of  Wies- 
baden.    He  went  to  Cassel  as  Hofkapell- 
'  meister,  and  in  1821  as  director  of  music  at 
;  Frankfort-on-the-Main.      Works  —  Operas  : 
Feodora,  Die  Vestalin,  Cassel,  1814  ;  Deo- 
data,  ib.,  1815  ;  KOnig  Siegmar,  ib.,  1819  ; 


204 


GUICHARD 


Aladdin,  oder  die  Wunderlampe,  Frankfort, 
1830  ;  A  mass  ;  A  symphony  ;  Pianoforte 
rondo  for  four  hands  ;  Sonata  for  jjiauo- 
forte  ;  Violin  concerto  ;  etc.  He  wrote  also  : 
"  Paganini's  Kunst  die  Violine  zu  spieleu  " 
(Mainz,  1831).— Gollmick,  Carl  Guhr,  Nek- 
rolog.  (Frankfort-on-the-Main,  18i8)  ;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis  ;  Riehl,  Mus.  Charakterkupfe, 
iii.  189  ;  Dubourg,  The  Violin,  2i5. 

GUICHARD,  Abbe  FRANgOIS,  born 
at  Mans,  France,  Aug.  26,  IHB,  died  in 
Paris,  Feb.  2i,  1807.  He  was  counter- 
tenor and  later  sous-maitre  at  Notre  Dame, 
Paris.  During  the  Revolution  he  taught 
the  guitar  and  published  music  for  that  in- 
strument. He  published  Essais  de  Psalmo- 
die,  containing  Magnificats  (1783).  His 
chansons  were  popular. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUIDO  ET  GINEVRA,  ou  la  peste  de 
Florence  (The  Plague  of  Florence),  ojiera 
in  five  acts,  text  by  Scribe,  music  by  Halevy, 
represented  at  the  Academic  Royale  de  Mn- 
sique,  Paris,  March  9,  1838.  The  libretto 
is  founded  on  an  ejjisode  in  Delecluze's 
"Histoire  de  Florence."  Ginevra,  daughter 
of  Cosmo  de'  Medici,  falls  in  a  swoon  during 
the  celebration  of  her  marriage  with  the 
Duke  of  Ferrara.  Believed  to  be  a  victim 
of  the  plague  then  prevailing,  she  is  en- 
tombed, but,  as  in  Romeo  and  Juliet, 
awakes  and  escapes  from  the  vault.  Re- 
pulsed everywhere  in  the  terrified  and  al- 
most deserted  city,  she  is  received  into  the 
house  of  Guido,  a  young  sculjDtor  who  had 
long  loved  her.  Cosmo  de'  Medici  at  last 
finds  his  daughter  and  consents  to  her  mar- 
riage with  Guido.  Although  the  work  con- 
tains many  musical  gems,  its  lugubrious 
plot  interfered  with  its  success.  It  was 
revived,  however,  in  four  acts,  Oct.  23, 
1810. 

GIHGNON,  JEAN  PIERRE,  born  in 
Turin,  Feb.  10,  1702,  died  in  Versailles, 
Jan.  30,  1775.  Violinist,  the  last  "  Roi  des 
Violons  et  des  Menetriers."  At  first  a  vio- 
loncellist in  Paris,  he  relinquished  that  in- 
strument for  the  violin,  on  which  he  is  said 
to  have  rivalled  Leclair.     He  entered  the 


king's  service  in  1733,  was  appointed  teach- 
er to  the  dauphin,  and  in  1741  had  revived 
in  his  favor  the  extinct  title  of  Roi  des  vio- 
ons ;    but    his    at- 


tempt to  levy  taxes 
ou  other  musicians 
led  to  an  acrimoni- 
lous  dispute  and  to 
the  revocation  of  his 
powers  in  1750, 
though  he  did  not 
resign  the  title  until 
1773.  He  was  an 
excellent    orchestra 

leader,  and  published  several  books  of  Con- 
certos, Sonatas,  Duos,  etc. — Fetis;  Grove; 
Fayolle,  Hist,  du  Violon  ;  Dubourg,  The 
Violin,  189. 

GUILLAUiAIE  DE  MACHAU  (de  Bla- 
chaut,  Guillermusde  Mascaudio,  Guiglielmo 
di  Francia),  born  at  Machau,  Champagne, 
about  1284,  died  after  1370.  He  was  in 
the  service  of  Jeanne  de  Navarre,  wife  of 
Philippe  le  Bel,  and  in  1307-14  was  valet 
to  that  king.  After  that  he  was  clerk  to 
Jean  de  Luxembourg,  King  of  Bohemia, 
where  he  lived  thirty  years,  returning  to 
France  after  the  death  of  his  master  at 
Crecy  in  1346.  He  then  entered  the  ser- 
vice of  the  Duchess  of  Normandy,  was  sec- 
retary to  the  Duke  Jean  le  Bon,  afterwards 
King  of  France,  and  served  his  successor 
Charles  V.  in  the  same  capacity.  His  com- 
positions consist  of  motets,  ballads,  ron- 
deaux,  and  a  mass  said  to  have  been  used 
at  the  coronation  of  Charles  V.,  preserved 
in  the  MS.  collections  in  the  National  Li- 
brary, Paris.  His  masses  and  motets  were 
long  used  as  models.  One  of  his  poems  gives 
a  curious  account  of  the  musical  instru- 
ments in  use  at  that  time. — Fetis  ;  La- 
rousse  ;  Mendel. 

GUILLAU.AIE  TELL,  lyrical  drama  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Sedaine,  music  by  Gretry, 
first  represented  at  the  Italiens,  Paris,  Ai^ril 
9,  1791.  The  subject,  which  had  previously 
been  treated  musically  by  Lemiere,  was  be- 
j'oud  the  composer's  range.    The  opera  was 


205 


GITILLAUME 


reinstrumented  bj-   Berton   and   Eifaut  in 
1828. 

GUILLAUME  TELL,  grand  opera,  in 
tliree  acts,  text  by  litienne  Join-,  Hippolyte 
Bis,  and  Ai-mand  Mai-ast,  music  by  Rossini, 


Duprez.  as  Arnold. 


first  represented  at  the  Aeademie  Royale  de 
Musique,  Paris,  Aug.  3,  1829.  Tlic  compos- 
er's thirty-seventh  and  last  oijera,  and  his 
masterpiece.  The  libretto,  derived  from 
Schiller's  drama,  "  Wilhelm  Tell "  (1804),  was 
written  originally  in  five  acts  by  Jouy,  but, 
proving  unsatisfactorj',  was  largely  rewritten 
by  Bis,  and  lastly  worked  over  by  Marast, 
to  whom  belongs  the  conspiracy  scene,  the 
best  in  the  opera.  In  1831  the  third  act 
was  omitted  and  the  fourth  and  fifth  acts 
were  condensed  into  one,  and  the  opera  is 
now  jjlayed  everywhere  in  its  three-act 
form  ;  but  in  1856  it  was  performed  entire 
in  Paris,  and  lasted  from  seven  until  one 
o'clock.  An  English  version,  entitled  Hofer, 
the  Tell  of  the  Tyrol,  text  by  Planche,  mu- 
sic arranged  by  Bishop,  was  given  in  Lon- 
don, at  Drury  Lane,  May  1,   1830  ;  it  was 


given  also  as  Guillaume  Tell,  at  the  same 
house,  Dec.  3,  1838  ;  and  an  Italian  version, 
Guglielmo  Tell,  was  produced  at  Her  Maj- 
esty's, July  11,  1839.  The  scene  is  laid 
in  Switzerland  in  the  thirteenth  century. 
Original  cast  in  Paris,  1829  : 

Arnold INI.  Adolphe  Nourrit. 

Walter M.  Levasseur. 

TeU M.  Dabadie. 

Ruodi M.  A.  Dupont. 

Rodolphe M.  Massol. 

Gessler M.  Prevost. 

Leuthold M.  Prcvot. 

Jemmy Mme  Dabadie. 

Mathilde Mme  Cinti-Damoreau. 

Hedwige Mile  Mori. 

Each  of  these  roles  has  since  been  filled  by 
famous  singers,  among  whom  Gilbert  Du- 
prez (born  in  1806),  has  been  among  the 
most  noted.  His  novel  and  stirring  reading 
of  the  part  of  Arnold  contributed  greatly  to 
the  success  of  the  oisera  on  its  revival  in 
1837  at  the  Opera.  The  plot  is  briefly  as 
follows  :  One  of  the  followers  of  Gessler, 
Austrian  bailiff  in  Kiissnacht,  having  at- 
tempted an  outrage  upon  the  daughter  of 
the  herdsman  Leuthold,  is  slain  by  the  fa- 
ther, who  flies  for  refuge  to  Tell  and  is  pro- 
tected by  him.  Tliis  excites  the  rage  of 
Gessler,  and  Mclclital,  the  father  of  Arnold, 
is  accused  of  inciting  people  to  insurrection 
and  put  to  death.  Ai'nold,  enamoured  of  Ma- 
thilde, Gessler's  daughter,  has  long  vacillated 
between  love  and  duty,  but  now  renounces 
his  love  and  devotes  himself  to  avenging 
his  father's  death.  He  joins  Tell  in  the 
mountains,  where  the  second  act  closes 
with  the  grand  conspiracy  scene,  the  secret 
banding  together  of  the  cantons  under  the 
leadership  of  Tell,  who  promises  to  lead 
them  to  victory  or  death.  In  the  third  act 
Gessler,  to  discover  who  is  and  who  is  not 
loyal,  commands  everybody  to  do  homage 
to  his  hat,  which  he  places  upon  a  pole  in 
the  public  square  at  Altorf.  Tell  refus- 
ing, he  is  ordered  to  shoot  an  apple  from  his 
son's  head.     When  about  to  retire  after  ac- 


S06 


GUILLON 


oomplisliiiig  this  feat,  Gessler  demands  of 
him  why  he  had  concealed  another  arrow 
under  his  cloak.  Tell  defiantly  answers 
that  it  was  intended  for  him  in  case  be  had 
slain  his  son.  On  this  he  is  thrown  into 
l^rison.  Mathilde,  outraged  by  her  father's 
cruel  acts,  deserts  him  and  joins  the  pa- 
triots with  the  purpose  of  procuring  Tell's 
rescue  ;  but  she  is  anticipated  by  Arnold. 
Gessler  is  slain,  Tell  returns  in  triumph  to 
his  family,  and  Arnold  and  Mathilde  are 
united.  The  overture  is  Kossini's  master- 
piece in  this  form.  Among  the  noteworthy 
numbers  in  the  opera  are,  in  the  first  act, 
the  quartet  between  Tell,  Hedwige,  Jemmy, 
and  a  fisherman,  "  Accours  dans  ma  nacelle," 
and  the  recitative  of  Arnold,  "  Le  mien, 
dit-il."  In  the  second  act  are  the  romance 
by  Mathilde,  "Sombre  forct,"  the  passion- 
ate duet  between  Mathilde  and  Arnold, 
"  Oui,  vous  I'arrachez  :\  mon  Ame,"  the  trio, 
"  Tu  nV-tais  pas  seul  en  ees  lieux,"  and  the 
fine  chorus  at  the  gathering  of  the  Cantons. 
The  third  act  contains  the  air  of  Tell,  in  the 
famous  scene  of  the  shooting  of  the  apple, 
"  Sois  immobile,"  and  a  passionate  aria  by- 
Arnold,  "Asile  hereditaire." — Clement  and 
Larousse,  331  ;  Hanslick,  Moderne  Oper, 
118  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  202. 

GUILLON,  ALBERT,  born  at  Meaux 
(Seine-et-Marne),  France,  in  1801,  died  in 
Venice,  Ajiril,  1854.  Dramatic  composer ; 
made  his  first  musical  studies  at  the  Cathedral 
of  Paris,  then  at  the  Conservatoire  pupil  of 
Fctis  and  of  Berton  ;  won  the  prix  de  Rome 
in  1825  with  his  cantata  Ariaue  a  Naxos, 
and  lived  several  years  in  Rome,  whence  he 
sent  some  sacred  compositions  to  the  lu- 
stitut  de  France.  He  then  went  to  Venice, 
and  in  1830  wrote  for  the  Teatro  della  Fen- 
ice  his  opera  Maria  di  Brabante,  which  was 
well  received.  Patronized  by  a  noble  family, 
who  intrusted  him  with  the  administration 
of  their  estates,  he  abandoned  music,  and 
devoted  himself  to  agriculture. — Fetis. 

GXJILLOU,  JOSEPH,  born  in  Paris  in 
1786,  died  at  St.  Petersburg,  Sejitember, 
1853.     Virtuoso   on  the  flute,  pupil  at  the 


Conservatoire  of  Devieune  and  of  Wunder- 
lich ;  won  the  second  prize  in  1798,  and  the 
first  in  1808,  but  had  to  wait  until  1815  be- 
fore obtaining  a  position  as  second  flute 
in  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera,  and  in  the 
royal  chapel.  In  181G  he  became  professor 
at  the  Conservatoire,  and  in  1830  started 
on  a  concert  tour  through  Belgium,  Ger- 
many, Sweden,  etc.,  and  settled  at  St. 
Petersburg.  Works  :  2  concertos  for  flute 
and  orchestra  ;  Concertino  ;  Themes  vai-ius 
for  do.  ;  Themes  for  flute  and  quartet ; 
Duos,  fantaisies,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

GUILMANT,  FELIX  ALEXANDRE, 
born  at  Boulogne,  France,  March  12, 1837, 
still  living,  1889.  Organist,  son  and  pupil 
of  the  organist  of  the  Church  of  Saint- 
Nicolas,  Boulogne  ;  pupil  of  Gustave  Ca- 
rulli,  and  later  (1860)  of  Lemmens.  In 
1857  he  became  organist  of  the  church  of 
S.aint-Joseph,  Boulogne,  and  maitre  de  cha- 
pelle  of  Saint-Nicolas,  and  soon  after  pro- 
fessor of  solfege  in  the  Ecole  Communale. 
He  was  also  director  and  organizer  of  the 
Boulogne  Societo  Orpheonique  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Societe  Philharmonique.  In  1871 
he  removed  to  Paris,  where  he  became  or- 
ganist of  the  Church  of  La  Trinite,  a  posi- 
tion which  he  still  occupies.  He  has  made 
concert  tours  in  England,  Italy,  and  Russia. 
Guilmant  is  one  of  the  best  organists  of 
modern  times,  and  is  unexcelled  for  bril- 
liancy of  execution.  Works  :  i  masses  with 
orchesti'a  or  organ  ;  Motets  for  4  voices, 
with  do. ;  12  motets  for  1-4  voices,  with  or- 
gan ;  Echos  du  mois  de  Marie,  canticles  ; 
Quam  dilecta  (83d  psalm),  for  soli  and 
chorus,  with  organ,  op.  8  ;  Sonatas  for  or- 
gan ;  Symphony  for  do.,  and  orchestra ; 
Many  other  pieces  for  organ  ;  L'organiste 
pratique. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  435  ;  Men- 
del, Ergiinz.,  138  ;  Riemann. 

GUIMET,  EMILE,  born  in  Lyons,  France, 
in  1836,  still  living,  1889.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Debillemont,  Lindau,  and  Luigini.  The  son 
of  a  wealth}-  chemical  manufacturer,  he  has 
given  much  attention  as  an  amateur  to  music. 
He  has  been  at  the  head  of  the  great  musical 


S07 


GUIRAUD 


societies  of  Lj-ons,  and  is  a  member  of  the 
Academy.  Works  :  L'cBuf  blanc  et  I'oeuf 
rouge,  ballet,  Lyons,  Grand  Tlu'utre,  1867  ; 
Le  feu  du  ciel,  oratorio,  Loudon,  1872, 
Paris,  1873.  He  published  a  collection  of 
melodies  and  pianoforte  pieces  (1859),  be- 
sides several  orpheonic  choruses. — Fetis, 
Supplument,  i.  435. 

GUIRAUD,  ERNEST,  born,  of  French 
parents,  in  New  Orleans,  Louisiana,  June  23, 
1837,  still  living,  1889.  Dramatic  composer, 
son  and  pupil  of  Jean  Baptiste  Guiraud,  who 
won  in  1827  the  grand  prix  de  Rome.  He 
visited  Paris  at  the  age  of  twelve  and  on  his 
return  to  New  Orleans  brought  out  an  oi^era 
Le  roi  David.  Soon  after  he  went  again  to 
Paris,  and  studied,  at  the  Conservatoire,  the 
pianoforte  under  Marmontel  (2d  prize, 
1857  ;  1st  prize,  1858),  harmony  under 
Barbereau,  and  composition  under  Hak'vj' ; 
grand  prix  de  Rome,  1859,  for  his  cantata, 
Bajazet  et  le  joueur  defiilte.  Was  in  Rome 
18G0-G3,  served  during  the  war  of  1870-71, 
and  when  it  was  ended  played  at  the  Concerts 
Populaires,  bringing  out  at  one  of  them  in 
1872  a  suite  for  orchestra  which  secured 
him  a  recognized  position  among  the  leaders 
of  the  French  school  of  composers.  Ap- 
pointed professor  of  harmony  and  accom- 
paniment at  the  Conservatoire  in  187G. 
Works — Operas :  Sylvie,  Paris,  Oi)rra  Co- 
mique,  18G4  ;  En  prison,  Tlu'atrc  Lyrique, 
18G9  ;  Le  Kobold,  Opura  Comique,"  1870  ; 
Madame  Turlupin,  Thuiitre  de  I'Athunee, 
1872  ;  Gretna-Green,  ballet,  Opera,  1873  ; 
Piccolino,  Opera  Comique,  1876  ;  La  galante 
aveuture,  ib.,  1882  ;  Gli  avveuturieri,  opera 
buffa  ;  Messe  solennelle  ;  Concert  overture, 
etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  437  ;  Riemann. 

GULISTAN,  OU  LE  HULLA  DE  SA]M- 
ARCANDE,  opera- comique  in  three  acts, 
text  by  La  Chabeaussiere,  music  bj'  Dalaj'- 
rac,  first  represented  at  the  Opera  Comique, 
Paris,  Sept.  20,  1805.  The  subject  is  from 
the  "Arabian  Nights." 

GULNARE,  OU  L'ESCLAVE  PER- 
SANE,  opera-comique  in  one  act,  text  by 
Marsollier,  music  by  Dalayrac,  first  repre- 


j  sented  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  Jan.  9, 
1798.  Same  title,  German  opera  by  Siiss- 
mayer,  represented  in  Vienna  in  1800.  Ital- 
I  ian  ojieras  by  Libani,  Rome,  1869,  and  Flor- 
ence, 1870,  and  by  Guarneri,  Genoa,  1877. 
GUMBEET,  FERDINAND,  born  in  Ber- 
lin, April  21,  1818,  still 
living,  1889.  Dramatic 
composer ;  studied  first 
the  violin,  then  sing- 
ing under  Fischer  and 
composition  under  Clii- 
pius.  Destined  to  be 
a  bookseller,  he  pre- 
ferred the  stage,  and 
secured  a  theatrical  en- 
gagement at  Sonders- 
hausen  in  1839,  and  another  as  baritone 
in  Cologne  in  1840-42.  Then,  taking 
Kreutzer's  advice,  he  settled  in  his  native 
city  as  a  teacher  and  composer.  His  songs 
are  very  popular.  Works — Operettas  :  Die 
scliiine  Schusterin,  given  in  Berlin,  1844  ; 
Die  Kunst  geliebt  zu  werden,  1850  ;  Der 
kleine  Ziegenhirt,  1854 ;  Bis  der  Rechte 
kommt,  185G  ;  Karolina,  and  others  ;  More 
than  400  songs.  He  has  published  also 
German  translations  of  songs,  and  of  Offen- 
bach's and  other  French  ojjeras  ;  articles  for 
musical  journals,  and  the  book,  Musik,  Ge- 
lesenes  und  Gesammeltes  (Berlin,  1860). 
— Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Fetis,  iv.  161  ;  Sup- 
jilement,  i.  438. 

GUMPELTZH AIMER,  ADA:\r,  born  at 
Trostberg,  Bava- 
ria, in  1559,  died 
in  Augsburg, 
1625.  Church 
composer,  pupil 
in  Augsburg  of 
the  monk  Jodo- 
cus  Euzm  idler  ; 
in  1575  he  en- 
tered the  service 
of  the  Duke  of 
Wurtemberg  ;  in  1581  he  became  cantor 
in  Augsburg.  His  church  music  is  of  a 
high  order.    Works  :  Erster  Theil  des  Lust- 


GUNG'L 


giirtleins  teutscli  imtl  lateiuischer  Lieder 
von  3  Stimmeu  (AuL;sbiirg',  1591)  ;  Zwei- 
ter  Theil  (ib.,  IGll)  ;  Erster  des  Wiirtzgilrt- 
leius  J:-stimmiger  geistliclier  Lieder  (ib., 
1594) ;  Zweiter  Theil,  do.  (ib.,  1G19)  ;  Psal- 
mus  1.  octo  vocum  (ib.,  1G04) ;  Partitio  sa- 
croruin  conceutuum,  etc.  (ib.,  1G14)  ;  Pars 
ii.,  do.  (ib.,  1G19)  ;  Zebu  geistliche  Lieder 
mit  4  stimmen  ;  Fiiuf  do. ;  Newe  teutsche 
geistliche  Lieder  (ib.,  1591-92);  Motets. 
He  also  rearranged  and  edited  the  famous 
Coiupeiidium  musica;  of  Heiurich  Faber, 
vinder  the  title,  Coiupeudiuiu  musica;  pro 
illius  artis  tirouibus,  etc.  (Augsburg,  1591- 
1G75,  12  editions). — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  x. 
119  ;  Futis ;  Mendel ;  lliemanu  ;  Ambros, 
iii.  559  ;  Mouatshefte  filr  Musikgeschichte 
(1870),  27  ;  (1872),  51,  122  ;  Wiuterfeld,  Der 
evaiig.  Kirchengesang,  i.  498. 

GUNG'L,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Zsambek, 
Hungary,  Dec.  1, 
1810,  died  at  Wei- 
mar, Jan.  31,  1889. 
Bandmaster,  jj  u  - 
pil  of  Semaun.  He 
entered  the  Aus- 
trian army  as  an 
oboist,  and  sooji 
became  band- 
master. With  his 
baud  gave  concerts 
in  the  German  cit- 
ies until  1843,  when  he  collected  an  orches- 
tra of  his  own  in  Berlin.  In  1849  he  took 
this  orchestra  to  the  United  States,  but  was 
not  very  successful.  He  was  ai^pointed 
royal  Prussian  musical  director  in  1850, 
Kapellmeister  to  an  Austrian  infantry  regi- 
ment in  1858  ;  settled  in  Munich  in  1864, 
and  moved  to  Frankfort-on-the-Main  in 
1876.  W'ith  his  orchestra  he  has  visited 
almost  all  the  larger  cities  of  Europe,  and 
played  chiefly  light  music  of  his  own  com- 
position. His  dances  have  been  almost  as 
popular  as  those  of  Strauss.  Works :  Hun- 
garian march,  op.  1,  and  other  marches  and 
dances,  numbering  altogether  more  than 
300   pieces.     His  nephew,  Johanu   Gung'l 


(born,  1828,  died  in  1883),  was  also  a  fa- 
vourite composer  of  dance  music,  gave  con- 
certs in  Berlin,  1843-45,  and  St.  Peters- 
burg, 1845-54,  and  retired  to  Fiinfkirchen, 
Hungary,  in  1862. — Mendel  ;  Fetis ;  Eie- 
maun,  351. 

GURLITT,  COENELIUS,  born  at  Al- 
tona  in  1820,  still  living  there,  1889.  Dra- 
matic composer,  jDupil  of  Eeinecke  the  el- 
der ;  professor  at  the  Conservatoriiim,  Ham- 
burg ;  was  appointed  royal  music  director 
in  1874.  Works  :  Scheik  Hassan,  oijcra  ; 
Die  rOmische  Mauer,  operetta ;  Rafael  San- 
zio,  do. ;  Quartet  for  strings ;  3  sonatas 
for  violin  ;  Sonata  for  violoncello ;  2  sona- 
tinas for  do. ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  In- 
structive pieces  for  do.;  Songs  and  duets. 
— Riemann  ;  Mendel. 

GURRLICH,  JOSEPH  AUGUSTIN,  born 
at  MCuisterberg,  Silesia,  in  17G1,  died  in 
Berlin,  June  27,  1817.  He  studied  the- 
ology in  the  Jesuit  Latin  school  in  Breslau. 
In  1784  he  became  organist  at  the  Hed- 
wigskirche,  Berlin,  in  1790  entered  the 
court  orchestra  there,  in  1811  was  ap- 
pointed assistant  conductor  of  the  ojiera, 
and  in  181G  court  Kapellmeister.  Works 
— Operas  :  Das  Incognito,  Berlin,  1797  ; 
Der  Opernschneider,  ib.,  1801  ;  Hans  Max 
Giesbrecht  von  Humpenburg,  ib.,  1815 ; 
Alfred  der  Grosse  (unfinished).  Ballets : 
Das  Opfer  vor  der  Bildsilule  des  Amor,  Ver- 
tumnus  und  Pomona,  1804  ;  Die  Einschif- 
fung  nach  Cythera,  Die  Schwesteru  als  Ne- 
beubuhlerinuen,  Der  Dorfschulmeister,  Die 
Verwandlungeu  aus  Liebe,  1805  ;  Der  un- 
terbrochene  Dorfjahrmarkt,  1806  ;  Echo 
und  Narcissus,  1813 ;  Lucas  und  Laui'ette, 
1815  ;  Die  Ruckkehr  des  Mars,  1815  ;  Die 
deutschen  Frauen,  Alexander  und  Campas- 
pe,  Der  Maler,  1817  ;  Music  to  Goethe's 
Die  Lauue  des  VerUeben  ;  do.  to  several 
dramas  ;  L'  Obedienza  di  Giouata,  oratorio  ; 
4  cantatas ;  Pianoforte  music  and  songs. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

GUST  AVE  HI.,  ou  le  bal  masque  (The 
Masked  Ball),  opera  in  five  acts,  text  by 
Scribe,  music  by  Auber,  first  represented 


GUTE 


at  tlie  Academie  Koyale  tie  IMusique,  Paris, 
Feb.  27,  1833.  The'  libretto  deals  with  the 
story  of  Gustavus  III.  of  Sweden,  who  was 
shot  at  a  masked  ball  iu  1792,  by  Ankar- 
stroiu,  the  iustrumeut  of  a  couspiracj'  of  uo- 
bles ;  but  Scribe  has  taken  liberties  with 
history  by  making  the  kiug  the  victim  of 
au  outraged  husband.  The  scene  of  the 
masked  ball  iu  the  last  act  is  magnificent, 
and  is  often  rej)resented  singly.  The  galojs 
from  Gustave  is  famous. 

GUTE  NACHT,  DU  "U'ELTGETUiM- 
]MEL,  bass  aria  in  G  minor,  with  accompa- 
niment of  strings  complete,  and  coutinuo, 
in  Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  cantata  for 
Dom.  xvi  post  Trinit.,  "  Wer  weiss,  wic 
nahe  mir  meiu  Ende "  (Bachgesellsehaft, 
No.  27) ;  2)ublished  separately,  with  addi- 
tional accompaniments  by  Robert  Franz,  by 
F.  Whistling,  Leipsic,  18G0. 

GYPSY  BARON,THE.  See  Zigeunerbaron. 

GYPSY'S  WARNING,  THE,  English  ro- 
mantic opera  iu  three  acts,  text  by  Lindley 
and  Peake,  music  by  Julius  Benedict,  first 
represented  at  Drury  Lane,  London,  April 
19,  1838.  It  was  performed  many  times  iu 
Germany.  "  Rage,  rage,  thou  angry  storm," 
and  "  Blest  be  the  home,"  were  frequently 
sung  in  concerts. 

GYROWETZ,  ADALBERT,  born  at  Bud- 
weis,  Bohemia,  Feb.  19,  17G3,  died  in  Vi- 
enna, March  19, 1850.  Dramatic  composer, 
j)upil  of  his  father,  a  choirmaster.  He  be- 
gan the  study  of  law  at  Prague  University, 
but  poverty  compelled  him  to  accep)t  the 
post  of  secretary  to  Count  von  Fiinfkirchen. 
He  went  to  Vienna,  where  Mozart  intro- 
duced his  compositions  to  the  public  ;  he 
then  visited  Italy  and  studied  two  years 
under  Sala  in  Naples.  In  1789  he  travelled 
in  France,  and  proved  himself  the  comijoser 
of  symphonies  that  had  been  performed  as 
Haydn's  ;  but  the  troubles  of  the  Revolu- 
tion soon  drove  him  to  London,  where  he 
was  well  received  by  the  Prince  of  Wales 
and  others,  and  found  liberal  publishers. 
He  was  engaged  to  write  an  opera,  but  the 
opera-house  and  the  score  of  Semiramide 


were  burned.  In  1793  he  returned  to  Vi- 
enna after  an  absence  of  seven  years.  Un- 
derstanding six  languages,  he  acted  as  sec- 
retary of  legation  in  several  German  cities, 
and  in  1S0J;-31  was  KaiJellmeister  of  the 
court  theatre  in  Vienna,  from  which  he  re- 
tired on  a  slender  pension.  His  fertility 
was  remarkable,  and  his  compositions  were 
very  popidar  iu  their  time,  though  they  are 
now  forgotten.  His  style  is  often  an  imita- 
tion of  Haydn's.  W^orks — Operas  :  Selico, 
1801 ;  Ar/nex  Sorel,  ISOO  ;  Der  Augenai'zt, 
1811 ;  Die  Priifung,  1813,  approved  by 
Beethoven;  Helene,  1816  ;  Felix und Adele, 
1831  ;  Ida,  die  Biissende  ;  Emerike  ;  Semi- 
ramide ;  U  finto  Stanislao ;  Federiea  e  Adol- 
fo  ;  Mirina,  melodrama.  Opei'ettas  :  Der 
betrogene  Betriiger;  Der  dreizehute  Man- 
tel ;  Der  blinde  Harfuer  ;  Der  Sammtrock  ; 
Wiuterquartier  in  Amerika ;  Gemahl  von 
Ungefiihr  ;  Das  zugemauerte  Fenster  ;  Die 
Junggesellenwirthschaft ;  Das  Stilndehen  ; 
Aladin  ;  Die  Pagen  dea  Herzogs  von  Ven- 
dome.  Forty  ballets  ;  Cantatas,  choruses, 
and  songs ;  19  masses  ;  GO  symphonies ;  21: 
trios  ;  41  quai'tets ;  3  quintets  ;  12  sere- 
nades ;  3G  i^ianoforte  sonatas ;  12  nocturnes ; 
Overtures,  dances,  marches,  and  other  mu- 
sic.— Biogi'aphie  des  Adalbert  Gyrowetz  (Vi- 
enna, 1818) ;  Wurzbach,  vi.  62  ;  Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  X.  247  ;  Riehl,  ]\Ius.  CharakterkOpfe, 
i.  211 ;  Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Grove. 


HAACK,  FRIEDRICH,  born  iu  Pots- 
dam in  17G0,  died  (?).  Violinist, 
brother  of  Karl  Haack  ;  at  an  early 
age  he  joined  the  orchestra  of  the  Prince  of 
Prussia  as  violinist,  but  studied  the  piano- 
forte and  the  organ,  and  composition  imder 
Fasch.  He  became  organist  at  Stargard, 
Pomerania,  in  1779,  and  later  music  direc- 
tor and  organist  in  Stettin,  where  he  con- 
ducted amateur  concerts  from  1793.  He 
composed  the  opera.  Die  Geisterinsel,  an 
oratorio,  S}-mf)honies,  pianoforte  concerto 
and  trios,  and  a  violin  concerto.  — Mendel ; 
Fetis  :  Schilling. 


210 


HAACK 


HAACK,  IvARL,  born  in  Potsdam,  Feb. 
18,  1757,  died  there,  Sept.  28,  1819.  Vio- 
linist, pupil  of  Franz  Benda.  He  entered 
the  orchestra  of  the  Prince  of  Prussia  and 
was  Conzerlmeister  before  1782  ;  on  the  ac- 
cession of  Friedrich  Wilhelm  II.  he  became 
royal  chamber  musician  and  in  1796  Con- 
zertmeister.  He  was  pensioned  about  1811. 
He  was  also  a  good  pianist.  Works :  G  vioHn 
concertos  ;  3  sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  Cham- 
ber music,  songs,  etc. — Mendel ;  Schilling  ; 
Fc'tis  ;  Gerber(1790),  i.  567  ;  (1812),  ii.  453. 

HAAS,  Pater  ILDEPHONS,  born  at  Of- 
fenburg,  April  23,  1735,  died  May  30,  1791. 
Singer  and  violinist,  pupil  of  Wolbrecht ; 
entered  the  Benedictine  Monastery  of  Et- 
tenheimmiinster  in  1751,  and  became  a  jjriest 
in  1759.  He  then  studied  composition,  and 
the  violin,  on  which  he  had  already  been 
much  advanced  by  Wenzel  Stamitz.  Cor- 
resp)ondence  with  Kaiser,  Vogler,  and  Port- 
mann,  and  the  study  of  Mattheson's  and 
Marpurg's  works,  but  especially  Fax's 
Gradus  ad  Parnassum  completed  his  musi- 
cal education.  He  was  librarian  of  his  con- 
vent, and  his  exertions  in  studying  mathe- 
matics hastened  his  end.  He  com2DOsed 
masses,  vespers,  and  other  church  music. 
— Schilling ;  Mendel  ;  Gerber. 

HABENECK,  FRANgOIS  ANTOINE, 
born  at  Mt'zi- 
eres,  June  1, 
1781,  died  in 
Paris,  Feb.  8, 
1849.  Violinist, 
son  of  a  Ger- 
man musician  in 
a  French  mili- 
t  a  r  y  band; 
Ijlayed  in  pub- 
lic at  the  age  of  ten.  He  studied  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  under  Baillot,  won  the 
first  violin  prize  in  1801,  and  developed 
a  talent  for  conducting  in  the  Conservatoire 
concerts  in  1806-15.  He  became  first  vio- 
linist of  the  Opera  in  1818,  director  in  1821- 
24,  conductor  of  the  orchestra  in  1824-46. 
He   received   the   cross   of   the  Legion   of 


Honour  in  1822,  and  after  the  Revolution  of 
July,  1830,  became  first  violinist  to  the  king. 
From  1828  he  conducted  for  twenty  years 
the  new  Societe  des  Concerts  du  Conserva- 
toire, and  was  the  first  to  introduce  Bee- 
thoven's symphonies  into  I'rance.  Works  : 
Several  numbers  for  the  opera  of  Aladin, 
given  in  1822  ;  Le  page  inconstant,  ballet, 
1823  ;  Compositions  for  violin  and  piano- 
forte or  orchestra  ;  Church  music  ;  Songs, 
etc. — Fetis,  Wasielewski,  Die  Violine  und 
ihre  Meister,  372-375  ;  Hart,  The  Violin, 
304  ;  Dubourg,  The  Violin,  209. 

HABERBIER,  ERNST,  born  in  Konigs- 
berg,  Oct.  5,  1813,  died  at  Bergen,  Norway, 
March  12,  1869.  In  1832  he  went  to  St. 
Petersburg  ;  where  he  became  court  pianist 
in  1847  ;  gave  concerts  in  London  in  1850  ; 
then  retired  for  six  months  to  Cliristiania, 
Norwaj',  and  elaborated  a  system  of  finger- 
ing rapid  pianoforte  jjassages  by  alter- 
nately using  both  hands.  This  system,  which 
bears  his  name,  was  not,  however,  of  his 
inventing,  as  J.  S.  Bach  and  others  had  ap- 
2)lied  it  long  before  him.  He  plaj'ed  in 
concerts  at  Paris  in  1852  ;  later  visited 
Germany,  Russia,  and  Denmark,  and  set- 
tled as  teacher  in  Bergen  in  18GG.  Com- 
posed numerous  brilliant  pieces  for  piano- 
forte.— Fetis,  iv.  173  ;  do.,  Supplement,  i. 
440  ;  Mendel,  iv.  467. 

HABERMANN,  FRANZ  JOHANN,  born 
at  KOuigswarth,  Bohemia,  in  170G,  died  at 
Eger,  April  7,  1783.  He  studied  music  in 
Italy  ;  then  travelled  in  Spain  and  France  ;  in 
Paris  entered  the  service  of  Prince  de  Condc 
in  1731  ;  later  was  made  maestro  di  cajspella 
to  the  ducal  court  of  Florence.  He  com- 
posed an  opera  for  Maria  Theresa's  corona- 
tion in  Prague,  had  many  pujails,  and  con- 
ducted music  in  two  churches  there  ;  and 
in  1773  went  to  Eger  as  music  director  of 
a  church.  Published  12  masses  (Prague, 
1746)  and  6  litanies  (ib.,  1747),  and  left  in 
manuscript  the  oratorios  Conversio  pecca- 
toris  and  Deodatus,  symphonies,  sonatas, 
and  many  works  of  church  music. — Mendel  ; 
Fetis  :  Wurzbach  ;  Schilling. 


IIABERT 


HABEItT,  JOHANN  EVANDER,  horn 
at  Oberplan,  Boliemia,  Oct.  18,  1833,  still 
living,  1889.  After  being  a  school-teaclier 
for  nine  years,  he  was  appointed,  in  18(51, 
organist  at  Gmunden,  Upper  Austria.  He 
has  composed  masses,  other  church  music, 
and  some  pianoforte  pieces  and  songs. 
—Mendel. 

HACKEL,  ANTON,  bom  in  Vienna,  April 
17,  1799,  died  there,  July  1.  1846.  Amateur 
vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Franz  Freystildter 
and  Emanuel  Alois  Forster  ;  was  a  govern- 
ment official  in  the  department  of  build- 
ings, but  found  time  to  produce  many  com- 
positions, chiefly  songs,  and  church  and 
military  music.  His  ballad,  Die  nilchtliche 
Heerschau,  was  very  j)opular. — Wurzbach  ; 
Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

HACKENSOELLNER,  LEOPOLD,  Aus- 
trian pianist  and  composer,  contemporaiy. 
He  settled  in  Florence,  where  he  is  director 
of  the  Philharmonic  Society ;  has  composed 
several  French  operettas,  produced  in  Flor- 
ence, of  which  Le  do  obtained  considerable 
success  ;  also  a  comic  opera.  La  villa  du 
spirite. — Fotis,  Supph'meut,  i.  440. 

HACKER,  BENEDICT,  born  at  Metten, 
near  Deggendorf,  Nether  Bavaria,  May  30, 
17C0,  died  (?).  Composer,  pu2iil  of  ^Michael 
Haydn  and  Leopold  Mozart ;  was  violinist  in 
a  convent  choir,  and  from  1780  to  1802  a 
clerk  in  book-shops  at  Salzburg  ;  then  set 
wTp  for  himself  there  as  a  dealer  in  music. 
He  wrote  a  comic  opera,  List  gegen  List,  for 
male  voices,  7  masses,  a  Requiem,  and  other 
church  music,  and  songs. — Fetis  ■  Mendel  ; 
Schilling. 

HADRI.YN.     See  Adriaxo  in  Siria. 

HADRLYNIUS.     See  Adrim.-^eu. 

HAENEL  DE  CRONENTHALL,  LOU- 
ISE AUGUSTA  MARIE  JULIA,  Marquise 
d'Hericourt  de  Valincourt,  born  iu  Saxony 
in  1839,  still  living,  1889.  Compose!",  pu- 
pil successively  of  Tariot,  Frauchomme, 
Stamaty,  Prevost,  and  Demersseman.  She 
has  iiublished  nearly  100  works,  sympho- 
nies, sonatas,  quartets  for  strings,  varso- 
viennes  for  orchestra,  songs,  etc.     She  tran- 


scribes Chinese  national  airs  and  songs, 
for  which  she  gained  a  medal  at  the  Ex- 
position, and  one  from  the  Chinese  Com- 
mission ;  one  of  these  pieces,  La  descente 
de  I'hiroudelle,  is  taken  from  the  collection 
of  popular  songs  by  Confucius.  La  chan- 
son du  the  is  by  a  Chinese  emperor  of  the 
18th  century. — Fotis,  Suj^plement,  i.  440  ; 
Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  140. 

HAFFNER,  JOHANN  CHRISTIAN 
FRIEDRICH,  born  at  Obersclii.nau,  near 
Suhl,  March  2,  1759,  died  at  Upsal,  Sweden, 
May  28,  1833.  Organist,  pupil  of  Vierling 
at  Schmalkalden,  and  from  1776  student  at 
Leipsic  University,  where  he  suj^ported 
himself  by  proof-reading  for  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel.  After  travelling  with  opera  com- 
panies as  music  director,  he  became  in  1780 
organist  of  the  German  church  in  Stock- 
holm and  accompanist  at  the  opera  there, 
receiving  in  1787  the  title  and  in  1793  the 
office  of  court  Kapellmeister;  removed  to 
Upsal  iu  1808,  and  was  made  organist  of 
the  cathedral  and  musical  director  of  the 
university  in  1820.  He  wrote  three  operas, 
Elektra,  Alcides,  and  Rinaldo,  in  the  style 
of  Gluck ;  Swedish  songs,  organ,  and  other 
music. — Fetis  ;  Schilling  ;  Mendel ;  Rie- 
manu. 

H.iFFNER  SYMPHONIE,  a  name  some- 
times given  to  Mozart's  Symphony  in  D 
(KOchcl,  No.  385),  to  distinguish  it  from 
his  13  others  in  the  same  key.  It  was  com- 
posed in  1782,  for  the  wedding  of  a  daugh- 
ter of  the  HafTners,  one  of  the  wealthy  mer- 
chant families  of  Germany,  and  was  first 
l^erformed  at  her  marriage  in  Salzburg,  in 
the  same  year. 

HAGEMAN,  HERMAN,  bom  at  Neer- 
bosch,  Holland,  in  1812,  still  Uviug,  1889. 
Organist,  piupil  of  Courbois  ;  was  for  twenty- 
five  j'ears  organist  of  his  native  town.  He 
went  in  1859  to  Nymwegcn,  and  was  or- 
ganist in  1864  at  Grave.  He  has  published 
a  treatise  on  plain-chauut  and  a  collection  of 
plain-chauut  pieces  harmonized  with  organ 
accompaniment. — Fetis,  Supplement,  i.  442  ; 
Mendel. 


S12 


IIAGEMAN 


HAGEMAN,  MAURITS  LEONAED, 
born  at  Zutpheii,  Holland,  Sept.  25,  1829, 
still  living,  1889.  Pianist  and.  violinist, 
pupil  of  yioot  and  Vrugtman,  and  at  the 
Eoyal  School  of  Music  at  The  Hague  of 
Liibeck,  Van  der  Does,  Tommassiui,  and 
Baeteus  ;  finally,  at  the  Brussels  Conserva- 
toire, of  de  Bt'riot.  He  entered  the  orches- 
tra of  the  Italian  Opera  at  Brussels  as  first 
violinist,  became  musical  dii-ector  and  organ- 
ist at  Grouingen,  and  in  1SG5  director  of 
the  Maatschappij  van  Toonkunst  at  Batavia. 
Ten  years  later  he  returned  to  Holland, 
lived  for  a  year  in  Brussels,  and  settled  at 
Leeuwardeu,  where  he  assumed  the  direc- 
tion of  a  great  music  scliool  and  a  singing 
society.  He  has  composed  a  few  cantatas, 
j)ianoforte  music,  and  songs. — Eiemann  ; 
Viotta. 

HAGER,  JOHANNES,  born  in  Vienna, 
Feb.  24,  1822,  still  living  there,  1889.  Real 
name,  Johana  von  Hassliuger-Hassiugen  ; 
lie  is  an  aulic  councillor  in  the  Minis- 
try of  Foreign  Affairs.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  A.  J.  Becker,  Fischhof,  J.  Hauser, 
Moritz  Hauf)tmann,  and  Mendelssolin  ;  has 
published  also  a  series  of  excellent  works 
of  chamber  music.  Works  :  Jolantha,  opera, 
given  in  Vienna,  1819  ;  Marfa,  do.,  ib., 
1886  (composed  iu  18G1)  ;  Johannes  der 
Tiiufer,  oratorio  ;  Symjihony  ;  Mass  ;  Con- 
certo for  violoncello  ;  Sextet  for  strings  ; 
Quartets,  trios,  etc.  ;  Songs  and  ballads. 
— Riemann. 

HAGIUS,  JOHANN,  German  composer 
of  the  last  half  of  the  IGth  century.  He 
was  a  preacher  in  Eger  and  an  able  musi- 
cian. He  had  the  original  idea  of  setting 
the  sayings  of  celebrated  men  to  music  and 
publishing  them  under  the  title  of  Symbola. 
The  Emperor  Maximilian  XL,  Luther,  and 
Melanchthou  were  among  the  celebrities 
thus  symbolized. — AUgem.  d.  Biogr.,  x. 
351 ;  Fetis  ;  Gerber. 

HAGHJS,  KONRAD,  born  at  Rinteln, 
Schaumburg-Hesse,  in  1559,  died  (?).  He 
lived  iu  Poland  iu  his  youth,  and  afterwards 
became  chamber  musician  to  the  Count  of 


Holsteiu-Schaumburg.  Of  his  numerous 
compositions  the  best  known  are  some 
Magnificats  for  1-6  voices  (Dilliugeu,  1606), 
and  German  songs  for  2-8  voices  (Lauiugen, 
1614) ;  besides,  he  has  written  intrades,  gal- 
liardes,  courantes,  etc.,  for  instruments,  and 
fantasias,  and  fugues. — Gerber  (1790),  i. 
578  ;  (1812),  ii.  480  ;  Ft'tis  ;  Schilling ; 
Mendel. 

HAGUE,  CHARLES,  born  at  Tadcaster, 
England,  in  1769,  died  at  Cambridge,  June 
18,  1821.  Composer,  pujjil  at  Cambridge 
of  Manini  on  the  violin,  Hellendaal,  senior, 
in  thorough-bass  and  composition,  and 
studied  also  under  Salomon  and  Dr.  Cook. 
He  settled  in  Cambridge,  where  he  became 
Mus.  Bac.  iu  1794  ;  professor  of  music  in 
the  university  in  1799,  and  Mus.  Doc.  in 
1801.  His  anthem,  "By  the  Waters  of 
Babylon,"  published  in  score,  and  an  ode 
(1811)  were  great  favourites.  He  arranged 
Haydn's  12  symphonies  as  quintets,  and 
jniblished  two  collections  of  glees. — Grove  ; 
Fctis  ;  Mendel. 

HAHN,  BERNHARD,  born  at  Leubus, 
Silesia,  Dec.  17,  1780,  died  in  Breslau  in 
1852.  Pupil  of  his  father  in  singing  and 
violin  ;  was  cLoir-boy  in  Breslau,  then 
played  the  violin  in  the  private  quartet  of 
Count  Matuschka  in  Pitschen,  where  FOrs- 
ter  instructed  him  further.  He  was  influ- 
enced by  Tiirk  in  Halle  in  1804,  then  re- 
turned to  Breslau,  where  he  sang  in  the 
cathedral  and  taught  singing  in  the  Catholic 
gymnasium  in  1815,  and  later  succeeded 
Schnabel  as  Kapellmeister  of  the  cathedral. 
He  wrote  songs,  church  music,  and  vocal 
instruction  books. — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Eiemann. 

H.AHN,  GEORG  JOACHBI  JOSEPH, 
German  comjjoser  of  the  18tli  century.  He 
was  senator  and  music  director  at  Miinner- 
stildt,  Francouia,  and  wrote  masses,  psalms, 
arias,  pianoforte  pieces,  and  works  on 
theory.— Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Gerber  (1790), 
i.  579  ;  (1812),  ii.  482  ;  Fetis. 

HAHN,  THEODOR,  born  at  Dobers, 
Silesia,   Sept.   3,    1809,    died    in   Berlin  in 


213 


HAllNEL 


1865.  Organist,  pupil  of  Klein  at  Schmiede- 
berg,  of  Rink  and  Gottfried  Weber  in 
Darmstadt,  and  of  B.  Klein  and  Zelter  in 
Bei-lin.  He  went  to  Paris  in  1838,  and  re- 
ceived advice  from  Bordogni  and  Lablacbe  ; 
then  visited  Italy  and  Austria,  and  on  re- 
turning to  Berlin  became  organist  of  St. 
Peter's  and  in  1840  singing  teacher  and 
Repetitor  of  the  royal  opera  school.  Works  : 
Cantatas,  motets,  psalms,  songs,  and  organ 
music. — Mendel  ;  Fctis  ;  Viotta. 

H.IHNEL,  JACOB.     See  Gallus. 

HAIBEL  (Haibl),  JACOB,  born  in  Gratz 
in  17G1,  died  in  Deakovar  iu  182G.  After 
j)laying  in  the  provinces,  he  became  tenor 
singer  and  actor  at  Schikaneder's  theatre 
in  Vienna  from  1789,  and  there  composed 
about  ten  light  operettas.  In  1804  he  be- 
came church  Kapellmeister  to  the  Bishop 
of  Bosnia  iu  Deakovar.  The  most  po2:)ular 
of  his  operettas  were  :  Der  Tj-roler  Wastel, 
Der  Landsturm  (sequel),  Das  medieiuischc 
Collegium,  Papagei  uud  Gaus,  Der  Ein- 
zug  in  das  Friedens-Quartier,  Tschiug ! 
Tschiug  !.  He  wrote  also  the  music  to  sev- 
eral ballets. — Allgem.  d.  Biogr.,  x.  379  ; 
Wurzbaeh  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

HAIGH,  THOMAS,  born  in  London 
about  17G9,  died  there,  April,  1808.  Pian- 
ist and  violinist,  studied  composition  iu 
1791-92  under  Haydn,  some  of  whose  sym- 
phonies he  arranged.  In  1793  he  removed 
to  Manchester,  and  returned  to  London  in 
1801.  Works :  12  sonatas  for  pianoforte 
and  violin  ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  four 
hands ;  do.,  for  pianoforte  and  flute  ;  3  ca- 
priccios,  op.  38  ;  3  serenatas,  op.  40  ;  12 
preludes  ;  Songs,  glees,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Grove. 

HAIL  COLUMBIA,  a  popular  American 
song,  music  from  the  President's  March  by 
Feyles,  words  by  Judge  Joseph  Hopkinson, 
written  in  1798  for  an  actor,  Fox,  and  first 
sung  by  him  in  a  theatre  in  Philadelphia  in 
that  year.  It  became  at  once  a  national 
song.  Hail  Columbia,  a  Fest-Ouvertiire  hj 
Karl  Hahnstock,  op.  5,  written  for  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society  of  New  York,  published 
by  Schuberth  (Leii^sic  and  New  York). 


HAIL!  GENTLE   SLEEP.      See   Furi- 

lan!<  Daughter. 

HAINE,  IvARL,  born  in  Augsburg,  Jan. 
2,  1830,  stm  living,  1889.  The  son  of  an 
opera  singer,  he  played  the  pianoforte  in 
public  at  the  age  of  eight,  made  concert  tours 
with  his  father,  and  when  sixteen  years  old 
was  music  director  of  a  travelling  company 
in  Westphalia,  and  in  1847  entered  the 
theatre  orchestra  of  Mainz.  After  vLsiting 
Hanau  and  Worms,  he  taught  iu  Bocholt  in 
1849-51 ;  was  theatrical  music  director  in 
Aurich  and  Emden  ;  became  organist  of  the 
cathedral  iu  Worms  iu  1852  and  of  the  sj'u- 
agogue  there  iu  18G8,  founding  an  orches- 
tral society  in  1872.  He  wrote  an  opera, 
Der  Graf  von  Burgund,  an  operetta,  and 
jiianoforte  and  vocal  music. — Mendel. 

H.UNL,  GEORGES  FRANCOIS,  born 
at  Issoire,  France,  Nov.  19,  1807,  died  iu 
Paris,  June  2,  1873.  Violoncellist,  studied 
at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  vmder  Norblin, 
and  gained  the  first  violoncello  prize  in  1830. 
He  was  conductor  of  the  orchestra  at  the 
Grand  Theatre  of  Lyons  from  1840  ;  went 
to  Paris  in  18G3  as  conductor  of  the  Acado- 
mie  de  Musique,  and  was  conductor  of  the 
Societo  des  Concerts  da  Conservatoire  in 
1SG4-73.  Works :  Fantasias  for  violon- 
cello, one  on  Guillaume  Tell.  He  jJublished 
a  book  entitled  "De  la  musique  a  Lyon" 
(1852). — Fetis  ;  Larousse. 

H.iKART  (Hacquart),  CAROLO,  born  at 
Bruges  (or  at  Huy  ?)  about  1G40,  died  in 
Holland,  1730.  Viola  di  gamba  j^layer  ; 
seems  to  have  lived  at  The  Hague  about 
1G8G  in  the  service  of  the  Prince  of  Orange. 
— Works :  Cantiouessacne(lG74) ;  Harmonia 
parnassia  (1G8G) ;  Motetti  (1700)  ;  Prpeludia 
(170G)  ;  10  sonatas  for  2  viole  di  gamba 
and  bass  (1700)  ;  lilusic  to  Dirk  Buysero's 
comedy  De  triomfeerende  Min  (1G80). — Vi- 
otta. 

HAKENBERGER  (Hackenberger),  AN- 
DRE.\S,  church  composer  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury. In  lGlO-28  he  was  Kaj^ellmeister  in 
the  Marienkirche  of  Dantzic.  Possibly  a  pu- 
pil of  his  ijredecessor  Johannes  Wanningus, 


214 


HAKING 


he  was  a  worthy  representative  of  the  tend- 
eucy  jirevailing  at  the  end  of  the  IGth  cen- 
tury, and  ranks  among  the  best  masters  of 
his  time. — Works  :  Newe  teutsche  Gesaenge 
mit  5  Stimmen,  etc.  (Dantzic,  1610)  ;  Odaria 
suavissima,  etc.  (Leipsic,  1G12)  ;  Harmonia 
sacra,  sen  G  motetti  C-12  voc.  (Frankfort, 
1617)  ;  Motets  for  6-12  voices  (Leipsic, 
1612-19)  ;  Sacri  modulorum  concentus,  for 
8  voices  (Stettin,  1G15,  Frankfort,  161G, 
Wittenberg,  1619)  ;  Od;c  sacnc  Christo  in- 
fantulo,  etc.  (Leipsic,  1619). — Allgem.  d. 
Biogr.,  X.  397  ;  Fctis. 

HAKING,  Rev.  KICHARD,  born  in  Eng- 
land in  1830,  still  living,  1889.  He  took 
holy  orders  in  1861,  became  rector  of  Eas- 
tou  Grey,  Malmesbury,  in  1873,  and  of  Cong- 
ham,  Norfolk,  in  1882.  In  18G4  he  was 
made  ]\Ius.  Doc,  Oxford.  Works  :  Canta- 
tas ;  2  lyrical  legends  ;  Orchestral  pieces ; 
Solos  for  violin,  violoncello,  flute,  etc.  ;  An- 
thems ;  Part-songs. 

HAKON  JAEL,  cantata  for  solos  and 
male  chorus,  with  orchestra,  text  by  Hein- 
rich  Carsten,  music  by  Carl  Reinecke,  op. 
142,  lirst  performed  in  1877.  Published 
by  Breitkopf  <fc  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1877).  The 
subject  is  from  Ohleuschlilger's  tragedy  of 
"Hakon  Jarl."  He  has  used  the  same 
theme  for  a  sjanphonic  poem  in  C  minor, 
first  jierformed  at  the  Gewandhaus,  Leipsic, 
Feb.  23,  1880.  I.  Allegro,  Hakon  Jarl  ;  H. 
Andante,  Thora  ;  HI.  Intermezzo,  Allegretto 
moderato,  in  Odin's  Grove  ;  IV.  Olaf's  Vic- 
tory (1880).  Frederik  Smetana  also  wrote 
a  symphonic  poem  on  this  subject. — Upton, 
Standard  Symphonies,  30-t. 

HALJ^VY,  (JACQUES  FRANgOIS)  FRO- 
MENTAL  (ELIE),  born  in  Paris,  May  27, 
1799,  died  at  Nice,  March  17,  1862.  The 
family  name  was  Levy,  but  was  changed  by 
Fromental's  father  in  compliance  with  a 
proposal  made  in  1807  by  the  French  gov- 
ernment, in  concert  with  a  decree  of  the 
Sanhedrim  convoked  at  Paris,  to  all  Jews 
in  France  to  modify  their  surnames,  to 
avoid  the  confusion  in  the  government  reg- 
isters  arising   from   many  families  having 


the  same  name.  He  entered  Cazot's  solfege 
class  at  the  Conservatoire  in  1809  ;  iu  1810 
he  began  to  study 
the  pianoforte  un- 
der Charles  Lam- 
bert, and  in  1811 
harmony  under  Ber- 
ton.  He  then  stud- 
ied counterpoint  for 
five  years  under 
Cherubini.  He  took 
the  Prix  de  Rome  in 
181G  with  his  canta- 
ta, Herminie,  and  set  out  for  Rome  the  year 
after.  While  in  Italy  he  worked  hard  at  an 
opera  and  other  music.  On  his  return  to 
Paris,  after  many  disappointments,  he  suc- 
ceeded in  having  L'artisan  brought  out  at 
the  Theatre  Feydeau  in  1827,  but  with  de- 
servedly little  success  ;  yet,  for  several  years 
he  continued  to  produce  operas,  which 
showed  a  steady  advance  iu  his  art.  His 
reputation  with  musicians  was  sufKeient  to 
induce  the  management  of  the  023era  Co- 
mique  to  entrust  to  him  the  completion  of 
Herold's  unfinished  opera,  Ludovic,  and  this 
work  was  brought  out  with  great  success 
in  1834.  But  Halevy's  first  definite  triumph 
was  in  1835,  with  La  Juive,  with  which  his 
second  manner  began.  Six  months  later 
he  won  fresh  laurels  with  L'eclair.  His 
reputation  was  now  most  brilliant,  yet  it 
was  not  until  1838  that  he  produced  Guido 
et  Giuevra,  a  work  which,  though  full  of 
beauties  of  a  high  order,  failed  to  catch  the 
popular  taste.  Les  treize  (1839)  and  Le 
drapier  (184:0)  had  no  better  luck,  but  La 
reine  de  Chyjire,  Opera,  1841,  again  placed 
him  upon  the  pinnacle  of  success,  although 
the  work,  as  a  whole,  was  hardly  up  to  the 
level  of  his  two  master-woi'ks,  La  juive  and 
L'eclair.  It  has  been  susjjected  that  the 
resounding  success  of  Mej'erbeer's  Les  Hu- 
guenots, in  1836,  overstimulated  his  ambi- 
tion, and  led  him  to  attempt  tasks  not  con- 
genial to  his  cast  of  genius  ;  but  it  is  more 
probable  that  he  often  worked  on  subjects 
which  diel  not  iusjjire  him.     As  it  is,  there 


215 


lIALfiVY 


are  few  of  bis  operas  wbicb  do  not  con- 
tain beauties  of  a  very  bigb  order,  and 
be  bas  always  been  ratber  undervalued  by 
tbe  Freneb  pubUc.  Meyerbeer's  reputation 
reacbed  its  beigbt  just  in  time  to  tbrow 
Halcvy's  into  tbe  sbade  at  tbe  very  turning- 
point  of  tbe  latter's  career.  He  bad  far 
greater  deptb  of  sentiment  tbau  bis  more 
successful  rival,  and  was  more  prone  to  be 
true  to  a  bigb  ideal  ;  but  be  bad  not  so  acute 
a  perception  of  wbat  would  be  effective  witb 
tbe  public,  and  was  not  always  careful  to 
make  bis  style  perfectly  clear.  Tbe  suc- 
cess of  La  Juive  j'rocuretl  bim  tbe  succes- 
sion to  Iteicba  at  tbe  Inslitut,  in  183G.  , 
In  1816  be  bad  already  begun  to  teacb  sol- 
iCge  at  tbe  Conservatoire,  and  was  made 
professor  of  barmony  in  1827,  being  23ro- 
moted  to  tbe  professorsbip  of  counterpoint 
iu  1833,  and  to  tbat  of  composition  in  1840. 
Gounod,  Victor  Masse,  Bazin,  Henri  Duver- 
uoy,  Bizet,  and  many  otbers  of  note  were 
among  bis  pupils.  In  1827  be  was  accom- 
panying pianist  at  tbe  Tbeatre  Italien,  and 
in  1829  be  became  cbef  du  cbant  at  tbe 
O^jera.  He  was  cbosen  jjermanent  secre- 
tary of  tbe  Academic  des  Beaux-Arts  in 
1854.  He  died  of  consumption  at  Nice, 
but  was  buried  iu  Paris,  Marcb  24,  18G2. 
AVorks :  I.  Operas :  Les  bobemiennes,  never 
performed  ;  Pygmalion,  do. ;  Les  deux  pa- 
vilions, do.  ;  L'artisan,  Paris,  Opera  Co- 
mi(jue,  Jan.  1827  ;  Le  roi  et  le  batelier  (iu 
collaboration  witb  Ilifaut),  ib.,  Nov.  3, 1828  ; 
Clari,  Tbeatre  Italien,  Dec.  9,  1828  ;  Le  di- 
lettante d'Avignon,  Ojsera  Comique,  Nov.  7, 
1829  ;  Atteudre  et  courir  (in  collaboration 
witb  H.  de  Ruoltz),  ib..  May  29,  1830  ;  La 
lungue  musicale,  ib.,  Dec.  11,  1830  ;  Yella, 
never  performed  ;  La  tentation,  b